Arginine known as l-arginine, is an α-amino acid, used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, a side chain consisting of a 3-carbon aliphatic straight chain ending in a guanidino group. At physiological pH, the carboxylic acid is deprotonated, the amino group is protonated, the guanidino group is protonated to give the guanidinium form, making arginine a charged, aliphatic amino acid, it is the precursor for the biosynthesis of nitric oxide. It is encoded by the codons CGU, CGC, CGA, CGG, AGA, AGG. Arginine is classified as a semiessential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. Preterm infants are unable to synthesize or create arginine internally, making the amino acid nutritionally essential for them. Most healthy people do not need to supplement with arginine because it is a component of all protein-containing foods and can be synthesized in the body from glutamine via citrulline.
Arginine was first isolated in 1886 from yellow lupin seedlings by the German chemist Ernst Schulze and his assistant Ernst Steiger. He named it from the Greek árgyros meaning "silver" due to the silver-white appearance of arginine nitrate crystals. In 1897, Schulze and Ernst Winterstein determined the structure of arginine. Schulze and Winterstein synthesized arginine from ornithine and cyanamide in 1899, but some doubts about arginine's structure lingered until Sørensen's synthesis of 1910, it is traditionally obtained by hydrolysis of various cheap sources such as gelatin. It is obtained commercially by fermentation. In this way, 25-35 g/liter can be produced. Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid in humans and rodents, as it may be required depending on the health status or lifecycle of the individual. For example, while healthy adults can supply their own requirement for arginine and growing individuals require arginine in their diet, it is essential under physiological stress, for example during recovery from burns and sepsis, or when the small intestine and kidneys, which are the major sites of arginine biosynthesis, have been damaged.
It is, however. For some carnivores, for example cats and ferrets, arginine is essential, because after a meal, their efficient protein catabolism produces large quantities of ammonia which need to be processed through the urea cycle, if not enough arginine is present, the resulting ammonia toxicity can be lethal; this is not a problem in practice, because meat contains sufficient arginine to avoid this situation. Animal sources of arginine include meat, dairy products, eggs, plant sources include seeds of all types, for example grains and nuts. Arginine is synthesized from citrulline in arginine and proline metabolism by the sequential action of the cytosolic enzymes argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase; this is an energetically costly process, because for each molecule of argininosuccinate, synthesized, one molecule of adenosine triphosphate is hydrolyzed to adenosine monophosphate, consuming two ATP equivalents. Citrulline can be derived from multiple sources: from arginine itself via nitric oxide synthase, as a byproduct of the production of nitric oxide for signaling purposes from ornithine through the breakdown of proline or glutamine/glutamate from asymmetric dimethylarginine via DDAHThe pathways linking arginine and proline are bidirectional.
Thus, the net use or production of these amino acids is dependent on cell type and developmental stage. On a whole-body basis, synthesis of arginine occurs principally via the intestinal–renal axis: the epithelial cells of the small intestine produce citrulline from glutamine and glutamate, carried in the bloodstream to the proximal tubule cells of the kidney, which extract citrulline from the circulation and convert it to arginine, returned to the circulation; this means that impaired small bowel or renal function can reduce arginine synthesis, increasing the dietary requirement. Synthesis of arginine from citrulline occurs at a low level in many other cells, cellular capacity for arginine synthesis can be markedly increased under circumstances that increase the production of inducible NOS; this allows citrulline, a byproduct of the NOS-catalyzed production of nitric oxide, to be recycled to arginine in a pathway known as the citrulline-NO or arginine-citrulline pathway. This is demonstrated by the fact that, in many cell types, NO synthesis can be supported to some extent by citrulline, not just by arginine.
