The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of avant-garde modern art that flourished in Russian Empire and Soviet Union from 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements. Given that many avant-garde artists involved were born, grew up and active in what is present day Belarus and Ukraine, they are atributed to the Ukrainian avant-garde; the Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and 1932, at which point the ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged state-sponsored direction of Socialist Realism. Notable figures from this era include: LEF Mir iskusstva Grigori Aleksandrov Boris Barnet Alexander Dovzhenko Sergei Eisenstein Lev Kuleshov Yakov Protazanov Vsevolod Pudovkin Dziga Vertov Andrei Bely Elena Guro Velimir Khlebnikov Daniil Kharms Aleksei Kruchenykh Vladimir Mayakovsky Viktor Shklovsky Sergei Tretyakov Marina Tsvetaeva Sergei Yesenin Ilya Zdanevich Vsevolod Meyerhold Nikolai Evreinov Yevgeny Vakhtangov Sergei Eisenstein Yakov Chernikhov Moisei Ginzburg Ilya Golosov Ivan Leonidov Konstantin Melnikov Vladimir Shukhov Alexander VesninPreserving Russian avant-garde architecture has become a real concern for historians and architects.
In 2007, the Modern Museum of Art MoMA in New York, devoted an exhibition to the *Lost Vanguard: Soviet Architecture, featuring the work of American Photographer Richard Pare. Samuil Feinberg Arthur Lourié Mikhail Matyushin Nikolai Medtner Alexander Mossolov Nikolai Myaskovsky Nikolay Borisovich Obukhov Gavriil Popov Sergei Prokofiev Nikolai Roslavets Leonid Sabaneyev Alexander Scriabin Vissarion Shebalin Dmitri ShostakovichMany Russian composers that were interested in avant-garde music became members of the Association for Contemporary Music, headed by Roslavets. Constructivist architecture Soviet montage theory Universal Flowering Russian symbolism Jack of Diamonds Russian Futurism Cubo-Futurism Constructivism Suprematism Avant-garde Vkhutemas Oberiu Proletkult Soviet art Rayonism UNOVIS Friedman, Julia. Beyond Symbolism and Surrealism: Alexei Remizov's Synthetic Art, Northwestern University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-8101-2617-6 Kovalenko, G. F; the Russian Avant-Garde of 1910-1920 and Issues of Expressionism.
Moscow: Nauka, 2003. Shishanov V. A. Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art: a history of creation and a collection. 1918-1941. - Minsk: Medisont, 2007. - 144 p. “Encyclopedia of Russian Avangard. Fine Art. Architecture Vol.1 A-K, Vol.2 L-Z Biography”. I. Sarab’yanov A. D. Moscow, 2013Surviving Suprematism: Lazar Khidekel. Judah L. Magnes Museum, Berkeley CA, 2004 Lazar Khidekel and Suprematism. Prestel, 2014 Why did Soviet Photographic Avant-garde decline? The Russian Avant-garde Foundation Thessaloniki State Museum of Contemporary Art - Costakis Collection Yiddish Book Collection of the Russian Avant-Garde at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University International campaign to save the Shukhov Tower in Moscow Masters of Russian Avant-garde Masters of Russian Avant-garde from the collection of the M. T. Abraham Foundation
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the
Henri Le Fauconnier
Henri Victor Gabriel Le Fauconnier was a French Cubist painter born in Hesdin. Le Fauconnier was seen as one of the leading figures among the Montparnasse Cubists. At the 1911 Salon des Indépendants Le Fauconnier and colleagues Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger and Robert Delaunay caused a scandal with their Cubist paintings, he was in contacts with many European avant-garde artists such as Wassily Kandinsky, writing a theoretical text for the catalogue of the Neue Künstlervereinigung in Munich, of which he became a member. His paintings were exhibited in Moscow reproduced as examples of the latest art in Der Blaue Reiter Almanach. In 1901 Henri Le Fauconnier moved from northern France to Paris, where he studied law attended painting classes in the studio of Jean-Paul Laurens in the Academie Julian, he changed his from Fauconnier to Le Fauconnier and exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1904 and 1905, implementing bold colors in line with Henri Matisse. He moved to Brittany in 1907 and painted the rocky landscapes of Ploumanac'h in a proto-Cubist style characterized by chastened tones of brown and greens with thick outlines delimiting the simplified forms.
