Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities. In common parlance, or when contrasted with deism, the term describes the classical conception of God, found in monotheism – or gods found in polytheistic religions—a belief in God or in gods without the rejection of revelation as is characteristic of deism. Atheism is understood as rejection of theism in the broadest sense of theism, i.e. the rejection of belief in God or gods. The claim that the existence of any deity is unknown or unknowable is agnosticism; the term theism derives from the Greek theos or theoi meaning "god". The term theism was first used by Ralph Cudworth. In Cudworth's definition, they are "strictly and properly called Theists, who affirm, that a conscious understanding being, or mind, existing of itself from eternity, was the cause of all other things". Monotheism is the belief in theology; some modern day monotheistic religions include Christianity, Islam, Baha'i Faith, Zoroastrianism and some forms of Hinduism.
There have been many proofs of Monotheism postulated by a multitude of philosophers and academics throughout history. However, many of these proofs have been misinterpreted. Polytheism is the belief. In practice, polytheism is not just the belief. Within polytheism there are hard and soft varieties: Hard polytheism views the gods as being distinct and separate beings. Soft polytheism views the gods as being subsumed into a greater whole; some other forms of Hinduism such as Smartism/Advaita Vedanta serve as examples of soft polytheism. Polytheism is divided according to how the individual deities are regarded: Henotheism: The viewpoint/belief that there may be more than one deity, but only one of them is worshiped. Kathenotheism: The viewpoint/belief that there is more than one deity, but only one deity is worshiped at a time or and another may be worthy of worship at another time or place. If they are worshiped one at a time each is supreme in turn. Monolatrism: The belief that there may be more than one deity, but that only one is worthy of being worshiped.
Most of the modern monotheistic religions may have begun as monolatric ones, although this is disputed. Pantheism: The belief that the physical universe is equivalent to god, that there is no division between a Creator and the substance of its creation. Panentheism: Like Pantheism, the belief that the physical universe is joined to a god or gods. However, it believes that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and extends beyond time and space. Examples include the philosophy of Baruch Spinoza; some find the distinction between these two beliefs ambiguous and unhelpful, while others see it as a significant point of division. Pantheism may be understood a type of Nontheism, where the physical universe takes on some of the roles of a theistic God, other roles of God viewed as unnecessary. Classical Deism is the belief that one God exists and created the world, but that the Creator does/do not alter the original plan for the universe, but presides over it in the form of Providence.
Deism rejects supernatural events prominent in organized religion. Instead, Deism holds that religious beliefs must be founded on human reason and observed features of the natural world, that these sources reveal the existence of a supreme being as creator. Pandeism: The belief that God preceded the universe and created it, but is now equivalent with it. Polydeism: The belief that multiple gods exist, but do not intervene in the universe. Autotheism is the viewpoint that, whether divinity is external or not, it is inherently within'oneself' and that one has the ability to achieve godhood; this can be in a selfless way, a way following the implications of statements attributed to ethical and religious leaders. Autotheism can refer to the belief that one's self is a deity, within the context of subjectivism. Hindus use the term, "aham Brahmāsmi" which means, "I am Brahman". Eutheism is the belief. Dystheism is the belief that a deity is not wholly good, is evil. Maltheism is the belief that a deity is wholly malicious.
Misotheism is active hatred for gods. Āstika and nāstika Theistic evolution
The concept of the supernatural encompasses anything, inexplicable by scientific understanding of the laws of nature but argued by believers to exist. Examples include immaterial beings such as angels and spirits, claimed human abilities like magic and extrasensory perception. Supernatural entities have been invoked to explain phenomena as diverse as lightning and the human senses. Naturalists maintain that nothing beyond the physical world exists and hence maintain skeptical attitudes towards supernatural concepts; the supernatural is featured in paranormal and religious contexts, but can feature as an explanation in more secular contexts. Occurring as both an adjective and a noun, descendants of the modern English compound supernatural enters the language from two sources: via Middle French and directly from the Middle French's term's ancestor, post-Classical Latin. Post-classical Latin supernaturalis first occurs in the 6th century, composed of the Latin prefix super- and nātūrālis; the earliest known appearance of the word in the English language occurs in a Middle English translation of Catherine of Siena's Dialogue.
