Rhodes is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece and is the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes regional unit, part of the South Aegean administrative region; the principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes. The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011, it is located northeast of southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Rhodes' nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land. Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; the Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe; the name of the U. S. state of Rhode Island is thought to be based on this island. The island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian, Rodos in Turkish, Rodi or Rodes in Ladino.
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville incorrectly reports that Rhodes was called "Collosus", through a conflation of the Colossus of Rhodes and Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, which refers to Colossae. The island's name might be derived from erod, Phoenician for snake, since the island was infested with snakes in antiquity; the island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead, 79.7 km long and 38 km wide, with a total area of 1,400 square kilometres and a coastline of 220 km. Limestone is the main bedrock; the city of Rhodes is located at the northern tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial harbours. The main air gateway is located 14 km to the southwest of the city in Paradisi; the road network radiates from the city along the west coasts. Outside of the city of Rhodes, the island is dotted with small villages and spa resorts, among them Faliraki, Kremasti, Pefkos, Afantou, Koskinou, Embona and Trianta. There are mineral-rich spring water used to give medicinal baths and the spa resorts offer various health treatments.
Rhodes is situated 363 km east-south-east from the Greek mainland, 18 km from the southern shore of Turkey. The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine and cypress. While the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables and other crops are grown; the Rhodian population of fallow deer was found to be genetically distinct in 2005, to be of urgent conservation concern. In Petaloudes Valley, large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres, is the island's highest point of elevation. Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake. On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings and one death. Rhodes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate; the island was inhabited in the Neolithic period. In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes. Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus.
In the 15th century BC, Mycenaean Greeks invaded. After the Bronze Age collapse, the first renewed outside contacts were with Cyprus. Homer mentions. In the 8th century BC, the island's settlements started to form, with the coming of the Dorians, who built the three important cities of Lindos and Kameiros, which together with Kos and Halicarnassus made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis. In Pindar's ode, the island was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhodos, the cities were named for their three sons; the rhoda is a pink hibiscus, native to the island. Diodorus Siculus added that one of the sons of Helios and Rhode, travelled to Egypt, he taught the Egyptians astrology. In the second half of the 8th century, the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. At Kameiros on the northwest coast, a former Bronze Age site, where the temple was founded in the 8th century, there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved ivory figurines.
The cemeteries of Kameiros and Ialyssos yielded several exquisite exemplars of the Orientalizing Rhodian jewellery, dated in the 7th and early 6th centuries BC. Phoenician presence on the island at Ialysos is attested in traditions recorded much by Rhodian historians; the Persians invaded and overran the island, but they were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. The Rhodian cities joined the Athenian League; when the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC, Rhodes remained neutral, although it remained a member of the League. The war lasted until 404 BC, but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn from the conflict and decided to go her own way. In 408 BC, the cities united to form one territory, they built the city of a new capital on the northern end of the island. Its regular plan w
Iphicrates was an Athenian general, the son of a shoemaker of the deme of Rhamnous, who flourished in the earlier half of the 4th century BC. He is credited with important infantry reforms that revolutionized ancient Greek warfare by regularizing light-armed peltasts, he had a son with her. His son was named Menestheus, after the legendary King of Athens during the Trojan War. Iphicrates' other son, called Iphicrates, was sent as the Athenian ambassador to the Persian court sometime before 335 BC, he was captured by the Macedonian army along with the Persian court in the aftermath of the Battle of Issus. When Iphicrates the younger died from an unknown disease, Alexander the Great paid for the transportation of his body to his homeland, as an homage to his father, he owes his fame as much to the improvements he made in the equipment of the peltasts or light-armed mercenaries as to his military successes. Historians have debated about. C. Greek land warfare. A third possibility is that his reforms were limited to hoplites serving as marines on board ships of the Athenian navy.
He made soldiers' boots that were easy to untie and light. These boots called afterwards, from Iphicratids, his "Iphicratean reforms" consisted of increasing the length of their spears and swords, substituting linen cuirasses in place of heavier bronze armor, introducing the new footwear that took his name. In addition, he replaced the heavy aspis shield with a lighter pelte that could be strapped to the forearm, freeing the left hand to help hold the lengthened spears. By these changes he increased the rapidity of their movements, he paid special attention to discipline and maneuvers. With his peltasts Iphicrates dealt the Spartans a heavy blow in 392/390 BC by annihilating a mora of their famous hoplites at the Battle of Lechaeum; the Iphicratean reforms are considered to have been one of the leading influences on Philip II of Macedon, when he created the sarissa-armed Macedonian phalanx. His son, Alexander the Great, employed this new infantry formation in his many conquests. Following up success, he took city after city for the Athenians during the Corinthian War.
After the Peace of Antalcidas he assisted Seuthes, king of Thracian Odrysae, to recover his kingdom, fought against Cotys, with whom, however, he subsequently concluded an alliance. Egyptian campaign In about 378 BC, he was sent with a force of mercenaries to assist the Persians to reconquer Egypt, but a dispute with Pharnabazus led to the failure of the expedition. On his return to Athens he commanded an expedition in 373 BC for the relief of Corcyra, besieged by the Lacedaemonians. After the peace of 371 BC, Iphicrates returned to Thrace and somewhat tarnished his fame by siding with his father-in-law Cotys in a war against Athens for the possession of the entire Thracian Chersonese. Iphicrates, refused to besiege the Athenian strongholds and fled to Antissa; the Athenians soon pardoned him and gave him a joint command in the Social War against some of their allies from the second Athenian Empire. He and two of his colleagues were impeached by Chares, the fourth commander, because they had refused to give battle during a violent storm.
