Jonathan Apphus was leader of the Hasmonean dynasty of Judea from 161 to 143 BCE. The name Apphus in allusion to a trait prominent in him. Jonathan Apphus was the youngest of the five sons of Mattathias, his father was a priest credited as the founding figure of the rebellion of the Maccabees against Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire. However Mattathias died in 167 BCE, he was survived by Jonathan and his brothers Eleazar Avaran, Judas Maccabeus, Simon Thassi. They were sworn to continue the rebellion of their father. Judas soon became the military chief of the rebellion. Jonathan took active parts in the battles against the Seleucid forces, his reputation for courage is hardly questionable. His courage had been tried. Judas fell in the Battle of Elasa against a Seleucid general under Demetrius I Soter. Bacchides proceeded with crushing rigor against the Maccabean party while at the same time a famine broke out in the land; the Jewish rebels required Jonathan was chosen. Jonathan noticed.
He reacted by retiring with his brothers Simeon and John, his followers to a desert region in the country east of the Jordan River. They set camp near a morass by the name of Asphar, but Bacchides overtook them during a Sabbath. Jonathan gave all the baggage into the hands of his brother John who took a small force and headed towards the friendly Nabataeans; the plan was to secure their baggage there but the "sons of Jambri of Medeba", a hostile tribe ambushed them during their journey. John and his companions were killed and their cargo was looted. Subsequently, Jonathan was informed that one of the sons of Jambri was leading home a noble bride in great pomp, the Maccabean brothers proceeded to Medaba, ambushed the bridal procession, killed the entire party, to the number of 300, seized all the treasure. Jonathan and his companions met Bacchides in battle at the River Jordan. Jonathan had raised his hand to slay Bacchides, when the latter evaded the blow. In this battle Bacchides is reported to have lost either 1,000 or 2,000 men and he did not make another attempt to cross the river, instead returning to Jerusalem.
Jonathan and his forces remained in the swamp in the country east of the Jordan. Following the death of Alcimus, High Priest in Jerusalem sometime Bacchides left the country; however Jonathan was not idle. He continued activities against the Jews influenced by the Hellenistic civilization. Two years after the departure of Bacchides from Judea, Acra felt sufficiently threatened to contact Demetrius and request the return of Bacchides to their territory. Jonathan was now more experienced in guerrilla warfare, the primary tactic used by the Maccabean forces, was on guard to avoid direct confrontations with enemy forces while continuing hostile operations. A frustrated Bacchides took out his anger on the Hellenists and killed fifty of their leaders out of frustration. Jonathan and Simeon thought it well to retreat farther, accordingly fortified in the desert a place called Beth-hogla. Jonathan perceived, he contacted the rival general with offers of a peace exchange of prisoners of war. Bacchides consented and took an oath of nevermore making war upon Jonathan.
He and his forces vacated Judea. The victorious Jonathan now took up his residence in the old city of Michmash. From there he endeavored to clear the land of "the godless and the apostate". Jonathan must have used this peaceful period to good advantage, for he was soon in possession of great power. An important external event brought the design of the Maccabeans to fruition. Demetrius I Soter's relations with Attalus II Philadelphus of Pergamon, Ptolemy VI of Egypt and his co-ruler Cleopatra II of Egypt were deteriorating, they supported rival claimant to the throne Alexander Balas against him who claimed to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and a first cousin of Demetrius. Demetrius was now forced to recall the garrisons of Judea, except those at Jerusalem's Akra fortress and at Beth-zur. Jonathan gladly accepted these terms and took up residence at Jerusalem in 153 BCE, he soon began fortifying the city. Alexander Balas contacted Jonathan with more favorable terms. Including official appointment as High Priest in Jerusalem.
Withdrawing his support from Demetrius and declaring allegiance to Alexander, Jonathan was the first member of his dynasty to achieve appointment as High Priest. The title was not nominal. Jonathan became the official leader of his people and the Hellenistic party could no longer attack him without severe consequences. On the Feast of Tabernacles of 153 BCE, Jonathan put on the High Priest's garments and officiated for the first time, it is unknown whom Jonathan displaced as High Priest, though some scholars suggest that this was the Teacher of Righteousness founder of the Essenes. In this theory, Jonathan is considered the "Wicked Priest". Jonathan had determined to side with Alexander Balas, not trusting Demetrius, who in a second letter made promises that he could hardly have kept and conceded prerogatives that were almost
Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text, it encompasses the religion and culture of the Jewish people. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenant that God established with the Children of Israel. Judaism encompasses a wide body of texts, theological positions, forms of organization; the Torah is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible, supplemental oral tradition represented by texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth largest religion in the world. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah; this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period.