He put it into practice. Under the influence of Paul Cézanne he developed his own form of Cubism. Back in Paris, he mingles with the artistic and literary gathered around Paul Fort at the Closerie des Lilas in Montparnasse. At the 1909 Salon d’Automne Le Fauconnier exhibited alongside Constantin Brâncuși, Jean Metzinger and Fernand Léger. Louis Vauxcelles, in his review of the 1910 Salon des Indépendants, made a passing and inaccurate reference to Le Fauconnier, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay and Fernand Léger, as "ignorant geometers, reducing the human body, the site, to pallid cubes." Metzinger had written in 1910 of'mobile perspective' as an interpretation of what would soon become known as "Cubism" with respect to Picasso, Delaunay and Le Fauconnier. At the invitation of Wassily Kandinsky, Le Fauconnier published a theoretical text in the catalog of the Neue Künstlervereinigung, he opened his Rue Visconti studio in Paris to artists eager like him to apply the lessons of Cézanne.
With Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Robert Delaunay, he contributed to the Cubist scandal of the 1911 Salon des Indépendants. Le Fauconnier exhibited his vast Les Montagnards attaqués par des ours at the Salon d'Automne of 1912. February 1912 Henri Le Fauconnier was appointed to succeed Jacques-Émile Blanche as chef d'atelier of the avant-garde school of art Académie de La Palette. Le Fauconnier commissioned Jean Metzinger and André Dunoyer de Segonzac as full-time instructors for the morning sessions. In 1912, Le Fauconnier participated in the first exhibition of Cubism in Spain, at Galeries Dalmau, with Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Marcel Duchamp, Juan Gris, Marie Laurencin, August Agero. Le Fauconnier was a contributing member of the Section d'Or. At the outset of World War I Le Fauconnier moved to the Netherlands, his work at this time combined Cubism and Expressionism, which generated considerable success and influence in the Netherlands. He returned to France in 1920, he died of a heart attack in Paris.
Femme nue dans un intérieur, Musée des Beaux-Arts L’Église de Grosrouvre, Musée des Beaux-Arts L’Enfant breton, Musée des Beaux-Arts Nature morte aux fleurs, Musée Départemental de l’Oise Paysage, Musée des Beaux-Arts Portrait de vieille femme, Musée des Beaux-Arts Maisons dans les rochers à Ploumanac'h, Musée des Beaux-Arts Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, The Lake, 1911, Village among the Rocks, ca.1910, Little Schoolgirl, 1907, The Signal, 1915 The Huntsman, 1912 Henri le Fauconnier The Modernist Journals Project
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically. By requiring the viewer to combine the colors optically instead of physically mixing pigments, Divisionists believed they were achieving the maximum luminosity scientifically possible. Georges Seurat founded the style around 1884 as chromoluminarism, drawing from his understanding of the scientific theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Charles Blanc, among others. Divisionism developed along with another style, defined by the use of dots of paint and does not focus on the separation of colors. Divisionism developed in nineteenth-century painting as artists discovered scientific theories of vision that encouraged a departure from the tenets of Impressionism, which at that point had been well-developed; the scientific theories and rules of color contrast that would guide composition for Divisionists placed the movement of Neo-Impressionism in contrast with Impressionism, characterized by the use of instinct and intuition.
