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Gry┼╝yna Landscape Park

Gryżyna Landscape Park is a protected area in western Poland, established in 1996, covering an area of 27.55 square kilometres. The Park lies within Lubusz Voivodeship: in Krosno Odrzańskie County, Świebodzin County and Zielona Góra County, it takes its name from the village of Gryżyna in Gmina Bytnica. Gryżyński Landscape Park is covered with forests in 86.6%, with surface waters in 6.6% and in 2.6% with pastures and meadows and marshy wasteland. The park is situated in the Warsaw-Berlin ice-marginal-valley and it constitutes a good example of postglacial relief with a great variety of postglacial forms such as vales and ravines, which contrast with sander plains around the park; the park is extended from the village Gryżyna in the north to the village Szklarka Radnicka in the south. It is 2-3 kilometers wide and 12.5 kilometers long and the vale of Gryżyna is its axis. The western vale constitutes the riverbed for Gryżyński Potok; this peat bog area is cut with huge amount of slope springs. In the south there are a few postglacial lakes and the biggest is the lake Jelito, 36.6 meters deep and covers the area of 49.9 hectares.

To the east of the central and the western vales there are eskers, the kettle holes and kames with the dominant Border Mountain. In the beautiful landscape of the northern part of the park a 7,5- kilometre path of nature has been marked up with ten stands described by means of seventeen tables; the path is marked with the symbol of a green leaf. The stands relate to different topics: 1; the holiday camp “Dora” in Gryżyna 2. The watermill Strzelnik 3; the ravines with 60% inclination 4. The slope springs 5; the fen 6. The kame edge 7; the watermill Zaskórz 8. The esker inside the vale 9; the pond Bartno 10. The lake Kalek In the park there are 4 avenues of oaks and one tree - a pedunculate oak - protected in the form of natural monuments; the avenues are grouped in the area of Gryżyna village, they gather about 300 trees and with its longevity and size they are considered an amazing natural phenomenon. Another natural monument is the deepest and the most beautiful ravine, created by water after the glacier had retreated.

The western and central part of the ravine is covered by the beech forest. In the eastern part, on the peat bogs, black alders grow; the Rashes of Gryżyna cover 32,86 hectares and are located in the postglacial valley near the springs of Gryżyński Potok. The wet and inaccessible ground is the home for animals a biever, an otter and a crane; the Cranberry Marsh covers 2,81 hectares and is the habitat of the sundews, the mud sedge, the cranberry, the bog-rosemary and the white beat sedge. The park provides protection for the nests of a white-tailed eagle. Among trees of Gryżyński Landscape Park the following species can be found: pines and red beeches, oaks and hornbeams. Common leptosporangiate ferns and umbellate wintergreen represent interesting and rare species in the park. There is an old species wolf's-foot clubmoss. Among flowers there are: Carthusian Pink, Cheddar Pink, snowdrops, blue squills and liverworts; the wet meadows near Grabin are the habitat of a common foxglove and a wide range of orchids, for instance a military orchid.

The peat bogs areas are covered with the sundews, a cranberry and a bog-rosemary. The diverse forms of postglacial relief serve as a shelter for plenty of animal species; the park is the habitat of a stag beetle. During June and July one can see the beetles in the near of oaks. Other insects are a European pine processionary and a moaning cloak – the biggest butterfly in Poland. A lot of places reveal the trace of beavers, which were introduced to the park in 1986. In the same places otters are found. Another mammals characteristic for the park are red and roe deer, a red fox, a wild boar, a raccoon dog, a European polecat, a beech marten and a European badger. |,18

St Mary's, Barkly West

The Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin, Barkly West, was for some years the principal Anglican parish on the Diamond Fields, South Africa, the churches established soon afterwards at the Dry Diggings – what would become Kimberley – were at first mere outstations. The first visit by an Anglican priest to the Diamond Fields, in 1870, came from the Free State when the Revd Charles Clulee, born in 1837 Birmingham, spent part of a winter holiday there from Bloemfontein. Revd. Clulee was head of the Grammar School in Bloemfontein, ran the diocesan "Native Mission". Ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Diamond Fields – which, like the Diocese of Bloemfontein as a whole, lay beyond the Queen’s dominions – was first extended with the arrival of Archdeacon Henry Kitton from Grahamstown in November 1870, he was temporarily appointed by the bishop of Grahamstown "to the pastoral charge of the whole district on both sides of the river." Anglican services and rites were to be performed only by the archdeacon or clergymen he had authorized – until permanent arrangements were made.