Modern branches of Judaism such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic. Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, the significance of the State of Israel. Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin and unalterable, that they should be followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism promoting a more traditionalist interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews. Special courts enforced Jewish law. Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the rabbis and scholars who interpret them.
The history of Judaism spans more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as an organized religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age. Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions; the Hebrews and Israelites were referred to as "Jews" in books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel". Judaism's texts and values influenced Abrahamic religions, including Christianity and the Baha'i Faith. Many aspects of Judaism have directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law. Hebraism was just as important a factor in the ancient era development of Western civilization as Hellenism, Judaism, as the background of Christianity, has shaped Western ideals and morality since Early Christianity. Jews are an ethnoreligious group including those born Jewish, in addition to converts to Judaism. In 2015, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14.3 million, or 0.2% of the total world population. About 43% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 43% reside in the United States and Canada, with most of the remainder living in Europe, other minority groups spread throughout Latin America, Asia and Australia.
Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as solitary. Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of mankind. According to the Tanakh, God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation. Many generations he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God, he commanded the Jewish people to love one another. These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, the substance of Judaism. Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism, Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as "normal mysticism", because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews; this is played out through the observance of the Halakha and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.
The ordinary, everyday things and occurrences we have, constitute occasions for the experience of God. Such things as one's daily sustenance, the day itself, are felt as manifestations of God's loving-kindness, calling for the Berakhot. Kedushah, nothing else than the imitation of God, is concerned with daily conduct, with being gracious and merciful, with keeping oneself from defilement by idolatry and the shedding of blood; the Birkat Ha-Mitzwot evokes the consciousness of holiness at a rabbinic rite, but the objects employed in the majority of these rites are non-holy and of general character, while the several holy objects are non-theurgic. And not only do ordinary things and occurrences bring with them the experience of God. Everything that happens to a man evokes that exp
Ahimaaz was son of the high priest Zadok. He first appears in the reign of King David. During Absalom's revolt he remained faithful to David, assisted him by giving him news about the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem, he was a swift runner, was the first to bring David news of the defeat of Absalom, although he refrained from mentioning his death. Under King Solomon, his father Zadok became high priest and when he died, Ahimaaz succeeded him in that position, he may have been the same Ahimaaz who took as one of Solomon's daughters. Subsequent kings of Israel, Ahaz married daughters of the high priest. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "Ahimaaz". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Ahimelech, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar, but described as the son of Abiathar in 2 Samuel 8:17 and in four places in 1 Chronicles. He descended from the high priest Eli. In 1 Chronicles 18:16 his name is Abimelech according to the Masoretic Text, is the same as Ahiah, he was the twelfth High Priest, officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David when David fled from Saul. He was summoned into Saul's presence, accused of disloyalty for assisting David, on the information of Doeg the Edomite; the king commanded that he, with the other priests who stood beside him, 86 in all, should be slain with his family. This sentence was carried into execution by Doeg in the most cruel manner. Abiathar had a son called Ahimelech, or the two names, as some think, may have been accidentally transposed in 2 Samuel 8:17. Ahimelech's death was seen as a partial fulfilment of the curse on the House of Eli – that none of Eli's male descendants would live to old age. Rabbinical literature linked the extermination of the male descendants of David with the extermination of the priests of Nob by Saul - deeming it divine retribution because David's action had provoked Saul's outburst - and linked the survival of David's descendant Joash with that of Ahimelech's son Abiathar.