This recycling is not quantitative, because citrulline accumulates in NO-producing cells along with nitrate and nitrite, the stable end-products of NO breakdown. Arginine plays an important role in cell division, wound healing, removing ammonia from the body, immune function, the release of hormones, it is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, making it important in the regulation of blood pressure. Arginine's side chain is amphipathic, because at physiological pH it contains a positively charged guanidinium group, polar, at the end of a hydrophobic aliphatic hydrocarbon chain; because globular proteins have hydrophobic interiors and hydrophilic surfaces, arginine is found on the outside of the protein, where the hydrophilic head group can interact with the polar environment, for example taking part in hydrogen bonding and salt bridges. For this reason, it is found at the interface between two proteins; the aliphatic part of the side chain som
"Doctor" John Clarke was an American businessman who played a major role in the development of Saratoga Springs, New York in the 1800s. Called "Doctor Clarke", in fact the "Doctor" was a courtesy title. Born in Yorkshire England, Clarke settled in New York City. In 1819 he opened the first soda fountain there. In 1823 he purchased land in Saratoga Springs with partner Thomas Lynch; the property included the Congress Spring in. Clarke built a bottling plant there. In 1825 Lynch and Clarke began bottling Congress Spring Water. Lynch died in 1833 and Clarke continued the business alone. Clarke built a doric pavilion to cover Congress Spring, torn down in 1876 when Frederick Law Olmsted redesigned the park and reconstructed in the 1970s. Clarke planned and named Circular Street in Saratoga Springs, in 1832 he built a Greek Revival mansion there overlooking Congress Park, he donated land to build an Episcopal church on the south-east corner of Circular Street and Union Avenue. A change of plans resulted in the location moving to Washington Street where the Bethesda Episcopal Church was built in 1842.
However the original plan caused the site to be christened Temple Grove, the Temple Grove Ladies Seminary, a predecessor of Skidmore College was constructed on the site. Clarke began to accumulate land east of Congress Park from the time. At his death he owned nearly 1,000 acres. Dr. Clarke was married to Mrs. Eliza White, widow of Charles White, with whom he had three children, Eliza and George B, he died on May 6, 1846. and is buried in the Gideon Putnam Burying Ground in Saratoga Springs. Eliza first married Isaac Thayer and after his death in 1852 Cornelius Sheehan, continued to occupy the house on Circular street
Oumar Ballo is a Malian college basketball player for the Gonzaga Bulldogs of the West Coast Conference. Ballo grew up in Koulikoro, Mali playing football as a goalkeeper but shifted his focus to basketball due to his exceptional height, his mother and brother, who had moved to France at age 15 to play the latter sport, encouraged him to switch to basketball. As a child, Ballo idolized National Basketball Association player Shaquille O'Neal; when he was 11 years old, Ballo began training with coach Mohamed Diarra in his hometown earning an invitation from Canterbury Basketball Academy, a British private school in Las Palmas, Spain. He enrolled as a full-time student, despite not knowing Spanish or English, started practicing basketball three times per day. In May 2017, Ballo was named most valuable player of the Spanish Under-16 Championship after helping Canterbury finish in third place, behind bigger clubs like Barcelona and Real Madrid, leading the tournament in rebounds. In 2018, he averaged 15.1 points, 10.8 rebounds, 2.3 blocks per game at the Spanish Junior Championship, earning MVP honors.
In October 2018, Ballo moved to NBA Academy Latin America, a training center in Mexico City sponsored by the NBA, CONADE, Mexican Basketball Federation. He missed a large portion of the 2018–19 season with an ankle injury. In February 2019, Ballo played at the Basketball Without Borders camp at 2019 NBA All-Star Weekend in Charlotte, North Carolina, where he was one of the youngest participants. In 2019, Ballo reclassified from the 2020 recruiting class to the 2019 class and was subsequently rated a four-star recruit by 247Sports and a five-star recruit by Rivals. On 23 February 2019, he verbally committed to Gonzaga, his other top choices were Baylor. Ballo played for the Malian national under-16 team at the 2017 FIBA Under-16 African Championship in Vacoas-Phoenix, Mauritius, he averaged 14.4 points and 12.8 rebounds per game, winning the gold medal while making the tournament All-Star Five. Playing for Mali at the 2018 FIBA Under-17 World Cup in Argentina, Ballo averaged 20.6 points and a tournament-high 16.9 rebounds per game and was named to the All-Star Five.
On 7 July 2018, he recorded 32 points and a tournament-record 32 rebounds in a 110–108 triple overtime loss to the Dominican Republic. Ballo won a gold medal with Mali at the 2018 FIBA Under-18 African Championship in Mali, he averaged six rebounds per game. Ballo returned to his national team at the 2019 FIBA Under-19 World Cup in Heraklion, missing the first two games due to visa issues. In five games, he averaged 17.6 points, 11.8 rebounds, 3.8 blocks per game, leading Mali to an unlikely silver medal, the best performance by an African team at a global basketball tournament. Ballo was named to the All-Star Five with teammate Siriman Kanouté. Ballo's mother and father stand 2.03 m respectively. His older brother Drissa, who stands 2.08 m and weighs 118 kg, plays professional basketball in France