2009 Guinea-Bissau presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 28 June 2009 following the assassination of President João Bernardo Vieira on 2 March 2009. As no candidate won a majority in the first round, a second round was held on 26 July 2009 between the two leading candidates, Malam Bacai Sanhá of the governing African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde and opposition leader Kumba Ialá. Sanhá won with a substantial majority according to official results. At Vieira's funeral on 10 March 2009, interim President Raimundo Pereira said that meeting the 60-day deadline for holding a new election was "one of our greatest challenges." Cape Verde's Prime Minister, Jose Maria Neves, stated on 27 March 2009 that it was logistically and economically impossible for Guinea-Bissau to hold the election on time, that it should aim to hold them in June or November. Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Junior announced on 31 March that the election would be held on 28 June, with the agreement of "all the parties, the government, the interim president and political classes".
Foreign donors paid the entire cost of about 5.1 million euros. In April 2009, the Social Renewal Party, Guinea-Bissau's main opposition party, designated its President, Kumba Ialá, as its candidate for the presidential election; some in the party who opposed Ialá's "system of monopoly" instead proposed the candidacy of Baltizar Lopes Fernandes, but they were unsuccessful. Six candidates sought the presidential nomination of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, the ruling party. PAIGC President Carlos Gomes Junior backed Pereira. On 25 April 2009, the PAIGC Central Committee chose Malam Bacai Sanhá, interim President of Guinea-Bissau from 1999 to 2000, as the party's presidential candidate, he received 144 votes, while Pereira received 118. Aristides Gomes, Prime Minister from 2005 to 2007 and led the Republican Party for Independence and Development, submitted a candidate application. Francisco Fadul, Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000 and is the President of the Tribunal of Accounts submitted an application to stand as the candidate of his party, the African Party for Development and Citizenship.
Henrique Rosa, Interim President from 2003 to 2005, sought to run as an independent candidate, as did the Minister of Internal Administration, Baciro Dabó. In total, 20 candidates submitted applications to the Supreme Court of Justice, 13 representing political parties and seven independents. Zinha Vaz ran as the candidate of the Guinean Patriotic Union, was the only female candidate in the election. On 14 May, the Supreme Court announced that 12 candidacies had been approved and eight had been rejected; the candidacies of Sanhá, Ialá, Rosa were among those accepted. Fadul's candidacy was rejected on the grounds that he was still President of the Tribunal of Accounts and a member of the Bar, which the Supreme Court judged to be incompatible with his presidential candidacy; the candidacy of Aristides Gomes was rejected on the grounds that he had been out of the country during the 90 days before he filed his candidacy. Prior to the election, three of the 11 remaining candidates were considered the key contenders for the Presidency: PAIGC candidate Sanhá, PRS candidate Ialá, independent candidate Rosa.
Doubting that Ialá would be able to garner much more support than he obtained in the first round, analysts judged that Sanhá was the clear favorite for the second round. Various minor candidates—Luis Nancassa, Paulo Mendonça, Francisca Vaz Turpin, Braima Alfa Djalo—endorsed Sanhá after the first round. In mid-July, New Democracy Party candidate Iaia Djalo, who placed fourth with 3.11% urged his supporters to vote for Sanhá in the second round. During the second round campaign, Ialá blamed PAIGC for Guinea-Bissau's problems and alleged that it was responsible for Vieira's assassination. Warning against the use of such inflammatory rhetoric, the army stressed that it would not allow national stability to be endangered. On 5 June, one day before election campaigning was due to start, Dabó was fatally shot in his home in order to prevent him from ordering a prosecution against President Vieira's killers if he won the election, it was decided that the election would proceed as planned on 28 June.
Another independent candidate, Paulo Mendonça, said that the election could not go ahead on schedule because the constitution required a delay in case of the death of a candidate, he took the matter to the Supreme Court. Rosa said that his campaign would be subdued and would not begin in earnest until seven days after Dabó's death. Turnout was low when voting took place on 28 June. Electoral observers from the European Union were present at 80 of the 2,700 polling stations, the head of the EU mission, Johan Van Hecke, said that "rain played a role" but that it was not to blame for the low turnout, he said that voting proceeded "in a calm and orderly way" and that "not a single incident or complaint was reported to us". Desejado Lima da Costa, the head of the National Electoral Commission, announced provisional results on 2 July 2009; these results showed Sanhá with 133,786 votes or 39.59% of the vote, Ialá with 99,428 votes or 29.42%, Rosa with 24.19%. As a result, Sanhá and Ialá were to proceed to a second round on 2 August.
