The Primera División, named Superliga Argentina since the 2017–18 season, is a professional football league in Argentina, organised by the homonymous entity, administered independently and has its own statute. The Superliga is contractually linked with the main football body, the Argentine Football Association that organized all the championships from 1893 to 2017; the Primera División is the country's premier football division and is the top division of the Argentine football league system. It operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Primera Nacional, with the teams placed lowest at the end of the season being relegated. With the first championship held in 1891, Argentina became the first country outside the United Kingdom to establish a football league. In the early years, only teams from Buenos Aires and Rosario were affiliated to the national association. Teams from other cities would join in years; the Primera División turned professional in 1931 when 18 clubs broke away from the amateur leagues to form a professional one.
Since the season has been contested annually in four different formats and calendars. The Argentine championship was ranked in the top 10 as one of the strongest leagues in the world by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics. Argentina placed 4th after La Liga, Serie A, Bundesliga. There are 24 teams competing in the 2019–20 season, with all of them playing each other in a single round-robin tournament; the championship will run from June to December 2019. The winner of the Superliga is awarded with a trophy created for the occasion; the cup was designed by renowned goldsmith Adrián Pallarols. Apart from the trophy for the winning team, commemorative medals were launched to award their players; the first club being awarded with the trophy was Boca Juniors as 2017–18 champion. Relegation is based on an averaging system. At the end of the season, the three teams with the worst three-year averages are relegated, while the winner and runner-up of Primera Nacional championship are promoted to Primera.
The Primera División champion gains a place to play the Supercopa Argentina v. the winner of Copa Argentina. The 24 teams in Primera División compete in the Copa de la Superliga, divided into two zones of 12 teams each. Winners of each zona will play a final in a single match; as of 2018–19, five teams from Argentina are eligible to play the Copa Libertadores. The champion of Primera División automatically qualifies for the tournament; the other three teams best placed in the table at the end of the tournament are eligible to play the Cup. The winner of Copa de la Superliga is the 5th team eligible to enter Copa Libertadores. For the Copa Sudamericana, six teams are eligible. Clubs placed 6th to 11th in the table at the end of the tournament. In 1891 the Association Argentine Football League was established, with Alex Lamont of St. Andrew's Scots School as one of its board members; the AAFL was the first football league outside of the British Isles. to establish a football league. The first Primera División matches were played on 12 April 1891: Buenos Aires FC vs. St. Andrew's and Old Caledonians vs. Belgrano FC.
A single double round-robin tournament was played each year, the team with the most points was crowned as champion, except for 1936, during that year the winners of Copa de Honor and the Campeonato played a match for the championship title. The single tournament arrangement lasted until 1966. During this period, the traditional "Big Five" clubs, Boca Juniors, River Plate, Independiente and San Lorenzo dominated Argentine football. No other team besides them had won the league championship in these 36 years; the most serious title challenge came from Banfield in 1951, when they gained the same points with Racing Club in the league table. However, they gave the title to Racing; the averaging system for relegations was implemented for the first time in the 1957 championship, with Ferro Carril Oeste becoming the first team to be relegated under that system. Averaging continued until 1963. There were no relegations until 1967. In 1967, the single tournament format was abandoned and replaced by two championships in each year: the Metropolitano and the Nacional.
The Metropolitano only allowed clubs competing the old tournament to participate, while the Nacional was open to teams from regional tournaments. The format of competition was altered, with the double round-robin tournament replaced by the two-group championship Metropolitano and single round-robin Nacional in that year; this change brought about a revolution in Argentine football, as small teams, like Estudiantes de La Plata at first, Vélez Sarsfield, Chacarita Juniors and others in years, broke down the hegemony of the five clubs who had won all the championships up to that date. Between 1967 and 1969, the Metropolitano and Nacional had gone through several format changes. In the first three years, the Metropolitano was a two-group championship, with the best two teams from each group competing the semi-finals of the knock-out stage; the six best teams of each group would advance to the Nacional, wi
Kunigunde of Sternberg was the first wife of George of Poděbrady, who became King of Bohemia. Kunigunde's parents were the Bohemian nobles Smil of Barbara of Pardubice. In 1441 she married 21-year-old George of Poděbrady, captain of the old Bohemian circle of Stará Boleslav since 1440; this marriage produced three sons: Boček Victor and Henry the Elder and three daughters: Barbara, married first with Henry of Lipé, second with Jan Křinecký of Ronov Catherine, married Matthias, King of Hungary. It remained in operation until the beginning of the 20th century, she established a foundation for youth education, school construction and rehabilitation of prisoners. She died in 1449, the day after her twenty-fourth birthday and several days after giving birth to twin daughters, she was buried in the parish church Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Poděbrady. Marek, Miroslav. "genealogy Sternberg". Genealogy. EU. Marek, Miroslav. "genealogy Podiebrad". Genealogy. EU
The "Haydn" Quartets by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are a set of six string quartets published in 1785 in Vienna as his Op. 10, dedicated to the composer Joseph Haydn. They contain some of refined compositional thought. String Quartet No. 14 in G major, K. 387, Op. 10, No. 1 String Quartet No. 15 in D minor, K. 421/417b, Op. 10, No. 2 String Quartet No. 17 in B-flat major, K. 458, Op. 10, No. 3 String Quartet No. 16 in E-flat major, K. 428/421b, Op. 10, No. 4 String Quartet No. 18 in A major, K. 464, Op. 10, No. 5 String Quartet No. 19 in C major, K. 465, Op. 10, No. 6 The quartets were published in a set in Vienna, 1785. Dates of completion are shown in parentheses above. Mozart arranged the six quartets in the order of composition, except for reversing the order of K. 428 and K. 458. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed 23 string quartets; the six "Haydn" Quartets were written in Vienna during the years 1782 to 1785. They are dedicated to the composer Joseph Haydn, considered the creator of the modern string quartet.
