Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Soviet Census (1989)
The 1989 Soviet census, conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR. The census found the total population to be 286,730,819 inhabitants. In 1989, the Soviet Union ranked as the third most populous in the world, above the United States, although it was well behind China and India. In 1989, about half of the Soviet Union's total population lived in the Russian SFSR, one-sixth of them in Ukraine. Two-thirds of the population was urban, leaving the rural population with 34.3%. In this way, its gradual increase continued, as shown by the series represented by 47.9%, 56.3% and 62.3% of 1959, 1970 and 1979 respectively. The last two national censuses showed that the country had been experiencing an average annual increase of about 2.5 million people, although it was a slight decrease from a figure of around 3 million per year in the previous intercensal period, 1959-1970. This post-war increase had contributed to the USSR's partial demographic recovery from the significant population loss that the USSR had suffered during the Great Patriotic War, before it, during Stalin's Great Purge of 1936-1938.
The previous postwar censuses, conducted in 1959, 1970 and 1979, had enumerated 208,826,650, 241,720,134, 262,436,227 inhabitants respectively. In 1990, the Soviet Union was more populated than both the United States and Canada together, having some 40 million more inhabitants than the U. S. alone. However, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, the combined population of the 15 former Soviet republics stagnated at around 290 million inhabitants for the period 1995-2000; this significant slowdown may in part be due to the remarkable socio-economic changes that followed the disintegration of the USSR, that have tended to reduce more the decreasing birth rates. The next census was planned for 1999. Demographics of the Soviet Union Republics of the Soviet Union Soviet Census First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Growth and diversity of the population of the Soviet Union", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 510, No.
1, 155-177, 1990. Ralph S. Clem, Ed. Research Guide to Russian and Soviet Censuses, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. John C. Dewdney, "Population change in the Soviet Union, 1979-1989," Geography, Vol. 75, Pt. 3, No. 328, July 1990, 273-277. Subjects of Russia, on the www.statoids.com website
Shelkovskoy District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the fifteen in the Chechen Republic, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the republic; the area of the district is 3,000 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Shelkovskaya. Population: 53,548 ; the population of Shelkovskaya accounts for 20.8% of the district's total population. Президент Чеченской Республики. Указ №500 от 30 ноября 2005 г. «Об утверждении перечня субъектов административно-территориального устройства Чеченской Республики». Вступил в силу 30 ноября 2005 г.. Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс".. Парламент Чеченской Республики. Закон №42-РЗ от 14 июля 2008 г. «Об образовании муниципального образования Шелковской район и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, установлении их границ и наделении их соответствующим статусом муниципального района и сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №30-РЗ от 29 августа 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Чеченской Республики».
Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести Республики", №63, 27 августа 2008 г
Nozhay-Yurtovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the fifteen in the Chechen Republic, Russia. It is located in the east of the republic; the area of the district is 629 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Nozhay-Yurt. Population: 49,445 ; the population of Nozhay-Yurt accounts for 13.6% of the district's total population. Overall health performance indicators of the district are much worse than reflected, considering the remote geographic location of the district and that most of its populace has limited access to state health care; as of 2004, the mortality rates were among the highest in the republic. Президент Чеченской Республики. Указ №500 от 30 ноября 2005 г. «Об утверждении перечня субъектов административно-территориального устройства Чеченской Республики». Вступил в силу 30 ноября 2005 г.. Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс".. Парламент Чеченской Республики. Закон №11-РЗ от 20 февраля 2009 г. «Об образовании муниципального образования Ножай-Юртовский район и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, установлении их границ и наделении их соответствующим статусом муниципального района и сельского поселения», в ред.
Закона №21-РЗ от 28 июня 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Чеченской Республики». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести Республики", №34, 26 февраля 2009 г
Argun River (Caucasus)
The Argun River flows through the northern Caucasus and the Chechen Republic of Russia. It lies within the river basin of the Terek; the river has its sources on the northern slopes of the Caucasus in Georgia. The Argun flows in western Chechnya through Shatoysky Districts; this area was the first place where Chechens established themselves and many ruins of former villages built in the traditional style can still be seen. The Argun serves as a natural border between the Groznensky Districts; the occupation of its valley by the Russians in 1858 was an important event in the last phase of the Murid War. Before the First and Second Chechen Wars the region around the river was populated by numerous farms and houses; the town of Argun is named after the river. On September 7, 2008, the only bridge crossing the Argun River, connecting northern and southern territories of Chechnya, collapsed. Drivers caught on the bridge escaped without injury. A federal road administration representative linked the accident to abnormal stress from heavy military vehicles
Chechnya the Chechen Republic, is a federal subject of Russia. It is a Federal Subject of Russia located in the North Caucasus, within 100 kilometres of the Caspian Sea; the capital of the republic is the city of Grozny. As of the 2010 Russian Census, the republic was reported to have a population of 1,268,989 people. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split into two parts: the Republic of Ingushetia and the Chechen Republic; the latter proclaimed the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Following the First Chechen War with Russia, Chechnya gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Russian federal control was restored during the Second Chechen War. Since there has been a systematic reconstruction and rebuilding process, though sporadic fighting continues to take place in the mountains and southern regions into 2019. According to Leonti Mroveli, the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas.
