Volkswagen Golf Mk4
The Volkswagen Golf Mk4 is a compact car, the fourth generation of the Volkswagen Golf and the successor to the Volkswagen Golf Mk3. Launched in October 1997, it was the best selling car in Europe in 2001; the Mk4 was a deliberate attempt to take the Volkswagen Golf series further upmarket, with a high-quality interior and higher equipment levels. It was replaced in 2004 by the Volkswagen Golf Mk5 in European markets. However, manufacturing continued in South America and China for developing markets until 2010; the Mk4 was sold in Japan, but starting with this generation and subsequent generations, it no longer complied with Japanese government dimension regulations which affected sales, imposing an annual tax on Japanese consumers for owning a vehicle that exceeded the maximum width limit. The Golf Mk4 was a significant car in its class; as with its big brother the Passat, not only was it the first step of Volkswagen moving its products upmarket to plug a gap between the mainstream machines and the premium cars, with SEAT and Škoda taking over as the mainstream in a new level of interior quality and sophistication never seen before from a mainstream brand in the class.
In fact, the quality of the Golf was on a par with its sister Audi A3 from the year before, but cost more than other cars in its class. The latest model remained faithful to the Golf concept but included some of the new "arched" styling themes first seen on the B4 Passat; as with the Mk2 Golf, Volkswagen did not make a convertible version of the Mk4 Golf. Instead, they face-lifted the front bumper, fenders and hood to resemble Mk4 Golf styling but to fit a Mk3 chassis. VW managed to incorporate some non-structural Mk4 parts as well such as fender repeaters, side mirror caps, rear license tag lights, 3-spoke steering wheel airbag, etc; the rear received a redesigned bumper with the number plate tub moved from the hatch and a Mk4 handle with a larger VW emblem above it to resemble the rear of a Mk4 Golf. The interior remained the same as a Mk3 interior save for a Mk4 style 3-spoke leather steering wheel, a textured dashboard bolstered front seats with incorporated side airbags, the hazard switch relocated from the steering column to the instrument panel.
The interior lighting in the cabin was switched to the blue and red hue found in the Mk4 and some of the more familiar Mk3 parts were chromed such as the inner door handles, emergency brake button, door strikers, front seat belt anchors, key lock cylinders, shifter button in automatic transmission equipped cars. There are some technical carryovers, as well, the main one being the immobilizer and engine computer from the Mk4 Golf being used with the older Mk3 engine mechanicals. Although the redesigned Golf Cabriolet looks like a Mk4 Golf, it is based on the Mk3 chassis and this causes a bit of confusion on how it should be designated. VW enthusiasts in Eastern Europe call it a Mk4 Golf Cabriolet while VW enthusiasts in the United Kingdom and United States call it a Mk3.5 Cabrio. The Volkswagen Golf Mk4 Variant was introduced in 1999, it was discontinued in 2006, succeeded in 2007 by the Volkswagen Golf Mk5 Variant. Unlike the Mk3, it was offered in North America with the "Jetta" name and front sheet metal were used.
The "JETTA WAGON" was used in North America instead of the "BORA" name. Volkswagen produced a saloon version of the Mk4 Golf; as with previous incarnations of the Golf, it had its own identity, this time was called the Volkswagen Bora although the name Jetta remained in North America and South Africa. Unlike its predecessors, the Bora/Jetta featured front wings and bonnet; the front doors were the only body panels. The interior, was identical to the Golf, featuring minor styling changes like its predecessor. Germany, South Africa, Brazil and China all made the Golf 4. Eastern European locations making the Golf 4 included Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Vogošća, which made Mk1 and Mk2 models. However, although the Bosnian Mk4 was popular it was only available in the local market; the Golf/Jetta Mk4 engine choices included 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.3 litre VR5, 2.8 litre V6 and 3.2 litre R32 petrol engines, 1.9-litre aspirated diesel SDI engine, a 1.9-litre turbodiesel, with power ranging from 90 to 150 PS.
Volkswagen made a choice of three and five-door hatchback or a five-door station wagon available. The European Golf wagon was nearly identical to the North American Jetta Wagon; the only difference was the use of the Golf front headlights, grille and fenders as these parts are interchangeable between the Mk4 Golf and Bora/Jetta. The Golf 4 was introduced to North America in mid-1999. Available engines for the Golf at its introduction to the American market were a 2.0 L gasoline engine, a thrifty 1.9 L TDI engine. The latter soon developed a reputation for good low-speed torque and fuel economy, can operate on alternative biofuels. In 2004 the updated 1.9 L TDI PD or "Pumpe-Düse" engine was installed in the Jetta. The "Pumpe-Düse" or Pump Nozzle was a Robert Bosch extreme high pressure fuel injection system for direct cylinder injection. A 1.8 L turbocharged gas engine was introduced in 2000, along with the 12-valve 2.8 L VR6. At the same time, the 1.6 L 8-valve unit was replaced with the 16-valve unit from the Polo GTI, but detuned to 77 kW.