Although Rosa was positioned to make a crucial endorsement for the second r
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order and change or social evolution. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, others focus on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro-sociology level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure; the different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality and deviance. As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, economy and penal institutions, the Internet, social capital, the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.
The range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of quantitative techniques; the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-20th century led to interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. Conversely, the end of the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s have seen the rise of new analytically and computationally rigorous techniques, such as agent-based modelling and social network analysis. Social research informs politicians and policy makers, planners, administrators, business magnates, social workers, non-governmental organizations, non-profit organizations, people interested in resolving social issues in general. There is a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, other statistical fields. Sociological reasoning predates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the common stock of Western knowledge and philosophy, has been carried out from as far back as the time of ancient Greek philosopher Plato, if not before.
The origin of the survey, i.e. the collection of information from a sample of individuals, can be traced back to at least the Domesday Book in 1086, while ancient philosophers such as Confucius wrote about the importance of social roles. There is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings; some sources consider Ibn Khaldun, a 14th-century Arab Islamic scholar from North Africa, to have been the first sociologist and father of sociology. The word sociology is derived from both Greek origins; the Latin word: socius, "companion". It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript. Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte in 1838 as a new way of looking at society. Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the scientific understanding of the social realm.
Writing shortly after the malaise of the French Revolution, he proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy and A General View of Positivism. Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, in the progression of human understanding. In observing the circular dependence of theory and observation in science, having classified the sciences, Comte may be regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism, but by insisting on the irreducibility of each of his basic sciences to the particular science of sciences which it presupposed in the hierarchy and by emphasizing the nature of sociology as the scientific study of social phenomena Comte put sociology on the map.
To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, to Condorcet, not to speak of Saint-Simon, Comte's immediate predecessor. But Comte's clear recognition of sociology as a particular science, with a character of its own, justified Durkheim in regarding him as the father or founder of this science, in spite of the fact that Durkheim did not accept the idea of the three states and criticized Comte's approach to sociology. Both Auguste Comte and Karl Marx set out to develop scientifically justified systems in the wake of European industrialization and secularization, informed by various key movements in the philosophies of history and science. Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the "true father" of modern sociology, "in so far as anyone can claim the title."To have given clear and unified answers in familiar empirical terms to those theor
2005 Guinea-Bissau presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 19 June 2005, with a second round runoff on 24 July. The elections marked the end of a transition to democratic rule after the elected government was overthrown in a September 2003 military coup led by General Veríssimo Correia Seabra; the result was a victory for independent candidate João Bernardo Vieira. Following the coup, a civilian government was nominated to oversee the transition and sworn in on 28 September 2003. Henrique Rosa was appointed interim President following talks with military and civil society leaders, while Artur Sanhá of the Party for Social Renewal was named Prime Minister. A legislative election, delayed numerous times during the presidency of Kumba Ialá, took place on 28 March 2004; the poll was declared free and fair by election observers and the former ruling party, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, won a plurality of the seats. Ialá's party, the PRS, placed second, followed by the United Social Democratic Party.
PAIGC leader Carlos Gomes Júnior took office as Prime Minister in May 2004. The transitional period has been one of increased national stability; the caretaker government has managed to improve Guinea-Bissau's human rights record, as evidenced in the most recent U. S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices entry for Guinea-Bissau (released 28 February 2005, which says "The Government respected the human rights of its citizens; the previous report stated "The Government's human rights record remained poor, it continued to commit serious abuses". The biggest threat to stability came on 6 October 2004 when a mutiny by soldiers—instigated by unpaid wages—turned violent. General Veríssimo Correia Seabra and his lieutenant were killed by the revolting soldiers. Despite this setback, the tense relations between the government and the military improved with the signing of a memorandum of understanding. On 10 May 2005, the Supreme Court published a list of candidates. Three barred candidates were allowed to contest the poll and appeared on the final list of candidates published on 18 May.
The 13 candidates are: Adelino Mano Queta - Independent Antonieta Rosa Gomes - Guinean Civic Forum-Social Democracy. Contested the 1994 presidential election and won 1.79% of the vote. Aregado Mantenque Té - Workers' Party Paulino Empossa Ié - Independent Faustino Fadut Imbali - Manifest Party of the People. Prime Minister from March to December 2001. Francisco Fadul - United Social Democratic Party. Prime Minister from 3 December 1998 to 19 February 2000. Mamadú Iaia Djaló - Independent Idrissa Djaló - National Unity Party João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira - Independent. President from 1980 to 1999. Like Ialá, he was banned from national politics for five years but his candidacy was approved by the supreme court. João Tátis Sá - Guinean People's Party Kumba Ialá - Party for Social Renewal, he contested the country's first democratic elections in 1994, losing to incumbent João Bernardo Vieira, won the 1999/2000 election. He served as president from 17 February 2000 until his ouster by the military in September 2003.