The semantic value of the term has shifted over the history of its use. The term referred to Christian understandings of the world. For example, as an adjective, the term can mean'belonging to a realm or system that transcends nature, as that of divine, magical, or ghostly beings. Obsolete uses include'of, relating to, or dealing with metaphysics'; as a noun, the term can mean'a supernatural being', with a strong history of employment in relation to entities from the mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The metaphysical considerations of the existence of the supernatural can be difficult to approach as an exercise in philosophy or theology because any dependencies on its antithesis, the natural, will have to be inverted or rejected. One complicating factor is that there is disagreement about the definition of "natural" and the limits of naturalism. Concepts in the supernatural domain are related to concepts in religious spirituality and occultism or spiritualism. For sometimes we use the word nature for that Author of nature whom the schoolmen, harshly enough, call natura naturans, as when it is said that nature hath made man corporeal and immaterial.
Sometimes we mean by the nature of a thing the essence, or that which the schoolmen scruple not to call the quiddity of a thing, the attribute or attributes on whose score it is what it is, whether the thing be corporeal or not, as when we attempt to define the nature of an angle, or of a triangle, or of a fluid body, as such. Sometimes we take nature for an internal principle of motion, as when we say that a stone let fall in the air is by nature carried towards the centre of the earth, and, on the contrary, that fire or flame does move upwards toward firmament. Sometimes we understand by nature the established course of things, as when we say that nature makes the night succeed the day, nature hath made respiration necessary to the life of men. Sometimes we take nature for an aggregate of powers belonging to a body a living one, as when physicians say that nature is strong or weak or spent, or that in such or such diseases nature left to herself will do the cure. Sometimes we take nature for the universe, or system of the corporeal works of God, as when it is said of a phoenix, or a chimera, that there is no such thing in nature, i.e. in the world.
And sometimes too, that most we would express by nature a semi-deity or other strange kind of being, such as this discourse examines the notion of. And besides these more absolute acceptions, if I may so call them, of the word nature, it has divers others, as nature is wont to be set or in opposition or contradistinction to other things, as when we say of a stone when it falls downwards that it does it by a natural motion, but that if it be thrown upwards its motion that way is violent. So chemists distinguish vitriol into natural and fictitious, or made by art, i.e. by the intervention of human power or skill. We say that wicked men are still in the state of nature, but the regenerate in a state of grace; the term "supernatural" is used interchangeably with paranormal or preternatural — the latter limited to an adjective for describing abilities which appear to exceed what is possible within the boundaries of the laws of physics. Epistemologically, the relationship between the supernatural and the natural is indistinct in terms of natural phenomena that, ex hypothesi, violate the laws of nature, in so far as such laws are realistically accountable.
Parapsychologists use the term psi to refer to an assumed unitary force underlying the phenomena they study. Psi is defined in the Journal of Parapsychology as "personal factors or processes in nature which transcend accepted laws" and "which are non-physical in nature", it is used to cover both extrasensory perception, an "awareness of or response to an external event or influence not apprehended by sens
Deism is the philosophical belief which posits that although God exists as the uncaused First Cause – responsible for the creation of the universe – God does not interact directly with that subsequently created world. Equivalently, deism can be defined as the view which asserts God's existence as the cause of all things, admits its perfection but rejects divine revelation or direct intervention of God in the universe by miracles, it rejects revelation as a source of religious knowledge and asserts that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator or absolute principle of the universe. Deism as a form of natural theology gained prominence among intellectuals during the Age of Enlightenment in Britain, France and the United States. Deists had been raised as Christians and believed in one God, but had become disenchanted with organized religion and orthodox teachings such as the Trinity, Biblical inerrancy, the supernatural interpretation of events, such as miracles.
Included in those influenced by its ideas were leaders of the American and French Revolutions. Deism is considered to exist in the classical and modern forms, where the classical view takes what is called a "cold" approach by asserting the non-intervention of a deity in the natural behavior of the created universe, while the modern deist formulation can be either "warm" or "cold"; these lead to many subdivisions of modern deism. Deism is a theological theory concerning the relationship between the natural world. Deistic viewpoints emerged during the scientific revolution of 17th-century Europe and came to exert a powerful influence during the 18th-century Enlightenment. Deism stood between the narrow dogmatism of the skepticism. Though deists rejected atheism, they were called "atheists" by more traditional theists. There were a number of different forms in the 18th centuries. In England, deists included a range of people from anti-Christian to non-Christian theists. For deists, human beings can know God only via reason and the observation of nature, but not by revelation or by supernatural manifestations – phenomena which deists regard with caution if not skepticism.
