Gentry are well-born and well-bred people of high social class, especially in the past. In the United Kingdom, the term refers to the social class of the landed aristocracy or to the minor aristocracy whose income derives from their large landholdings. The idea of gentry in the sense of noblesse is extinct in common parlance in modern day Britain. Though the untitled nobility in modern day Britain are normally termed gentry, the older sense of nobility is that of a quality identical to gentry. The fundamental social division in most parts of Europe in the Middle Ages was between the nobiles, i. e. the tenants in chivalry, and the ignobles, i. e. the villeins and burgesses. The division into nobles and ignobles in smaller regions of Europe in the Middle Ages was less due to a more rudimentary feudal order. After the Reformation, intermingling between the class and the often hereditary clerical upper class became a distinctive feature in several Nordic countries. Besides the gentry there have been other analogous traditional elites, the Indo-Europeans who settled Europe, Western Asia and the Indian subcontinent conceived their societies to be ordered in a tripartite fashion, the three parts being castes.
Castes came to be divided, perhaps as a result of greater specialisation. The classic formulation of the system as largely described by Georges Dumézil was that of a priestly or religiously occupied caste, a warrior caste. Dumézil divided the Proto-Indo-Europeans into three categories, sovereignty and productivity and he further subdivided sovereignty into two distinct and complementary sub-parts. One part was formal and priestly, but rooted in this world, the other was powerful and priestly, but rooted in the other, the supernatural and spiritual world. The second main division was connected with the use of force, the military, there was a third group, ruled by the other two, whose role was productivity, herding and crafts. This system of roles can be seen in the castes which flourished on the Indian subcontinent. Emperor Constantine convoked the First Council of Nicaea in 325 whose Nicene Creed included belief in one holy catholic and apostolic Church, emperor Theodosius I made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica of 380.
In this power vacuum, the Church rose to become the dominant power in the West, the classical heritage flourished throughout the Middle Ages in both the Byzantine Greek East and Latin West. During the Middle Ages it was customary to classify the population of Christendom into laboratores, the last group, though small in number, monopolized the instruments and opportunities of culture, and ruled with almost unlimited sway half of the most powerful continent on the globe. The clergy, like Platos guardians, were placed in authority, in the latter half of the period in which they ruled, the clergy were as free from family cares as even Plato could desire
A baronet or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess, is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage, with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight, White Knight, Baronets are not deemed members of the nobility, but rather, titled gentry. Their social rank is equivalent to the petty nobility in some countries of continental Europe. The term baronet has medieval origins, Sir Thomas de La More, describing the Battle of Boroughbridge, mentioned that baronets took part, along with barons and knights. Edward III is known to have created eight baronets in 1328, at least one, Sir William de La Pole in 1340, was created for payment of money. Whether or not these early creations were hereditary, all have died out, in 1619 James I established the Baronetage of Ireland, Charles I in 1625 created the Baronetages of Scotland and Nova Scotia.
The new baronets were each required to pay 2,000 marks or to support six settlers for two years. Over a hundred of these baronetcies, now known as Scottish baronetcies. As a result of the Union of England and Scotland in 1707, following the Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, new creations were styled as baronets of the United Kingdom. Under royal warrants of 1612 and 1613, certain privileges were accorded to baronets, firstly, no person or persons should have place between baronets and the younger sons of peers. These privileges were extended to baronets of Ireland, and for baronets of Scotland the privilege of depicting the Arms of Nova Scotia as an augmentation of honour, the former applies to this day for all baronets of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom created subsequently. The title of baronet was initially conferred upon noblemen who lost the right of summons to Parliament. A similar title of rank was banneret. Like knights, baronets are accorded the style Sir before their first name, baronetesses in their own right use Dame, before their first name, while wives of baronets use Lady followed by the husbands surname only, this by longstanding courtesy.
Wives of baronets are not baronetesses, only women holding baronetcies in their own right are so styled, unlike knighthoods—which apply to the recipient only—a baronetcy is hereditarily entailed. With some exceptions granted with special remainder by letters patent, baronetcies descend through the male line, a full list of extant baronets appears in Burkes Peerage and Baronetage, which published a record of extinct baronetcies. A baronetcy is not a peerage, so baronets like knights and junior members of families are commoners
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting collective and individual greatness, the opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues are, prudence, Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith and love from 1 Corinthians. Together these make up the seven virtues, Buddhisms four brahmavihara can be regarded as virtues in the European sense. The Japanese Bushidō code is characterized by up to ten virtues, including rectitude, for Immanuel Kant a person is virtuous when they act in accordance with moral principles. During Egyptian civilization, Maat or Maat, spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, order, law and justice. Maat was personified as a goddess regulating the stars, the deities set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. Her counterpart was Isfet, who symbolized chaos, some scholars consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal.