Scientists or artists whose theories of light or color had some impact on the development of Divisionism include Charles Henry, Charles Blanc, David Pierre Giottino Humbert de Superville, David Sutter, Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Hermann von Helmholtz. Divisionism, along with the Neo-Impressionism movement as a whole, found its beginnings in Georges Seurat's masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Seurat had received classical training at the École des Beaux-Arts, and, as such, his initial works reflected the Barbizon style. In 1883, Seurat and some of his colleagues began exploring ways to express as much light as possible on the canvas By 1884, with the exhibition of his first major work, Bathing at Asnières, as well as croquetons of the island of La Grande Jatte, his style began taking form with an awareness of Impressionism, but it was not until he finished La Grande Jatte in 1886 that he established his theory of chromoluminarism. In fact, La Grande Jatte was not painted in the Divisionist style, but he reworked the painting in the winter of 1885-86, enhancing its optical properties in accordance with his interpretation of scientific theories of color and light Charles Blanc's Grammaire des arts du dessin introduced Seurat to the theories of color and vision that would inspire chromoluminarism.
Blanc's work, drawing from the theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul and Eugène Delacroix, stated that optical mixing would produce more vibrant and pure colors than the traditional process of mixing pigments. Mixing pigments physically is a subtractive process with cyan and yellow being the primary colors. On the other hand, if colored light is mixed together, an additive mixture results, a process in which the primary colors are red and blue; the optical mixture which characterized Divisionism — the process of mixing color by juxtaposing pigments — is different from either additive or subtractive mixture, although combining colors in optical mixture functions the same way as additive mixture, i.e. the primary colors are the same. In reality, Seurat's paintings did not achieve true optical mixing. In Divisionist color theory, artists interpreted the scientific literature through making light operate in one of the following contexts: Local color As the dominant element of the painting, local color refers to the true color of subjects, e.g. green grass or blue sky.
Direct sunlight As appropriate, yellow-orange colors representing the sun's action would be interspersed with the natural colors to emulate the effect of direct sunlight. Shadow If lighting is only indirect, various other colors, such as blues and purples, can be used to simulate the darkness and shadows. Reflected light An object, adjacent to another in a painting could cast reflected colors onto it. Contrast To take advantage of Chevreul's theory of simultaneous contrast, contrasting colors might be placed in close proximity. Seurat's theories intrigued many of his contemporaries, as other artists seeking a reaction against Impressionism joined the Neo-Impressionist movement. Paul Signac, in particular, became one of the main proponents of divisionist theory after Seurat's death in 1891. In fact, Signac's book, D’Eugène Delacroix au Néo-Impressionnisme, published in 1899, coined the term Divisionism and became recognized as the manifesto of Neo-Impressionism. In addition to Signac, other French artists through associations in the Société des Artistes Indépendants, adopted some Divisionist techniques, including Camille and Lucien Pissarro, Albert Dubois-Pillet, Charles Angrand, Maximilien Luce, Henri-Edmond Cross and Hippolyte Petitjean.
Additionally, through Paul Signac's advocacy of Divisionism, an influence can be seen in some of the works of Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay and Pablo Picasso. In 1907 Metzinger and Delaunay were singled out by the critic Louis Vauxcelles as Divisionists who used large, mosaic-like'cubes' to construct small but symbolic compositions. Both artists had develop a new sub-style that had great significance shortly thereafter within the context of their Cubist works. Piet Mondrian, Jan Sluijters and Leo Gestel, in the Netherlands, developed a similar mosaic-like Divisionist technique circa 1909; the Futurists would adapt the style, in part influenced by Gino Severini's Parisian experience, into their dynamic paintings a
Les Nabis was a group of young French artists active in Paris from 1888 until 1900, who played a large part in the transition from impressionism and academic art to abstract art and the other early movements of modernism. The members included Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis, Paul Ranson, Édouard Vuillard, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Félix Vallotton, Paul Sérusier. Most were students at the Académie Julian in Paris in the late 1880s; the artists shared a common admiration for Paul Gauguin and Paul Cézanne and a determination to renew the art of painting, but varied in their individual style. They believed that a work of art was not a depiction of nature, but a synthesis of metaphors and symbols created by the artist. In 1900, the artists held their final exhibit, went their separate ways; the Nabis took their name from the Arabic word nabi, or prophet, the similar word in Hebrew, The term was coined by the linguist Auguste Cazalis, who drew a parallel between the way these painters aimed to revitalize painting and the way the ancient prophets had rejuvenated Israel.