Deism is related to naturalism because it credits the formation of life and the universe to a higher power, using only natural processes. The classical deism of the 17th and 18th centuries is a form of natural theology and denies that that power has any continuing involvement with the world. Modern deism may include a spiritual element, involving experiences of God and nature; the words deism and theism synonyms in English, both derive from words for "god": the former from Latin deus, the latter from Greek theos. By the 17th century the English terms were starting to diverge, with deism referring to the new form of belief; the term deist first appeared in its new sense in Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy. Deism is thought of as having taken root first in England and subsequently spread to mainland Europe, but the term déiste appears in French, in the new sense, as early as 1564. Pierre Viret, a Swiss Calvinist, wrote of deism as a heretical development from Italian Renaissance naturalism, resulting from misuse of the liberty conferred by the Reformation to criticise idolatry and superstition.
Lord Herbert of Cherbury is considered the "father of English deism", his book De Veritate the first major statement of deism. Deism flourished in England between 1690 and 1740, at which time Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation called "The Deist's Bible," gained much attention. Deism spread to France, to Germany, to North America; the concept of deism covers a wide variety of positions on a wide variety of religious issues. Reviewing classical deism a century Sir Leslie Stephen presented it as having "constructive" and "critical" aspects. Elements common to the deist writers, on the constructive side, identify deism as a form of natural theology, include: God exists and created the universe. God gave humans the ability to reason. Most regarded themselves as Christians. Deists differed more from one another in their critical concerns, these were their chief differences from their orthodox contemporaries. Critical elements common to deist thought include: Rejection of religion based on books claiming to contain the revealed word of God.
Rejection of religious dogma and demagogy. Skepticism of reports of miracles and religious "mysteries". Most, at least, rejected the doctrine of the Trinity; some deists rejected the claim of Jesus' divinity but continued to hold him in high regard as a moral teacher, a position known as Christian deism, exemplified by Thomas Jefferson's famous Jefferson Bible and Matthew Tindal's Christianity as Old as the Creation. According to the deists reason provides all the information needed, they attempted to use it as a critical tool for exposing and rejecting what they saw as nonsense; some deists used the cosmological argument for the existence of God - as did Thomas Hobbes in several of his writings. A central theme of deist thinking was that the religions of their day were corruptions of an original, natural religion and rational: subsequently corrupted by "priests" manipulating it for personal gain and for the class interests of the priesthood in general, thus encrus
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Conceptions of God
Conceptions of God in monotheist and panentheist religions – or of the supreme deity in henotheistic religions – can extend to various levels of abstraction: as a powerful, human-like, supernatural being, or as the deification of an esoteric, mystical or philosophical entity or category. The first recordings that survive of monotheistic conceptions of God, borne out of henotheism and monism, are from the Hellenistic period. Of the many objects and entities that religions and other belief systems across the ages have labeled as divine, the one criterion they share is their acknowledgment as divine by a group or groups of human beings. In his Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses meaning of "being as being". Aristotle holds that "being" refers to the Unmoved Movers, assigned one of these to each movement in the heavens; each Unmoved Mover continuously contemplates its own contemplation, everything that fits the second meaning of "being" by having its source of motion in itself, moves because the knowledge of its Mover causes it to emulate this Mover.
Aristotle's definition of God attributes perfection to this being, as a perfect being can only contemplate upon perfection and not on imperfection, otherwise perfection would not be one of his attributes. God, according to Aristotle, is in a state of "stasis" untouched by imperfection; the "unmoved mover" is unlike the conception of God that one sees in most religions. It has been likened to a person, playing dominos and pushes one of them over, so that every other domino in the set is pushed over as well, without the being having to do anything about it. Although, in the 18th century, the French educator Allan Kardec brought a similar conception of God during his work of codifying Spiritism, this differs to the interpretation of God in most religions, where he is seen to be involved in his creation. "The All" is the Hermetic version of God. It has been called "The One", "The Great One", "The Creator", "The Supreme Mind", "The Supreme Good", "The Father" and "The Universal Mother"; the All is seen by some to be a panentheistic conception of God, subsuming everything, or can be experienced.
One Hermetic maxim states that "While All is in THE ALL, it is true that THE ALL is in All." The All can be seen to be hermaphroditic, possessing both masculine and feminine qualities in equal parttext. These qualities are, however, of mental gender. According to The Kybalion, The All is more complicated than being the sum total of the universe. Rather than The All being the physical universe, it is said that everything in the universe is within the mind of The All, since The All can be looked at as Mind itself; the All's mind is thought to be infinitely more powerful and vast than humans can achieve, capable of keeping track of every particle in the Universe. The Kybalion states that nothing can be outside of The All or The All would not be The All; the All may be a metaphor alluding to the godhead potentiality of every individual. "... That invisible power which all know does exist, but understood by many different names, such as God, Supreme Being, Mind, Nature and so forth." In the Hermetic Tradition and every person has the potential to become God, this idea or concept of God is perceived as internal rather than external.