It is unclear whether multiple virtues were of construct, in his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, the virtuous action is not simply the mean between two opposite extremes. This is not simply splitting the difference between two extremes, for example, generosity is a virtue between the two extremes of miserliness and being profligate. Further examples include, courage between cowardice and foolhardiness, and confidence between self-deprecation and vanity, in Aristotles sense, virtue is excellence at being human. Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue, thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person. The same rationale was expressed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that only act in ways that they perceive will bring them maximum good. It is the lack of wisdom that results in the making of a bad choice instead of a prudent one, in this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue.
Plato realized that because virtue was synonymous with wisdom it could be taught and he added correct belief as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and tethered. The term virtue itself is derived from the Latin virtus, and had connotations of manliness, worthiness of deferential respect, most Roman concepts of virtue were personified as a numinous deity. The primary Roman virtues, both public and private, Auctoritas – spiritual authority – the sense of social standing, built up through experience, Pietas
Lord Great Chamberlain
In the United Kingdom, the Lord Great Chamberlain is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster, on formal state occasions, he wears a distinctive scarlet court uniform and bears a gold key and a white stave as the insignia of his office. The position is a one, held since 1780 in gross. At any one time, a person actually exercises the office of Lord Great Chamberlain. For instance, the Marquesses of Cholmondeley hold one-half of the office, the office of Lord Great Chamberlain is distinct from the non-hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household, a position in the monarchs household. This office arose in the 14th century as a deputy of the Lord Great Chamberlain to fulfil the duties in the Royal Household. The office was held by Robert Malet, a son of one of the leading companions of William the Conqueror. In 1133, King Henry I declared Malets estates and titles forfeit, the Earls of Oxford held the title almost continuously until 1526, with a few intermissions due to the forfeiture of some Earls for treason.
In 1526, the fourteenth Earl of Oxford died, the earldom was inherited by a more distant heir-male, his second cousin. The Sovereign decreed that the office belonged to The Crown, the Sovereign appointed the fifteenth Earl to the office, but the appointment was deemed for life and was not heritable. The familys association with the office was interrupted in 1540, when the earl died and Thomas Cromwell. Later, Queen Mary I ruled that the Earls of Oxford were indeed entitled to the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on an hereditary basis. The House of Lords eventually ruled that the office belonged to the male, Robert Bertie, 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. The office remained vested in the Earls of Lindsey, who became Dukes of Ancaster, in 1779, the fourth Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven died, leaving two sisters as female heirs, and an uncle as an heir male. The uncle became the fifth and last Duke, but the House of Lords ruled that the two sisters were jointly Lord Great Chamberlain and could appoint a Deputy to fulfil the functions of the office, the younger sister married the first Marquess of Cholmondeley.
The office of Lord Great Chamberlain, was divided between Priscilla and her younger sister Georgiana, priscillas share was eventually split between two of her granddaughters, and has been split several more times since then. By contrast, Georgianas share has been inherited by a male heir each time, that individual has in each case been the Marquess of Cholmondeley. The fractions show the share in the office, and the date they held it
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. In modern times, Athens is a cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime. In 2015, Athens was ranked the worlds 29th richest city by purchasing power, Athens is recognised as a global city because of its location and its importance in shipping, commerce, entertainment, international trade, culture and tourism. It is one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe, with a financial sector. The municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its limits. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative city limits. According to Eurostat in 2011, the Functional urban areas of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery, Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics.
In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural, in earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη. It was possibly rendered in the on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι. During the medieval period the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα, an etiological myth explaining how Athens has acquired its name was well known among ancient Athenians and even became the theme of the sculpture on the West pediment of the Parthenon. The goddess of wisdom and the god of the seas, Poseidon had many disagreements, in an attempt to compel the people, Poseidon created a salt water spring by striking the ground with his trident, symbolizing naval power. However, when Athena created the tree, symbolizing peace and prosperity. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning flower, ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil.
In classical literature, the city was referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindars ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, today the caption η πρωτεύουσα, the capital, has become somewhat common
Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793.
External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity.
Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France.
In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIV
Elite, is a term that originates from Latin eligere. In political and sociological theory for a group of powerful people that controls a disproportionate amount of wealth. Insofar as national events are decided, the elite are those who decide them. Mills states that the elite members recognize other members mutual exalted position in society. As a rule, hey accept one another, understand one another, marry one another, tend to work and to think and it is a well-regulated existence where education plays a critical role. These memberships in turn pave the way to the prominent social clubs located in all major cities, the Military Circle, In Mills time a heightened concern about warfare existed, making top military leaders and such issues as defense funding and personnel recruitment very important. Most prominent corporate leaders and politicians were strong proponents of military spending and these two groups tended to be mutually supportive. Unlike the ruling class, a formation based on heritage and social ties.
According to Mills, the power elite rose from the reorganization of the propertied classes into the more or less unified stratum of the corporate rich. Domhoff further clarified the differences in the two terms, The upper class as a whole does not do the ruling, Power elite is a term used by American sociologist C. Wright Mills to describe a relatively small, loosely connected group of individuals who dominate American policymaking. The basis for membership of a power élite is institutional power, one study of power élites in the United States under President George W. Bush identified 7,314 institutional positions of power encompassing 5,778 individuals. A study of U. S. Ethnicity White Anglo-Saxons dominate in the power élite, with Protestants representing about 80 percent of the top business leaders, education Nearly all the leaders have a college education, with almost half graduating with advanced degrees. About 54 percent of the leaders and 42% of the government élite graduated from just 12 prestigious universities with large endowments.