Levite List of High Priests of Israel This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
According to the Hebrew Bible the tabernacle known as the Tent of the Congregation, was the portable earthly dwelling place of Yahweh used by the children of Israel from the Exodus until the conquest of Canaan. It was constructed of 4 woven layers of curtains and 48 15 foot tall standing wood boards overlayed in gold and held in place by its bars and silver sockets and was richly furnished with valuable materials taken from Egypt at Gods orders. Moses was instructed at Mount Sinai to construct and transport the tabernacle with the Israelites on their journey through the wilderness and their subsequent conquest of the Promised Land. After 440 years, Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem superseded it as the dwelling-place of God; the main source describing the tabernacle is the biblical Book of Exodus Exodus 25–31 and 35–40. Those passages describe an inner sanctuary, the Holy of Holies, created by the veil suspended by four pillars; this sanctuary contained the Ark of the Covenant, with its cherubim-covered mercy seat.
An outer sanctuary contained a gold candlestick. On the south side stood a table, on which lay the showbread. On the north side was the Menorah. On the west side, just before the veil, was the golden altar of incense; this description is identified as part of the Priestly source, written in the sixth or fifth century BCE. However while the first Priestly source takes the form of instructions, the second is a repetition of the first in the past tense, i.e. it describes the execution of the instructions. Many scholars contend that it is of a far date than the time of Moses, that the description reflects the structure of Solomon's Temple, while some hold that the description derives from memories of a real pre-monarchic shrine the sanctuary at Shiloh. Traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter. According to historical criticism, an earlier, pre-exilic source, the Elohist, describes the tabernacle as a simple tent-sanctuary; the English word "tabernacle" is derived from the Latin tabernāculum meaning "tent" or "hut", which in ancient Roman religion was a ritual structure.
In Greek, including the Septuagint, it is translated σκηνή, itself a Semitic loanword meaning "tent." The word sanctuary is used for the biblical tabernacle, as is the phrase "tent of meeting". The Hebrew word mishkan implies "dwell", "rest", or "to live in", that dwelt within this divinely ordained structure. Historical criticism has identified two accounts of the tabernacle in Exodus, a briefer Elohist account and a longer Priestly one. Traditional scholars believe the briefer account describes a different structure Moses' personal tent; the Hebrew nouns in the two accounts differ, one is most translated as "tent of meeting," while the other is translated as "tabernacle." Exodus 33:7-10 refers to "the tabernacle of the congregation", set up outside of camp with the "cloudy pillar" visible at its door. The people directed their worship toward this center. Historical criticism attributes this description to the Elohist source, believed to have been written about 850 BCE or later; the more detailed description of a tabernacle, located in Exodus chapters 25–27 and Exodus chapters 35–40, refers to an inner shrine housing the ark and an outer chamber, with a six-branch seven-lamp menorah, table for showbread, altar of incense.
An enclosure containing the sacrificial altar and bronze laver for the priests to wash surrounded these chambers. This description is identified by historical criticism as part of the Priestly source, written in the 6th or 5th century BCE; some scholars believe the description is of a far date than Moses' time, that it reflects the structure of the Temple of Solomon. This view is based on Exodus 36, 37, 38 and 39 that describe in full detail how the actual construction of the tabernacle took place during the time of Moses; the detailed outlines for the tabernacle and its priests are enumerated in the Book of Exodus: Exodus 25: Materials needed: the Ark, the table for 12 showbread, the menorah. Exodus 26: The tabernacle, the bars, partitions. Exodus 27: The copper altar, the enclosure, oil. Exodus 28: Vestments for the priests, ephod garment, ring settings, the breastplate, head-plate, turban, pants. Exodus 29: Consecration of priests and altar. Exodus 30: Incense altar, anointing oil, incense. In Exodus 31, the main builder and maker of the priestly vestments is specified as Bezalel, son of Uri son of Hur of the tribe of Judah, assisted by Aholiab and a number of skilled artisans.
There is a strict set of rules to be followed for the carriage of the tabernacle laid out in the Hebrew Bible. For example: "You must put the Levites in charge of the tabernacle of the Covenant, along with its furnishings and equipment, they must carry the tabernacle and its equipment as you travel, they must care for it and camp around it. Whenever the Tabernacle is moved, the Levites will set it up again. Anyone else who goes too near the tabernacle will be executed.'". As well, individuals with the Tzaraat skin affliction were not permitted entry to the tabernacle; the tabernacle during the Exodus, the wandering in the desert and the conquest of Canaan was in part a portable tent, in part a wooden enclo
Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is the administrative seat of the Jericho Governorate, is governed by the Fatah faction of the Palestinian National Authority. In 2007, it had a population of 18,346; the city was occupied by Jordan from 1949 to 1967, has been held under Israeli occupation since 1967. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world, it was thought to have the oldest stone tower in the world as well, but excavations at Tell Qaramel in Syria have discovered stone towers that are older. Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of more than 20 successive settlements in Jericho, the first of which dates back 11,000 years to the beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's history. Copious springs in and around the city have attracted human habitation for thousands of years. Jericho is described in the Hebrew Bible as the "city of palm trees".