The All is an allusion to the observer created universe. We create our own reality. Another way would to be to say. Freemasonry includes concepts of God as an external entity, esoteric masonic teachings identify God as the individual himself: the perceiver. We are all as such we create our own reality. Although others believe God to be abstract. Meaning he is not seen in reality, but understood through deep contemplation, he is all around us every day, just hiding in the beauty of our Earth. The Abrahamic God in this sense is the conception of God that remains a common attribute of all three traditions. God is conceived of as eternal, omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is transcendent, meaning that he is outside space and outside time and therefore not subject to anything within his creation, but at the same time a personal God, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways. Traditionally, Judaism holds that YHWH, the God of Abraham and Jacob and the national god of the Israelites, delivered the Israelites from slavery in Egypt, gave them the Law of Moses at biblical Mount Sinai as described in the Torah. According to the rationalist stream of Judaism articulated by Maimonides, which came to dominate much of official traditional Jewish thought, God is understood as the absolute one and incomparable being, the ultimate cause of all existence. Traditional interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is personal yet transcendent, while some modern interpretations of Judaism emphasize that God is a force or ideal. Jewish monotheism is a continuation of earlier Hebrew henotheism, the exclusive worship of the God of Israel as prescribed in the Torah and practiced at the Temple of Jerusalem. Strict monotheism emerges in Rabbinical Judaism. Pron
Monolatry is belief in the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity. The term "monolatry" was first used by Julius Wellhausen. Monolatry is distinguished from monotheism, which asserts the existence of only one god, henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity; the pharaoh Akhenaten -, enthroned as Amenhotep IV - introduced Atenism in Year 5 of his reign during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He raised Aten, once a obscure solar deity representing the disk of the Sun, to the status of supreme deity in ancient Egyptian religion. Year 5 marked the beginning of his construction of a new capital, Akhetaten "Horizon of the Aten", at the site known today as Amarna. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten "Agreeable to the Aten" as evidence of his new worship. In addition to constructing a new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes of ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak and one at Thebes close to the old temple of Amun.
In his ninth year of rule, Akhenaten declared a more radical version of his new religion, declaring Aten not the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon but the only God of Egypt, with himself as the sole intermediary between the Aten and the Egyptian people. Key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc in which the rays appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten. Aten was addressed by Akhenaten such as the Great Hymn to the Aten; the details of Atenist theology are still unclear. The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but most scholars see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not deny the existence of other gods, it is known that Atenism did not attribute divinity to the Aten. Akhenaten continued the imperial cult, proclaiming himself the son of Aten and encouraging the people to worship him; the people were to worship Akhenaten.
Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic. Some historians have argued that ancient Israel practiced a form of monolatry or henotheism. Both Frank Eakin, Jr. and John Scullion believe Moses was a monolatrist rather than a monotheist, John Day suggests that angels are what became of the other gods once monotheism took over Israel. John McKenzie has stated: "In the ancient Near East the existence of divine beings was universally accepted without questions.... The question was not whether there is only one elohim, but whether there is any elohim like Yahweh."Some scholars claim the Torah shows evidence of monolatry in some passages. The argument is based on references to other gods, such as the "gods of the Egyptians" in the Book of Exodus; the Egyptians are attributed powers that suggest the existence of their gods. In the ancient Near East, magic was believed to exist, though the Israelites viewed magic as being malign in origin and were forbidden from it.
With regard to miracle and prophecy, the Bible commands the Israelites not to follow false prophets and not to refrain from putting them to death. The miracles of false prophets are, like those of the Egyptian sorcerers, regarded by the Israelites as a divine test to see if the Israelites "love the LORD God with all heart and with all soul"; the Ten Commandments have been interpreted by some as evidence that the Israelites practiced monolatry. Exodus 20:3 reads "Thou shalt have no other gods before me", they argue that the addition of "before me" at the end of the commandment indicates that not only other gods may exist but that they may be respected and worshiped so long as less than Yahweh. There is evidence that the Israelite people as a whole did not adhere to monotheism before the Babylonian exile in the 6th century BCE. Much of this evidence comes from the Bible itself, which records that many Israelites chose to worship foreign gods and idols rather than Yahweh. During the 8th century BCE, the monotheistic worship of Yahweh in Israel was in competition with many other cults, described by the Yahwist faction collectively as Baals.