The 2.0 L gasoline engine was the base engine in the sportier GTI only as a 1999.5 model. For 2000, Volkswagen opted for the new 1.8 L turbocharged gasoline engine as a base engine for the GTI. The top-of-the-line GL
The Lexus GS is an executive car sold by Lexus, the premium division of Toyota. The same car launched in 1991 as the Toyota Aristo in Japan, but the Lexus-badged model did not appear until 1993. Now in its fourth generation, the GS sold under the Aristo name in Japan only until the release of the third generation model in 2005. Designed as a performance sedan competing in the mid-luxury class, the GS slots between the compact executive IS and large/flagship LS, shares its chassis with one of Toyota's longest-running platforms: the S-series, used under multiple generations of the Toyota Crown premium sedans. Four generations of the GS have been produced since 1993, each available with six-cylinder engines and rear-wheel drive. V8 engines were offered in the second and third generations, all-wheel drive and hybrid versions debuted in 2005; the first two generations had a Japanese domestic market equivalent, the Toyota Aristo, sold from 1991 until the Lexus marque's domestic debut in 2005. Though identical in exterior and interior design, the GS and the Aristo differed in their engine and transmission combinations as well as equipment packages.
The GS name stands for Grand Sedan. However, some Lexus importers use Grand Sport; the first-generation Lexus GS began sales in the United States and selected markets in Asia in 1993, where it was introduced with an inline-6 engine and exterior bodywork designed by Italdesign Giugiaro. The second-generation model premiered in 1997, using a new platform, in-house styling, adding a V8 version for the first time outside Japan; the third-generation GS, which premiered globally for the 2006 model year, was produced in V6, V8, hybrid versions, the latter known as the GS 450h performance hybrid. The third-generation models were the first GS sedans; the fourth-generation Lexus GS premiered in August 2011 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance, where models introduced included the V6-powered GS 350, hybrid GS 450h, performance-tuned F Sport variants. A lower-displacement V6 model, the GS 250, premiered at the Auto Guangzhou Exhibition in November 2011, targeted at Asian and European markets. In some markets such as North America, the GS shares the mid-size sedan category in the Lexus lineup with the front-wheel drive ES.
Italdesign Giugiaro began the first design drawings of the GS 300 in 1988. The design firm aimed to produce a deluxe saloon which did without the numerous exterior features and detailing found on existing Japanese premium sedans, in favor of a more simplified, European-style appearance; the vehicle's exterior styling blended elements of the then-current Lexus LS flagship and SC performance coupe in a rounded, aerodynamic wedge-like shape which featured a high rear decklid and longer and wider proportions than rival vehicles. The exterior produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.31. The offered color schemes included single-tone bumper and body finishes, along with dual-tone schemes. Similarities with an Italdesign concept car which debuted in 1990, the Jaguar Kensington, led some observers to suggest that the GS 300 was derived from its design, but the firm has stated that the GS 300 was developed earlier. Equipped with an independent, double-wishbone suspension setup at both front and rear ends, Italdesign's saloon design first appeared in Toyota Aristo form in Japan in October 1991.
Built at Toyota's Tahara assembly plant in Japan, production of the Aristo involved more automation than previous vehicles built at the Tahara factory. Toyota of Japan offered two straight-six engine options for the Japanese market Aristo—the 3.0Q and 3.0V. The 3.0Q featured the 2JZ-GE engine which produced 169 kW, while the Aristo 3.0V was equipped with a 24-valve twin-turbo 2JZ-GTE engine which produced 205 kW. The Aristo was exclusive to the Toyota Vista Store as the top level luxury sedan at Vista dealerships, positioned above the Toyota Cresta and Chaser. In 1992, a third model, the V8-powered 4.0Zi-Four, joined the Aristo lineup. This model came with a 186 kW 1UZ-FE engine. Production of the export Lexus GS 300 began on 22 February 1993. For Lexus, The GS was placed above the front-wheel drive ES luxury sedan with its superior drivetrain setup and available amenities. Lexus only offered the GS with the 3.0-liter 2JZ-GE straight-six, producing 169 kW and 285 N⋅m of torque. For the interior, the GS 300 featured walnut wood trim on the center console, leather seating, an automatic tilt-and-telescoping steering wheel, the option of a Nakamichi premium stereo system.