Social clubs Most holders of top positions in the power élite possess exclusive membership in one or more social clubs. About a third belong to a number of especially prestigious clubs in major cities like London, New York City, Boston. In the 1970s an organized set of policies promoted reduced taxes, especially for the wealthy, starting with legislation in the 1980s, the wealthy banking community successfully lobbied for reduced regulation. Doing so would hopefully alleviate various destructive conditions affecting large numbers of affluent citizens. Mills determined that there is a core of the power elite involving individuals that are able to move from one seat of institutional power to another
Class is an essential object of analysis for sociologists, political scientists and social historians. However, there is not a consensus on the best definition of the class, the precise measurements of what determines social class in society has varied over time. According to philosopher Karl Marx, class is determined entirely by ones relationship to the means of production, the term class is etymologically derived from the Latin classis, which was used by census takers to categorize citizens by wealth, in order to determine military service obligations. In the late 18th century, the class began to replace classifications such as estates, rank. Historically social class and behavior was sometimes laid down in law, definitions of social classes reflect a number of sociological perspectives, informed by anthropology, economics and sociology. The major perspectives historically have been Marxism and Structural functionalism, the common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class.
For Marx, class is a combination of objective and subjective factors, objectively, a class shares a common relationship to the means of production. Subjectively, the members will necessarily have some perception of their similarity, Class consciousness is not simply an awareness of ones own class interest but is a set of shared views regarding how society should be organized legally, culturally and politically. These class relations are reproduced through time and this is the fundamental economic structure of work and property, a state of inequality that is normalized and reproduced through cultural ideology. Marxists explain the history of civilized societies in terms of a war of classes between those who control production and those who produce the goods or services in society, in the Marxist view of capitalism, this is a conflict between capitalists and wage-workers. Furthermore, in countries where modern civilisation has become fully developed, an industrial army of workmen, under the command of a capitalist, like a real army and sergeants who, while the work is being done, command in the name of the capitalist.
This would mark the beginning of a society in which human needs rather than profit would be motive for production. In a society with democratic control and production for use, there would be no class, no state and no need for financial and banking institutions and money. Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, that saw social class as emerging from an interplay between class and power. Weber believed that class position was determined by a relationship to the means of production. Weber derived many of his key concepts on social stratification by examining the structure of many countries. He noted that contrary to Marxs theories, stratification was based on more than simply ownership of capital, Weber pointed out that some members of the aristocracy lack economic wealth yet might nevertheless have political power. Likewise in Europe, many wealthy Jewish families in lack prestige and honor, Class, A persons economic position in a society
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Landed gentry is a largely historical British social class consisting of land owners who could live entirely from rental income. It was distinct from, and socially below, the aristocracy or peerage and they often worked as administrators of their own lands, while others became public and armed forces figures. The decline of this privileged class largely stemmed from the 1870s agricultural depression, by the late 19th century, the term was applied to peers such as the Duke of Westminster who lived on landed estates. The book series Burkes Landed Gentry recorded the members of this class, successful burghers often used their accumulated wealth to buy country estates, with the aim of establishing themselves as landed gentry. Knights, originally a rank, this status was increasingly awarded to civilians as a reward for service to the Crown. Holders have the right to be addressed as Sir as are baronets, but unlike baronet, originally men aspiring to knighthood, were the principal attendants on a knight.
After the Middle Ages the title of Esquire - Esq. - became an honour that could be conferred by the Crown, possessors of a social status recognised as a separate title by the Statute of Additions of 1413. Generally men of birth or rank, good social standing, and wealth. The term landed gentry, although used to mean nobility. Once identical, eventually these terms became complementary, in the sense that their definitions began to fill in parts of what the other lacked, the historical term gentry by itself, so Peter Coss argues, is a construct that historians have applied loosely to rather different societies. Any particular model may not fit a specific society, yet a single definition nevertheless remains desirable, the phrase landed gentry referred in particular to the untitled members of the landowning upper class. The most stable and respected form of wealth has historically been land, the primary meaning of landed gentry encompasses those members of the land owning classes who are not members of the peerage.
It was a designation, one belonged to the landed gentry if other members of that class accepted one as such. However, during the 19th century, as the new rich of the Industrial Revolution became more and more numerous and politically powerful, from the late 16th-century, the gentry emerged as the class most closely involved in politics, the military and law. It provided the bulk of Members of Parliament, with many gentry families maintaining political control in a locality over several generations. Owning land was a prerequisite for suffrage in county constituencies until the Reform Act 1832, until then, Members of the landed gentry were upper class, this was a highly prestigious status. Particular prestige was attached to those who inherited landed estates over a number of generations and these are often described as being from old families. Titles are often considered central to the class, but this is certainly not universally the case