The oldest books of the Hebrew Bible reflect this competition, as in the books of Hosea and Nahum, whose authors lament the "apostasy" of the people of Israel and threaten them with the wrath of God if they do not give up their polytheistic cults. On the other hand, medieval scholars interpreted ancient texts to argue that the ancient Israelites were monotheistic; the Shema Yisrael is cited as proof that the Israelites practiced monotheism. It was recognized by Rashi in his 11th century commentary to Deuteronomy 6:4 that the declaration of the Shema accepts belief in one god as being only a part of Jewish faith at the time of Moses but would be accepted by all humanity. A similar statement occurs in Maimonides' Thirteen Principles of Faith's second principle: God, the Cause of all, is one; this does not mean one as in one of a pair, nor one like a species, nor one as in an object, made up of many elements
J. P. Moreland
James Porter Moreland, better known as J. P. Moreland, is an American philosopher and Christian apologist, he serves as a Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at Talbot School of Theology at Biola University in La Mirada, California. Moreland specializes in metaphysics, philosophy of mind and Christian Philosophy having had his work published in journals such as Metaphilosophy and the American Philosophical Quarterly, he has had his work published by presses such as Intervarsity Press, NavPress, Oxford University Press, Rutgers University Press, Prometheus. Moreland earned a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry with honors from the University of Missouri and a Master of Arts in Philosophy with highest honors from the University of California, Riverside, he received his Th. M. in Theology from Dallas Theological Seminary. In 1985, he received a Ph. D. in philosophy from the University of Southern California. His dissertation was "Universals and the Qualities of Things: A defense of Realism." His dissertation advisor was Dallas Willard.
Moreland is married to Hope and together they have two children and four grandchildren. Moreland teaches at the Talbot School of Theology at Biola University in California, he is a member of the Board of Advisors for the Center on Culture and Civil Society at the Independent Institute. He served for eight years as a bioethicist for Personal Care Nursing Homes, Inc. in Baltimore, Maryland. He has debated Clancy Martin over the existence of God, he has debated atheist Eddie Tabash on whether the supernatural exists. Moreland is a substance dualist, defends libertarian free will, as well as life after death. Moreland has defended the existence of angels and demons, arguing that he knows they exist due to both Christian doctrine and personal experience, he is an old earth creationist, a critic of fideism. In 2017, Moreland signed the Nashville Statement. Moreland has authored or edited numerous publications, including: Moreland, J. P.. Scaling the Secular City: A Defense of Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
ISBN 9780801062223. OCLC 16807427. ———. Christianity and the Nature of Science: A Philosophical Examination. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. ISBN 9780801062490. OCLC 19556070. ———. The Life and Death Debate: Moral Issues of Our Time. Contributions in Philosophy. 43. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313275562. OCLC 21592792. ———. Does God Exist?: The Debate Between Atheists and Theists. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. ———. Love Your God With All Your Mind: The Role of Reason in the Life of the Soul. Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress. ISBN 9781576830161. OCLC 36327354. ———. Body and Soul: Human Nature and the Crisis of Ethics. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830815777. OCLC 43245896. ———. Philosophical Foundations for a Christian Worldview. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830826940. OCLC 51093246. ———. Philosophy Made Slightly Less Difficult: A Beginner's Guide to Life's Biggest Questions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830827664. OCLC 60188295. ———. Kingdom Triangle: Recover the Christian Mind, Renovate the Soul, Restore the Spirit's Power.
Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN 9780310590002. OCLC 993636161. ———. Consciousness and the Existence of God. Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Religion. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780203929339. OCLC 229867243. ———. The Recalcitrant Imago Dei: human persons and the failure of naturalism. London: SCM Press. ISBN 9780334042150. OCLC 695838789. ———. The God Question: An Invitation to a Life of Meaning. ConversantLife.com Series. Eugene, OR: Harvest House. ISBN 9780736924887. ———, ed.. The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidence for An Intelligent Designer. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830816989. OCLC 29478326. ———. Naturalism: A Critical Analysis. Routledge Studies in Twentieth Century Philosophy. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780203186138. OCLC 252705993. ———. Debating Christian Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199981434. OCLC 854973516. ———. "Theistic science & methodological naturalism". In ———; the Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidence for An Intelligent Designer. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
Pp. 41–66. ISBN 9780830816989. OCLC 29478326. American philosophy List of American philosophers Official WebsitesJ. P. Moreland's personal website J. P. Moreland's official Facebook page Faculty page of J. P. Moreland J. P. Moreland DebatesDoes the Christian God Exist? on YouTubeCloser to TruthIs There a Judgment? on YouTube Do Angels and Demons Exist? on YouTube Is There Life After Death? on YouTube Do Humans Have Free Will? on YouTubeOther TalksDoubting Darwinism on YouTube Love Your God With All Your Mind on YouTube Evidence For the Existence of the Soul on YouTube