His nomination is controversial because the transitional government announced a five-year ban on political activities for former leaders following the coup. Despite this, the Supreme Court approved his candidacy. Malam Bacai Sanhá - African Independence Party of Guinea and Cape Verde, he served as acting president from 14 May 1999 to 17 February 2000. Sanhá ran in the previous presidential elections, held on 28 November 1999 and placed second with 23.37% of the vote to Kumba Ialá's 38.81%. In the run-off held on 16 January 2000, he was soundly defeated by Ialá, who received 72% of the vote. Mário Lopes da Rosa - IndependentDiplomats and political analysts say that the participation of the two ex-presidents Vieira and Ialá may exacerbate tensions among ethnic groups and the military that could destabilize the country. Ex-President Vieira has a troubled relationship with the armed forces. Ex-President Ialá, on the other hand, has a poor reputation among potential donor countries and financial institutions, with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank freezing aid to the country during his presidency.
He has a considerable amount of support from the Balanta ethnic group which dominates the military, but has little support from the other groups. There are unconfirmed reports of the establishment of armed groups along ethnic lines in Bissau. Four candidates who were approved to contest the election withdrew in the weeks leading up to the poll. On 2 July Ialá announced his support for Vieira's candidacy in the second round runoff, he called Vieira "a symbol of the construction of the Guinean state and of national unity because he proclaimed our independence in the hills of Boe" and said that he could "be relied upon to defend our national independence, to oppose neo-colonialism, to build the republic and promote peace and above all, national reconciliation". Given Ialá's sharp hostility to Vieira in previous years, this endorsement was viewed as surprising by many, there was significant dissatisfaction with the decision among Ialá's supporters, it has been alleged that Vieira's re-election campaign was funded by Colombian drug dealers, who use Guinea-Bissau as a transit route to transport drugs to Europe.
Voting took place peacefully in the first
2008 Guinea-Bissau legislative election
Parliamentary elections were held in Guinea-Bissau on 16 November 2008. The result was a victory for the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, which won 67 out of the 100 seats in the National People's Assembly, while the Party for Social Renewal won 28 seats. At a rally in Gabú on 17 July 2007, President João Bernardo Vieira said that the election would be held together with the next presidential elections in 2009 in order to save money, but the National People's Assembly did not agree to this. However, the head of the National Electoral Commission, El Hadj Malam Mané, said on 8 December 2007 that the election would be held between 23 October and 25 November 2008. On 5 December 2007, President Vieira met with 35 party leaders, 33 of them agreed to the CNE's date range. In a speech before the National People's Assembly on 24 March 2008, Vieira criticized Prime Minister Martinho Ndafa Kabi's government for not adequately preparing for the election, saying that "the government did not create the conditions to facilitate the holding of the legislative elections within the times required by the Constitution".
He noted that the Assembly's mandate would expire on 21 April 2008, four years after the previous elections, that afterwards the Assembly's work have to be handled by its Standing Committee. On 25 March, after consultations with political party representatives, civil society, the CNE, foreign diplomats, Vieira decided on 16 November 2008 as the date of the election. On 27 March, the Assembly voted to extend its mandate until November by a vote of 65–2; the extension was viewed by many as a challenge to Vieira, since he had said that the Assembly's work would be handled by its Standing Committee after 21 April, it provoked significant opposition. The PAIGC opposed the extension, while the United Social Democratic Party supported it. A group of 20 deputies who opposed the extension said on 15 April that the extension was a violation of the Constitution and that they would not participate in any parliamentary sessions after 21 April. However, the Assembly voted to uphold the extension on 16 April, with 68 deputies in favor, seven opposed, seven abstaining.