Within a month, "Church of England Services" were being advertised and held at Pniel, "in the new church tent". Moving swiftly to consolidate an Anglican presence, Kitton convened a meeting of the English Church Committee in December 1870. R. W. Murray, accepting office as secretary, advocated the erection of a church building and in February 1871 the British High Commissioner Sir Henry Barkly, during his visit, laid the foundation stone, it was in February 1871 that the Revd Henry Sadler arrived via Bloemfontein, was referred to as "Chaplain to the Fields", within the Diocese of Bloemfontein. Sadler had been recruited in England during Bishop Robert Gray’s recent visit there, he saw to the completion of the church building. St Mary the Virgin, Barkly West, was dedicated with Fr E. Stenson as first rector, it held its place as the first and principal parish at this western edge of the Diocese of Bloemfontein until other parishes – such as those in Kimberley – could stand on their own. When in 1911 the Bishops of the Church of the Province of South Africa agreed to the formation of a separate Diocese of Kimberley and Kuruman, soon to be a city, had for long eclipsed Barkly West in size and importance, both civil and ecclesiastical

Leicester (village), New York

Leicester is a village in Livingston County, New York, United States. The population was 468 at the 2010 census; the village is named after an early inhabitant. The Village of Leicester is located inside the Town of Leicester; the village was called "Leister" and "Moscow." It was incorporated in 1850. The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2005. Daniel O. Mahoney, former Wisconsin State Assemblyman George W. Patterson, former US Congressman and Lt. Governor of New York According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all of it land. The village is north of Letchworth State Park; the village is at the junction of U. S. Route 20A, New York State Route 36, New York State Route 39; as of the census of 2000, there were 469 people, 175 households, 130 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,317.8 people per square mile. There were 186 housing units at an average density of 522.6 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the village was 95.74% White, 0.43% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.49% from other races, 2.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population. There were 175 households out of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.90. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 17.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $43,750, the median income for a family was $55,357.

Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $27,386 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,752. About 6.4% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 6.5% of those age 65 or over

Youth orchestra

A youth orchestra is an orchestra made of young musicians ranging from pre-teens or teenagers to those in their mid-20s. Because young children do not start playing double bass until a age than those playing the smaller instruments, double bass players in youth orchestras tend to be in the early to mid-20s; the typical youth orchestra involves members from across an entire region or state. In some cases, there are national youth orchestras, which consist of the best young musicians in a country, as determined by auditions. More there may be international youth orchestras. Youth orchestras are led by an adult conductor, a music teacher or orchestral musician. In addition to leading the rehearsals and performances, the conductor teaches orchestral playing techniques, performance practice and music ensemble skills to the children and youth. While a professional orchestra will receive the parts and have a few days of rehearsal, play several performances, in a youth orchestra, the ensemble rehearses the concert program for several months.

This additional time gives the conductor lots of time to coach the orchestra and teach them how to learn the many skills required of a skilled large ensemble player, which include: Playing the notated melody lines, accompaniment parts and, for lower-pitched instruments, bass lines, with correct notes. Learning to watch the conductor's baton, face and arms during the performance, as this is how the conductor starts and stops pieces, indicates "cues" and tempo, indicates the dynamics and phrasing. One important skill for young players to learn is to write in; this may involve learning to be directed by choir conductors and learning how to accompany solo singers, which requires orchestral members to colla parte, follow along the vocals of the singer, paying close attention to changes in tempo and pauses, play in most cases with a lower dynamic than she would use in a regular orchestra performance. Youth orchestras may play pops concerts that will involve medlies of popular songs and film soundtracks.

Youth orchestras collaborate with youth choirs to perform oratorios and other choral works with orchestral accompaniment. Notable youth orchestras include: Hong Kong Youth Symphony Orchestra Asian Youth Orchestra Hong Kong Post-Modern Youth Philharmonic Orchestra Adelaide Youth Orchestra Queensland Youth Orchestras Sydney Youth Orchestra Victorian Youth Symphony Orchestra European Union Youth Orchestra European Union Baroque Orchestra Galway Youth Orchestra Gustav Mahler Youth Orchestra Internationale Junge Orchesterakademie Jeunesses Musicales World Orchestra Junges Klangforum Mitte Europa Kremerata Baltica Stockholm Youth Symphony Orchestra CBSO Youth Orchestra City of Leeds Youth Orchestra City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra Colne Valley Training Orchestra Colne Valley Youth Orchestra Hertfordshire County Youth Orchestra Kent Youth Wind Orchestra Leicestershire Schools Symphony Orchestra London Schools Symphony Orchestra Nottingham Youth Orchestra Reading Youth Orchestra Somerset County Youth Orchestra South Tyneside Youth Orchestra Stockport Youth Orchestra Suffolk Youth Orchestra Tees Valley Youth Orchestra Wessex Youth Orchestra West of Scotland Schools Symphony Orchestra American Heritage Lyceum Philharmonic Toronto Symphony Youth Orchestra Montreal Youth Symphony Orchestra New Brunswick Youth Orchestra List of youth orchestras in the United States Orquesta Sinfónica Simón Bolívar