Jericho's name in Hebrew, Yeriẖo, is thought to derive from the Canaanite word reaẖ, but other theories hold that it originates in the Canaanite word for "moon" or the name of the lunar deity Yarikh for whom the city was an early centre of worship. Jericho's Arabic name, ʼArīḥā, means "fragrant" and has its roots in Canaanite Reaẖ; the first excavations of the site were made by Charles Warren in 1868. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq between 1907 and 1909, in 1911, John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936. Extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958. Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolò Marchetti conducted excavations in 1997–2000. Since 2009 the Italian-Palestinian archaeological project of excavation and restoration was resumed by Rome "La Sapienza" University and Palestinian MOTA-DACH under the direction of Lorenzo Nigro and Hamdan Taha, Jehad Yasine since 2015; the Italian-Palestinian Expedition carried out 13 seasons in 20 years, with some major discoveries, like Tower A1 in the Middle Bronze Age southern Lower Town and Palace G on the eastern flanks of the Spring Hill overlooking the Spring of'Ain es-Sultan dating from Early Bronze III.
The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan, a couple of kilometers from the current city. In both Arabic and Hebrew, tell means "mound" – consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia. Jericho is the type site for the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Pre-Pottery Neolithic B periods. Epipaleolithic construction at the site appears to predate the invention of agriculture, with the construction of Natufian culture structures beginning earlier than 9000 BCE, the beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history. Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 10,000 BCE. During the Younger Dryas period of cold and drought, permanent habitation of any one location was impossible. However, the Ein es-Sultan spring at what would become Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent-shaped microlith tools behind them. Around 9600 BCE, the droughts and cold of the Younger Dryas stadial had come to an end, making it possible for Natufian groups to extend the duration of their stay leading to year-round habitation and permanent settlement.
The first permanent settlement on the site of Jericho developed near the Ein es-Sultan spring between 9,500 and 9000 BCE. As the world warmed up, a new culture based on agriculture and sedentary dwelling emerged, which archaeologists have termed "Pre-Pottery Neolithic A", its cultures lacked pottery, but featured the following: small circular dwellings burial of the dead under the floor of buildings reliance on hunting of wild game cultivation of wild or domestic cerealsAt Jericho, circular dwellings were built of clay and straw bricks left to dry in the sun, which were plastered together with a mud mortar. Each house measured about 5 metres across, was roofed with mud-smeared brush. Hearths were located outside the homes. By about 9400 BCE, the town had grown to more than 70 modest dwellings; the Pre-Sultan is sometimes called Sultanian. The site is a 40,000 square metres settlement surrounded by a massive stone wall over 3.6 metres high and 1.8 metres wide at the base, inside of which stood a stone tower, over 8.5 metres high, containing an internal staircase with 22 stone steps and placed in the centre of the west side of the tell.
This tower and the older ones excavated at Tell Qaramel in Syria are the oldest to be discovered. The wall may have served as a defence against flood-water, with the tower used for ceremonial purposes; the wall and tower were built during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period around 8000 BCE. For the tower, carbon dates published in 1981 and 1983 indicate that it was built around 8300 BCE and stayed in use until c. 7800 BCE. The wall and tower would have taken a hundred men more than a hundred days to construct, thus suggesting some kind of social organization; the town contained round mud-brick houses, yet no street planning. The identity and number of the inhabitants of Jericho during the PPNA period is still under debate, with estimates going as high as 2,000–3,000, as low as 200–300, it is known that this population had domesticated emmer whea
The Hasmonean dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity. Between c. 140 and c. 116 BCE the dynasty ruled Judea semi-autonomously from the Seleucids. From 110 BCE, with the Seleucid Empire disintegrating, the dynasty became independent, expanded into the neighbouring regions of Samaria, Iturea and Idumea, took the title "basileus"; some modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. The dynasty was established under the leadership of Simon Thassi, two decades after his brother Judas Maccabeus defeated the Seleucid army during the Maccabean Revolt. According to 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, the first book of The Jewish War by Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Antiochus IV moved to assert strict control over the Seleucid satrapy of Coele Syria and Phoenicia after his successful invasion of Ptolemaic Egypt was turned back by the intervention of the Roman Republic, he sacked Jerusalem and its Temple, suppressing Jewish and Samaritan religious and cultural observances, imposed Hellenistic practices.