Driver and front passenger airbags were standard. A moonroof, remote 12-CD auto changer, traction control were options; the GS was intended to take the price position of the original LS 400 flagship, which had moved upmarket since its 1989 launch. By the time of the GS 300's debut, the US$35,000 initial base price of the LS in the United States had climbed to US$47,000, while the GS 300 at debut carried base price of US$38,000. However, sales of the GS 300 were modest, with 1993 seeing the greatest sales at 19,164 sold that year. Sales dropped in years as the Japanese yen rose in value against the dollar and made the vehicle more expensive than its rivals. Additionally, more powerful V8 sport sedans provided strong competition. By 1997, the price of the GS 300 had risen to US$46,000. Production of the first generation GS sedan ended in July 1997. In 1993, after sales commenced for the first generation S140 series, development began on the successor under the inte
Salman Aristo is an Indonesian screenwriter and film director best known for his work on Ayat-Ayat Cinta, Laskar Pelangi, Garuda di Dadaku, Sang Penari. Born in Jakarta, Aristo became interested in films from a young age, though he did not consider a career in the industry until after graduating from university. At the suggestion of a friend, he wrote Tak Pernah Kembali Sama. With feedback on the script from director Rudy Soedjarwo and after a period reading old, successful scripts, Aristo – at the time a film reviewer for a magazine – was able to befriend Hanung Bramantyo, who asked him to write a script about brownies; the resulting film, a critical success, led to Aristo receiving numerous requests for screenplays, including several adaptations of novels. In 2010, he released Jakarta Maghrib. Aristo, married to fellow screenwriter Ginatri S. Noer, is influenced by several Western and Indonesian screenwriters, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Richard Linklater, Richard Curtis, Arifin C.
Noer, Asrul Sani. He has been nominated for three Citra Awards for screenwriting. Aristo was born in Jakarta in 1976; as a child, he became interested in film when his family went to the movie theatre together. After beginning junior high school in 1988, he began to go to the theatres to watch films on his own. Despite his enjoyment of film, he was active in an indie band. After senior high school, Aristo studied journalism at Padjadjaran University in Bandung, from which he graduated in 1999. While in university, he stayed active in the indie music scene with his band Silentium. After graduation he worked in journalism for a while before drifting to filmmaking upon the suggestion of Dedi Rakswaradana guitarist for the band Naff. Several months after moving back to Jakarta Aristo's first screenplay, a 90-page work titled Tak Pernah Kembali Sama, was read by director Rudy Soedjarwo. Soedjarwo gave the film several critiques. To do so, beginning in 2002 Aristo began going to Usmar Ismail Film Documentation Center in Kuningan, Jakarta, to read screenplays.
Among the works he read were several by Asrul Sani, which he found useful. In the meantime, he took a job as a film reviewer for a local music magazine, which gave him greater access to the industry. At a seminar, Aristo showed him one of his screenplays. Bramantyo, who liked what he saw, asked Aristo to write a screenplay for a new film he was working on with Leo Sutanto of SinemArt; the resulting work, written after intensive research into the production of brownies and titled after the snack, was released in 2004. It garnered a Citra Award for Best Director at the Indonesian Film Festival for Bramantyo and a nomination for best original screenplay for Aristo. While Brownies was in production, Aristo wrote four other screenplays, for Catatan Akhir Sekolah, Cinta Silver and Alexandria. All of these were made into films between 2005 and 2006. After these successes, at the end of 2006 Bramantyo asked Aristo and his new wife, screenwriter Ginatri S. Noer, to adapt the novel Ayat-Ayat Cinta by Habiburrahman El Shirazy, into a film.
The resulting work entitled Ayat-Ayat Cinta, was successful. This was followed by Karma, Kambing Jantan: The Movie. In 2008, Aristo wrote a film adaptation of Andrea Hirata's 2005 novel Laskar Pelangi after being asked by the film's producer, Mira Lesmana; the film, directed by Riri Riza, was a commercial success. He soon wrote another screenplay, for Garuda di Dadaku upon request of producer Shanty Harmayn; the film, directed by Ifa Isfansyah sold 1.2 million tickets, a large number for the Indonesian film industry. Aristo joined Twitter in September 2009 as a way to promote his films; that year, his short film Pasangan Baru was screened at the Balinale Film Festival in Bali. He wrote Sang Pemimpi, a film adaptation of the sequel to Laskar Pelangi. In 2010 he joined the online flash fiction Twitter community Fiksimini, his works, written in under 140 characters, were well received, he soon became a moderator. That same year, Aristo was a juror at the Asia Pacific Screen Awards, held in Gold Coast, Australia.