Reserve power

In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike in a presidential system of government, the head of state is constrained by the cabinet or the legislature in a parliamentary system, most reserve powers are usable only in certain exceptional circumstances. In some countries, reserve powers go by another name. In monarchies with either an uncodified or unwritten constitution or a wholly written constitution that consists of a text augmented by additional conventions, letters patent, etc. the monarch possesses reserve powers. These powers are: to grant pardon. There are strict constitutional conventions concerning when these powers may be used, these conventions are enforced by public pressure. Using these powers in contravention of tradition would provoke a constitutional crisis. Most constitutional monarchies employ a system that includes the principle of responsible government.

In such an order, the reserve powers are thought to be the means by which the monarch and his or her viceregal representatives can legitimately exist as "constitutional guardians" or "umpires", tasked with guaranteeing that Cabinet and parliament adhere to the fundamental constitutional principles of the rule of law and responsible government itself. Some constitutional scholars, such as George Winterton, have stated that reserve powers are a good thing in that they allow for a head of state to handle an unforeseen crisis and that the use of convention to limit the use of reserve powers allows for more gradual and subtle constitutional evolution than is possible through formal amendment of a written constitution. Others, such as Herbert Evatt, believe or believed that reserve powers are vestigial and open to abuse. Evatt felt that the reserve powers could be codified and still serve their intended function in a responsible government system, as they do in Sweden and Japan. Within the Dominions, until the 1920s, most reserve powers were exercised by a governor-general on the advice of either the local or the British government, though the latter took precedence.

After a 1926 Imperial Conference decision, the governors-general ceased to be advised in any way by the British government. For example, the first Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Tim Healy, was instructed by the British Dominions Office in 1922 to withhold the royal assent on any bill passed by the two houses of the Oireachtas that attempted to change or abolish the Oath of Allegiance. However, no such bill was introduced during Healy's period in office. By the time the oath was abolished, some years the Irish governor-general was formally advised by the Irish government. While the reserve power to dismiss a government has not been used in the United Kingdom since 1834, this power has been exercised more in Australia, on two occasions: On 13 May 1932, when the Governor of New South Wales Sir Philip Game dismissed the Government of New South Wales. On 11 November 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia Sir John Kerr dismissed the Commonwealth Government. In both cases an election was held soon afterwards and, again in both cases, the dismissed government was massively defeated by popular vote.

In Queensland in 1987, during a tense period of leadership succession, the Governor of Queensland, Sir Walter Campbell, exercised reserve power in declining to exercise vice-regal authority on the advice of the Premier, Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen. Campbell refused to redistribute ministerial portfolios on the sole advice of the premier, who lacked the confidence of his cabinet. Subsequently, during a period when Queensland had a "Premier, not leader" and the governing party had a "Leader, not Premier", there was speculation on the potential exercise of vice-regal reserve power by Campbell, in dismissing the premier in the absence of a parliamentary motion of no confidence. Campbell was praised for his handling of the undesirable situation; these are among several exercises of the reserve powers in Australia in the 20th century at state and federal levels. The reserve powers in Canada fall within the royal prerogative and belong to the monarch, as the Constitution Act, 1867, vests all executive power in the country's sovereign.

King George VI in 1947 issued Letters Patent permitting the governor general "to exercise all powers and authorities lawfully belonging to Us in respect of Canada."The reserve power of dismissal has never been used in Canada, although other reserve powers have been employed to force the prime minister to resign on two occasions: The first took place in 1896, when the Prime Minister, Sir Charles Tupper, refused to step down after his party did not win a majority in the House of Commons during that year's election, leading Governor General the Earl of Aberdeen to no longer recognize Tupper as prime minister and disapprove of several appointments Tupper had recommended. On the second occasion, which took place in 1925 and came to be known as the King-Byng Affair, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, facing a non-confidence motion in the House of Commons, advised the Governor General, the Viscount Byng of Vimy, to dissol