The ensuing revolt by the Jews began a period of Jewish independence potentiated by the steady collapse of the Seleucid Empire under attacks from the rising powers of the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire. In 63 BCE, the kingdom was invaded by the Roman Republic, broken up and set up as a Roman client state. However, the same power vacuum that enabled the Jewish state to be recognized by the Roman Senate c. 139 BCE was exploited by the Romans themselves. Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II, Simon's great-grandsons, became pawns in a proxy war between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great; the deaths of Pompey and Caesar, the related Roman civil wars temporarily relaxed Rome's grip on the Hasmonean kingdom, allowing a brief reassertion of autonomy backed by the Parthian Empire. This short independence was crushed by the Romans under Mark Antony and Octavian; the dynasty had survived for 103 years before yielding to the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE. The installation of Herod the Great as king in 37 BCE made Judea a Roman client state and marked the end of the Hasmonean dynasty.
Herod tried to bolster the legitimacy of his reign by marrying a Hasmonean princess and planning to drown the last male Hasmonean heir at his Jericho palace. In 6 CE, Rome joined Judea proper and Idumea into the Roman province of Iudaea. In 44 CE, Rome installed the rule of a procurator side by side with the rule of the Herodian kings; the family name of the Hasmonean dynasty originates with the ancestor of the house, called by the Hellenized form Asmoneus or Asamoneus by Josephus Flavius, said to have been the great-grandfather of Mattathias, but about whom nothing more is known. The name appears to come from the Hebrew name Hashmonay. An alternative view posits that the Hebrew name Hashmona'i is linked with the village of Heshbon, mentioned in Joshua 15:27. Gott and Licht attribute the name to "Ha Simeon," a veiled reference to the Simeonite Tribe; the lands of the former Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah, had been occupied in turn by Assyria, the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's Hellenic Macedonian empire, although Jewish religious practice and culture had persisted and flourished during certain periods.
The entire region was contested between the successor states of Alexander's empire, the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt, during the six Syrian Wars of the 3rd–1st centuries BCE: "After two centuries of peace under the Persians, the Hebrew state found itself once more caught in the middle of power struggles between two great empires: the Seleucid state with its capital in Syria to the north and the Ptolemaic state, with its capital in Egypt to the south... Between 319 and 302 BC, Jerusalem changed hands seven times."Under Antiochus III, the Seleucids wrested control of Israel from the Ptolemies for the final time, defeating Ptolemy V Epiphanes at the Battle of Panium in 200 BCE. Seleucid rule over the Jewish parts of the region resulted in the rise of Hellenistic cultural and religious practices: "In addition to the turmoil of war, there arose in the Jewish nation pro-Seleucid and pro-Ptolemaic parties, it was in Antioch that the Jews first made the acquaintance of Hellenism and of the more corrupt sides of Greek culture.
The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, covering the period from 175 to 134 BCE during which time the Hasmonean dynasty became semi-independent from the Seleucid empire but had not yet expanded far outside of Judea. The books are considered part of the Biblical canon by the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches and apocryphal by most Protestants, but are not a part of the Hebrew Bible, they are written from the point of view that the salvation of the Jewish people in a crisis came from God through the family of Mattathias his sons Judas Maccabeus, Jonathan Apphus, Simon Thassi, his grandson John Hyrcanus. The books include historical and religious material from the Septuagint, codified by Catholics and Eastern Orthodox Christians; the other primary source for the Hasmonean dynasty is the first book of The Wars of the Jews by the Jewish historian Josephus. Josephus' account is the only primary source covering the history of the Hasmonean dynasty during the period of its expansion and independence between 110 to 63 BCE