A meeting intended to assess the political situation was held on 18 April between Vieira, the government, the Assembly, the Council of State. Subsequently, civil society organizations called for the resignation of Prime Minister Kabi, accusing him of making death threats against Fernando Gomis, a member of the Assembly, at this meeting; the organizations said that Kabi was unable to control his anger and as a result it was not appropriate for him to lead the government. Additionally, the organizations called on Vieira to not promulgate the extension of the parliamentary mandate, they threatened to launch protests if Vieira did not dismiss Kabi's government and dissolve the Assembly. On 19 May Vieira said that he had enacted the law providing for the extension of the parliamentary mandate. While remarking that those opposed to the extension were correct, he said that it was necessary to approve it for the sake of peace and stability. On 1 August the Supreme Court annulled the law extending the deputies' terms until the election.
After consultations with the political class, civil society, the Council of State, Vieira dissolved the National People's Assembly on 5 August, leaving only its Standing Committee in place. He appointed Carlos Correia—who was Prime Minister under Vieira from 1991 to 1994 and from 1997 to 1998—as Prime Minister on the same day, replacing Kabi. A new government headed by Correia was appointed on 9 August; this government was dominated by Vieira loyalists and members of PAIGC, including PAIGC dissidents who were supporters of Vieira. The appointment of one of these PAIGC dissidents—Cipriano Cassamá—as Minister of the Interior was deemed significant, due to the Interior Ministry's responsibility for the election; the PRS was given five posts in the government, while the Republican Party for Independence and Development and the United People's Alliance were each given a single post. Shortly after Correia's appointment, a coup plot led by the head of the navy, Rear Admiral Americo Bubo Na Tchuto, was said to have been thwarted.
According to an army spokesman, Na Tchuto asked other senior officers to support his plot, planned to occur on 7 August but when he asked the chief of staff of the army to join the plot, the latter ordered Na Tchuto's arrest. Na Tchuto was placed under house arrest, but he escaped and fled to The Gambia, where he was arrested by the Gambian authorities on 12 August. On 11 August UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon released a statement saying that he was "deeply concerned over the mounting political and security tensions in Guinea-Bissau" and calling "on all national stakeholders to work cooperatively and peacefully together in the national interest and in full respect of the rule of law". An African Union pre-election assessment mission, led by Anil Gayan of Mauritius, arrived in Bissau on 18 August. Members of the mission met with Prime Minister Correia on 21 August, Correia affirmed the government's intention to hold the election on schedule in November. By law, candidate lists had to be submitted.
As the available period entered its final week, Supreme Court President Maria do Ceu Silva Monteiro expressed concern on
National People's Assembly (Guinea-Bissau)
The unicameral National People's Assembly is Guinea-Bissau's legislative body. The current National People's Assembly, formed following elections held on 28 March 2004, has a total of 102 seats. 100 members are elected through a system of party-list proportional representation. The remaining two seats are reserved for Guinea-Bissau citizens living overseas, but they were not filled in the most recent election. Members serve four-year terms. History of Guinea-Bissau Politics of Guinea-Bissau List of Presidents of the National People's Assembly of Guinea-Bissau Official website
Umaro Sissoco Embaló
This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or maternal family name is Sissoco and the second or paternal family name is Embaló. Umaro Mokhtar Sissoco Embaló is a political scientist and military officer of Guinea Bissau who served as the prime minister of his country between November 18, 2016 and January 16, 2018, he was born in Bissau. He holds a degree in International Relations from the Higher Institute of Social and Political Sciences at the Technical University of Lisbon and a master's degree in Political Science and Doctorate in International Relations from the Complutense University of Madrid, he is fluent in Portuguese and Spanish, competent in English, French and Swahili. He served in the military, undertaking National Defense Studies at the National Defense Center of Spain, further studies on National Security in Brussels, Tel Aviv, Johannesburg and Paris, he rose to the rank of Brigadier-General. He now specialises in African and Middle-Eastern affairs and in matters of defence, international co-operation and development.
He is a former Minister of African Affairs. He formed his cabinet on 13 December 2016 after having been appointed Prime Minister by President José Mário Vaz on 18 November 2016; the new prime minister of Guinea-Bissau took the post with a boycott of his own party, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, which through its Central Committee gave him a vote of distrust of one hundred and twelve votes in favor and eleven against on November 26, 2016. As head of government, he could count on the support of only the Social Renovation Party, the second largest seat of the National People's Congress of Guinea-Bissau. On January 13, 2018, after embarking on a collision course with President José Mário Vaz, due to this he was placed alongside the demands of João Fadiá and Botche Candé, Embaló requested his resignation of the position, having been effected on January 16, 2018; this article includes some material from the equivalent article on French Wikipedia
Cacheu is a region in western Guinea-Bissau, on the border with Senegal. It has an area of 5,175 km2 and a population estimated in 2004 at 164,676, its capital is Cacheu. There has not been any local administration since the civil war of 1998-99 and all the social services are done by organs of civil society and other government agencies, it is a coastal region covered with Mangrove swamps, rain forest and tangled forest and receives an annual rainfall of more than 1,000 mm As of 2009, the total population of the region was 185,053, with the urban population being 40,051 and rural being 145,002. The sex ratio of the region is 91 females for every hundred males; as of 2009, the net activity rate was 54.24 per cent, proportion of employed labour force was 36.20 per cent, proportion of labour force was 78.17 and the proportion of active population was 36.20 per cent. The absolute poverty rate, people earning less than $2 a day, in the region stood at 63.8 per cent, with a regional contribution of 14.2 per cent to the national poverty totals.