Haydn had completed his influential "Opus 33" set of quartets in 1781, the year that Mozart arrived in Vienna. Mozart studied Haydn's string quartets and began composing this set of six, which were published in 1785. During this time and Mozart had become friends, sometimes played quartets together in Mozart's apartment, with Mozart playing the viola, Haydn playing violin. Haydn first heard the quartets at two gatherings at Mozart's home, 15 January and 12 February 1785. After hearing them all, Haydn made a now-famous remark to Mozart's father Leopold, visiting from Salzburg: "Before God, as an honest man, I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name, he has taste, what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition." The comment was preserved in a letter. Mozart's published dedication page: To my dear friend Haydn, A father who had resolved to send his children out into the great world took it to be his duty to confide them to the protection and guidance of a celebrated Man when the latter by good fortune was at the same time his best Friend.
Here they are O great Man and dearest Friend, these six children of mine. They are, it is true, the fruit of a long and laborious endeavor, yet the hope inspired in me by several Friends that it may be at least compensated encourages me, I flatter myself that this offspring will serve to afford me solace one day. You, dearest friend, told me of your satisfaction with them during your last Visit to this Capital, it is this indulgence above all which urges me to commend them to you and encourages me to hope that they will not seem to you altogether unworthy of your favour. May it therefore please you to receive them kindly and to be their Father and Friend! From this moment I resign to you all my rights in them, begging you however to look indulgently upon the defects which the partiality of a Father's eye may have concealed from me, in spite of them to continue in your generous Friendship for him who so values it, in expectation of which I am, with all of my Heart, my dearest Friend, your most Sincere Friend, W. A. Mozart The Classical string quartet form was created by Joseph Haydn in the late 1750s.
He is described as the "father" of the string quartet because in his total of sixty-eight quartets he developed this genre into its first maturity. The string quartet features four parts for two violins and cello, its function was designed for private or semi-private performances in the aristocratic salon or middle-class parlor. The form of the "Haydn" Quartets follows the standard set by Haydn in the 1770s. At this time, the quartet began to have four movements, like the symphony form; the basic form of the six "Haydn" Quartets is as follows, with the second and third movements interchangeable in different works: First movement: Allegro in sonata form Second movement: Adagio or Andante in sonata form Third movement: Minuetto and Trio Fourth movement: Allegro in sonata, rondo, or variation formThe slow movement of these works, found in either the second or third movements, are highlighted as the "emotional center" of each quartet. They feature rich cantabile melodic writing with thematic multiplicity and embellishment that displays a departure from the Haydnesque mode.
The quartets feature a wide range of emotional content from the Sturm und Drang of No. 15 in D minor, to the tonal mysteriousness of the openings of No. 16 in E-flat major, No. 19 in C major, the "Dissonance", to the opera buffa styled light-heartedness in the finale of No. 17 in B-flat major, the "Hunt". Early reception of the "Haydn" Quartets was both disgruntled. An anonymous early reviewer, writing in Cramer's Magazin der Musik in 1789, gave a judgment characteristic of reaction to Mozart's music at the time, namely that the works were inspired, but too complex and difficult to enjoy: Mozart's works do not in general please quite so much... six quartets for violins and bass dedicated to Haydn confirm... that he has a decided leaning towards the difficult and the unusual. But what great and elevated ideas he has too, testifying to a bold spirit! Giuseppe Sarti published an attack against the "Dissonance" quartet, describing sections as "barbarous", "execrable", "miserable" in its use of whole-tone clusters and chromatic extreme