According to George Anchabadze of Ilia State University The Vainakhs are the ancient natives of the Caucasus. It is noteworthy, that according to the genealogical table drawn up by Leonti Mroveli, the legendary forefather of the Vainakhs was "Kavkas", hence the name Kavkasians, one of the ethnicons met in the ancient Georgian written sources, signifying the ancestors of the Chechens and Ingush; as appears from the above, the Vainakhs, at least by name, are presented as the most "Caucasian" people of all the Caucasians in the Georgian historical tradition. American linguist Johanna Nichols "has used language to connect the modern people of the Caucasus region to the ancient farmers of the Fertile Crescent" and her research suggests that "farmers of the region were proto-Nakh-Daghestanians." Nichols stated: "The Nakh–Dagestanian languages are the closest thing we have to a direct continuation of the cultural and linguistic community that gave rise to Western civilization." Henry Harpending, University of Utah, supports her claims.
People living in prehistoric mountain cave settlements used tools, mastered fire, used animal skins for warmth and other purposes. Traces of human settlement that date back to 40,000 BC were found near Lake Kezanoi. Cave paintings and other archaeological evidence indicates continuous habitation for some 8,000 years. 10,000–6000 BC Caucasian Epipaleolithic and early Caucasian Neolithic. Introduction of agriculture and the domestication of animals.6000–4000 BC Caucasian Neolithic. Pottery is known to the region. Old settlements near Ali-Yurt and Magas, discovered in the modern times, revealed tools made out of stone: stone axes, polished stones, stone knives, stones with holes drilled in them, clay dishes etc. Settlements made out of clay bricks discovered in the plains. In the mountains there were discovered settlements surrounded by walls; the artifacts were found near Nasare-Cort, Muzhichi, Ja-E-Bortz, Abbey-Gove 900–1200 AD The kingdom in the center of the Caucasus splits into Alania and Noble Alania.
German scientist Peter Simon Pallas believed that Ingush people were the direct descendants from Alania.1239 AD Destruction of the Alania capital of Maghas and Alan confederacy of the Northern Caucasian highlanders and tribes by Batu Khan "Magas was destroyed in the beginning of 1239 by the hordes of Batu Khan. Magas was located at the same place on which the new capital of Ingushetia is now built" – D. V. Zayats1300–1400 AD War between the Alans, Tamerlan and the Battle of the Terek River; the Alan tribes build fortresses and defense walls locking the mountains from the invaders. Part of the lowland tribes occupied by Mongols; the insurgency against Mongols begins. In 1991 the Jordanian historian Abdul-Ghani Khassan presented the photocopy from old Arabic scripts claiming that Alania was in Chechnya and Ingushetia, the document from Alanian historian Azdin Vazzar who claimed to be from Nokhcho tribe of Alania.1500 AD First Russian involvement in the Caucasus. 1558 Temryuk of Kabarda sends his emissaries to Moscow requesting help from Ivan the Terrible against Vainakh tribes.
Ivan the Terrible marries Temryuk's daughter Maria Temryukovna. Alliance formed to gain the ground in the central Caucasus for the expanding Tsardom of Russia against stubborn Vainakh defenders. Chechnya was a nation in the Northern Caucasus that fought against foreign rule continually since the 15th century; the Chechens converted over the next few centuries to Sunni Islam, as Islam was associated with resistance to Russian encroachment. Peter I first sought to increase Russia's political influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of Safavid Persia when he launched the Russo-Persian War. Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh. Russian forces succeeded in taking much of the Caucasian territories from Iran for several
Achkhoy-Martanovsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the fifteen in the Chechen Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic; the area of the district is 1,100 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Achkhoy-Martan. Population: 78,505 ; the population of Achkhoy-Martan accounts for 25.7% of the district's total population. State health facilities in the district are represented by one central district hospital in Achkhoy-Martan and one district hospital in Samashki. Президент Чеченской Республики. Указ №500 от 30 ноября 2005 г. «Об утверждении перечня субъектов административно-территориального устройства Чеченской Республики». Вступил в силу 30 ноября 2005 г.. Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс".. Парламент Чеченской Республики. Закон №40-РЗ от 14 июля 2008 г. «Об образовании муниципального образования Ачхой-Мартановский район и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав, установлении их границ и наделении их соответствующим статусом муниципального района и сельского поселения», в ред.
Закона №21-РЗ от 28 июня 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Чеченской Республики». Вступил в силу через 10 дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: База данных "Консультант-плюс"