Cacheu is a low-lying coastal region and the low-lying coastal areas are periodically submerged during high tide. All the coastal regions have a maximum elevation of 300 m; the internal region has plains. There are lot of meandering rivers, many of them forming estuaries in the coastal regions; the principal river, flows through the region. The climate is hot and tropical and the region has two seasons; the onset of summer is from December to May with April - May period having temperature ranges from 20 °C to 30 °C. The rainy season is from May to November; the region receives an average rainfall of around 2,000 mm compared to the inland regions, which receive 1,000 mm. The coastal regions are covered with rain forest and tangled forest. Cacheu is divided into six administrative sectors are Bigene, Cacheu, Caió, Canghungo and São Domingos. Guinea-Bissau got independence from Portugal on 24 September 1973 after wars and diplomatic political actions under the Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde, while Portugal accepted the independence of Cape Verde on 5 July 1975.
PAICV ruled both the countries after independence. While international funds came pouring in for the economic development of the nation, the party was accused of misusing power in authoritarian manner; the one-party state mechanism was turbulent during the period of 1980s and 1990s with army taking control of power more and the resultant civil war resulted in loss of property and lives. To decentralize power, an administrative region and eight regions were created. There has not been any local administration since the civil war of 1998-99 and all the social services are done by organs of civil society and other government agencies. There is minimal health and education services offered by the government and all the government departments have operated in a limited fashion. A transitional government was selected during 2003-4 with an adopted Public Transition Charter; the Military Committee appointed two civilians as interim Prime Minister. Elections were held for a five year term on 24 July 2005 with a multi party representation.
There was a military coup in 2012, after which international donations stopped. The latest elections were held during April 2014 with 13 Presidential candidates and representaiton from 15 parties; the elections were monitored by 550 international observers. Jose Mario Vaz and his party, won the Presidential and parliamentary elections against the military backed Nuno Gomes Nabiam; as of 2009, the total population of the region was 185,053, with the urban population being 40,051 and rural being 145,002. The sex ratio of the region is 91 females for every hundred males; the total resident population in the region is 185,053. The total agricultural population in the region is 78,522; the average number of household in the region is 8.0 and the density of the population is 35.8 sq. km. The intercensal rate of average annual growth is 1.51 per cent. The non-agricultural population in the country is 106,531; the total number of households per capita in the region is 26,475. The fraction of Christians in the region is 30.7 per cent, Muslims is 14.80 per cent, animists is 34.00 per cent, not detailed was 17.30 per cent and people following no religion was 3.0 per cent.
As of 2009, the net activity rate was 54.24 per cent, proportion of employed labour force was 36.20 per cent, proportion of labour force was 78.17 and the proportion of active population was 36.20 per cent. The major economic activity in the parts around the rivers and the coastal areas was fwashing, while it was agriculture in the inland areas; as of 2011, the total population, active constitutes 60 per cent nationwide indicating there are lot of employed people. But the poverty rate was high in the country with an estimated two-thirds below the poverty line. Out of the working population, an estimated 58.4 per cent are employed in freelance activities, while wage earners formed 42 per cent. The unemployment in the region as of 2001 was 10.2 per cent, compared to the capital Bwassau which has 19.3 per cent. 63.5 per cent were employed in agriculture, 8.9 in industry and 6.1 per cent in public adminwastration. As per IMF report in 2011, people who were engaged in agriculture were poorer compared to others, while educated and higher educated people earned more.
The absolute poverty rate, people earning less than $2 a day, in the region stood at 63.8 per cent, with a regional contribution of 14.2 per cent to the national poverty totals. 63.5 per cent were employed in agriculture, 8.9 in industry and 6.1 per cent in public adminwastra