He wrote the screenplay for Hari Untuk Amanda with Ginatri S. Noer, which earned a Citra Award nomination at the 2010 Indonesian Film Festival, he made his feature film directorial debut that year with Jakarta Maghrib, which details several families in the minutes before Maghrib prayers and how the call to prayer stops their daily activities. It premiered at the Jakarta International Film Festival. In March 2011, Aristo published Politweet, an illustrated collection of flash fiction dealing with politics; that same year, he cowrote the screenplay for Sang Penari with Shanty Harmayn. The trio were nominated for Best Screenplay at that year's Indonesian Film Festival; that year, he wrote Lima Elang, a film directed by Rudy Soedjarwo. Focusing on five young children at camp, it was one of the first local films in decades to use Scouting as a central theme. Another film, Garuda di Dadaku 2 followed in December; as of 2
The Roman Mysteries
The Roman Mysteries is a series of historical novels for children by Caroline Lawrence. The first book, The Thieves of Ostia, was published in 2001, finishing with The Man from Pomegranate Street, published in 2009, 17 more novels were planned, plus a number of "mini-mysteries" and companion titles; the books take place in the ancient Roman Empire during the reign of the Emperor Titus. They detail the adventures of four children who solve mysteries and have adventures in Ostia Antica, Rome and beyond: Flavia, a Roman girl who lives in Ostia. Flavia Gemina: A wealthy Roman girl, daughter of a sea captain Jonathan ben Mordecai: A kind but pessimistic Jewish/Christian boy Nubia: An African girl, former slave of Flavia, good with animals Lupus: A mute beggar boy with a tragic past Marcus Flavius Geminus: Flavia's father, a sea captain Mordecai: Jonathan's father, a doctor Miriam bat Mordecai: Jonathan's older sister Aristo: Greek tutor of the children Pliny the Elder, admiral of the Misenum fleet and an accomplished natural historian.
Pliny the Younger, nephew of the Elder Titus, Emperor of Rome Berenice of Cilicia, Titus' exiled Jewish mistress Domitian, Titus' younger brother Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, the famous historian, who appears as a young man betrothed to Flavia. Gaius Valerius Flaccus, the poet, who appears in several novels as a teenaged man, a love interest of Flavia's. Titus Flavius Josephus, famous Jewish historian. Julia Flavia, Titus' daughter; the Thieves of Ostia The Secrets of Vesuvius The Pirates of Pompeii The Assassins of Rome The Dolphins of Laurentum The Twelve Tasks of Flavia Gemina The Enemies of Jupiter The Gladiators from Capua The Colossus of Rhodes The Fugitive from Corinth The Sirens of Surrentum The Charioteer of Delphi The Slave-girl from Jerusalem The Beggar of Volubilis The Scribes from Alexandria The Prophet from Ephesus The Man from Pomegranate Street The Roman Mysteries Omnibus I: The Thieves of Ostia, the Secrets of Vesuvius and the Pirates of Pompeii. The Roman Mysteries Omnibus II: The Assassins of Rome, the Dolphins of Laurentum, the Twelve Tasks of Flavia Gemina.
The Roman Mysteries Omnibus III: The Enemies of Jupiter, the Gladiators from Capua, the Colossus of Rhodes. Bread and Circuses; the stories would have been set in Roman Britain. The first book was to be published in March 2010; the working title for the trilogy was the Flavian Trilogy, with individual stories "Brothers of Jackals", "Companion of Owls" and "Prey of Lions". On her blog and website, Caroline Lawrence has said the content was deemed "too edgy" for the Roman Mysteries brand and as a result has been put on hold indefinitely. In April 2010, author Caroline Lawrence announced that she is planning a spinoff for younger readers; the main character will be Threptus, an 8-year-old Ostian beggar boy who makes appearances in the final Roman Mystery, The Man from Pomegranate Street and the final short story in The Legionary from Londinium and other mini-mysteries. Each of the novels has at least one map of the area covered in the story, sometimes plans or diagrams; the chapters are called scrolls, after the rolls of papyrus which were Roman'books', are numbered with Roman numerals.
The glossary explaining Roman terms is called "Aristo's Scroll", after Flavia's tutor, the author's note, which separates fact from fiction, is called "The Last Scroll". The film rights belong to The Little Entertainment Group Ltd and all queries should be addressed to them; the BBC produces a television series based on the books, entitled Roman Mysteries. The first season was broadcast in 2007, the second season in 2008. Official Roman Mysteries website Official BBC site for the TV series TV Tropes The Roman Mysteries page