The Nabis was the name taken by a group of young artists of the Académie Julian in Paris, who wanted to transform the foundations of art. In October 1888 One of the artists, Paul Sérusier, had traveled to Pont-Aven, under the guidance of Paul Gauguin, he made a small painting of the port on wood, composed of patches of vivid color assembled to give the feeling of the port; the students called this first Nabis painting The Talisman, it became an icon of 20th century art. In 1889, the same year of the Paris International Exposition and the opening of the Eiffel Tower, the group held its first modest exposition at the Café des Arts, located without the grounds of the Exposition, it was titled The Group Impressionist and Synthesist, included works by two well-known artists, Paul Gauguin and Émile Bernard. In August 1890, Maurice Denis eighteen years old, gave the group a more concrete philosophy. Writing under the name Pierre Louis, he wrote an article in the journal Art et Critique entitled The Definition of Neo-traditionalism, which became the manifesto of the movement.
The celebrated opening line of the essay was: "Remember that a picture, before being a battle horse, a female nude or some sort of anecdote, is a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order." This idea was not original to Denis. However, it was the expression of Denis; as Denis explained, he did not mean. He wrote, "The profoundness of our emotions comes from the sufficiency of these lines and these colors to explain themselves...everything is contained in the beauty of the work." In his essay, he termed this new movement "neo-traditionalism", in opposition to the "progressivism" of the Neo-impressionists, led by Seurat. The following year, in 1891, three of the Nabis, Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis took a studio at 28 rue Pigalle in Paris, It was frequented by other early Nabis, including Ker-Xavier Roussel and Paul Sérusier, as well as journalists and figures from the theatrical and literary world. In 1892, the Nabis branched out into the decorative arts.
Paul Ranson, assisted by Sérusier and Vuillard, designed sets for a theatrical presentation of the Bateau ivre of the poet Arthur Rimbaud. Maurice Denis made costumes and sets for another theatrical production, the Trilogy d'Antoina at the Théatre Moderne, painted a ceiling for the residence of the art collector and painter Henry Lerolle. In June 1894, the Nabis held a group exhibition in Toulouse, in 1895, presented their work in the Maison de l'Art Nouveau, of Siegfried Bing, the famous gallery which had given its name to the Art Nouveau movement; the Nabis throughout their existence, were a sort of half-serious semi-secret society, who used humorous nicknames and a private vocabulary. The name of the group was secret until 1897, they called a studio an ergasterium and ended their letters with the initials E. T. P. M. V. Et M. P. meaning "En ta paume, mon verbe et ma pensée" In 1909 Denis described the philosophy and accomplishment of the Nabis: "Art is no longer a visual sensation that we gather, like a photograph, as it were, of nature.
No, it is a creation of our spirit, for which nature is only the occasion." The graphic art of Japan, known as Japonism woodblock prints, was an important influence on the Nabis. The style was popularized in France by the art dealer Siegfried Bing, who traveled to Japan to collect prints by Hokusai and other Japanese artists, published a monthly art journal, Le Japon Artistique, between May 1888 and April 1891, which offered color illustrations. In 1900 he organized an exhibit of seven hundred prints at the École des Beaux-Arts. Pierre Bonnard was influenced by the Japanese style. For one series of four paintings created in 1890-91, The Women in the Garden, now in the Musée d'Orsay, Bonnard adapted a Japanee format called kamemono with a narrow vertical canvas; the models are his cousin Berthe Schaedin. The four figures are presented in serpentine postures, like Japanese prints; the faces of the women look away from the artist. He origi