Iphicrates was sentenced to pay a heavy fine. Afterwards, he remained at Athens until his death in about 353 BC. Habicht, Christian. Ελληνιστική Αθήνα. Athens: Odysseas. ISBN 960-210-310-8; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Iphicrates". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 737–738. Life of Iphicrates, by Cornelius Nepos Sayings of Iphicrates, from the Moralia of Plutarch Sixty-three Stratagems of Iphicrates, from Book 3 of Polyaenus
Cleisthenes was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508 BCE. For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy." He was a member of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid clan. He was the younger son of Megacles and Aragiste making him the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon, he was credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens' assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics. In 510 BCE, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras, but his rival Cleisthenes, with the support of the middle class and aided by democrats, took over. Cleomenes intervened in 508 and 506 BCE, but could not stop Cleisthenes, now supported by the Athenians. Through Cleisthenes' reforms, the people of Athens endowed their city with isonomic institutions—equal rights for all citizens —and established ostracism.
Historians estimate that Cleisthenes was born around 570 BCE. Cleisthenes was the uncle of Pericles' mother Agariste and of Alcibiades' maternal grandfather Megacles. With help from the Spartans and the Alcmaeonidae, he was responsible for overthrowing Hippias, the tyrant son of Pisistratus. After the collapse of Hippias' tyranny and Cleisthenes were rivals for power, but Isagoras won the upper hand by appealing to the Spartan king Cleomenes I to help him expel Cleisthenes, he did so on the pretext of the Alcmaeonid curse. Cleisthenes left Athens as an exile, Isagoras was unrivalled in power within the city. Isagoras set about dispossessing hundreds of Athenians of their homes and exiling them on the pretext that they too were cursed, he attempted to dissolve the Boule, a council of Athenian citizens appointed to run the daily affairs of the city. However, the council resisted, the Athenian people declared their support of the council. Isagoras and his supporters were forced to flee to the Acropolis, remaining besieged there for two days.
On the third day they were banished. Cleisthenes was subsequently recalled, along with hundreds of exiles, he assumed leadership of Athens. After this victory, Cleisthenes began to reform the government of Athens, he commissioned a bronze memorial from the sculptor Antenor in honor of the lovers and tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton, whom Hippias had executed. In order to forestall strife between the traditional clans, which had led to the tyranny in the first place, he changed the political organization from the four traditional tribes, which were based on family relations and which formed the basis of the upper class Athenian political power network, into ten tribes according to their area of residence which would form the basis of a new democratic power structure, it is thought that there may have been 139 demes which were organized into three groups called trittyes, with ten demes divided among three regions in each trittyes. Cleisthenes abolished patronymics in favour of demonymics, thus increasing Athenians' sense of belonging to a deme.
He established sortition - the random selection of citizens to fill government positions rather than kinship or heredity, a true test of real democracy. He reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe, he introduced the bouletic oath, "To advise according to the laws what was best for the people". The court system was reorganized and had from 201–5001 jurors selected each day, up to 500 from each tribe, it was the role of the Boule to propose laws to the assembly of voters, who convened in Athens around forty times a year for this purpose. The bills proposed could be passed or returned for amendments by the assembly. Cleisthenes may have introduced ostracism, whereby a vote from more than 6,000 of the citizens would exile a citizen for 10 years; the initial trend was to vote for a citizen deemed a threat to the democracy. However, soon after, any citizen judged to have too much power in the city tended to be targeted for exile. Under this system, the exiled man's property was maintained, but he was not physically in the city where he could create a new tyranny.
One ancient author records that Cleisthenes himself was the first person to be ostracized. Cleisthenes called these reforms isonomia, instead of demokratia. Cleisthenes' life after his reforms is unknown. In 507 BC, during the time Cleithenes was leading Athenian politics, at his instigation, democratic Athens sent an embassy to Artaphernes, brother of Darius I and Achaemenid Satrap of Asia Minor in the capital of Sardis, looking for Persian assistance in order to resist the threats from Sparta. Herodotus reports that Artaphernes had no previous knowledge of the Athenians, his initial reaction was "Who are these people?". Artaphernes asked the Athenians for "Water and Earth", a symbol of submission, if they wanted help from the Achaemenid king; the Athenians ambassadors accepted to comply, to give "Earth and Water". Artaphernes advised the Athenians that they should receive back the At
Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae, was a prominent Athenian statesman and general. He was the last famous member of his mother's aristocratic family, the Alcmaeonidae, which fell from prominence after the Peloponnesian War, he played a major role in the second half of that conflict as a strategic advisor, military commander, politician. During the course of the Peloponnesian War, Alcibiades changed his political allegiance several times. In his native Athens in the early 410s BC, he advocated an aggressive foreign policy and was a prominent proponent of the Sicilian Expedition, but he fled to Sparta after his political enemies brought charges of sacrilege against him. In Sparta, he served as a strategic adviser, proposing or supervising several major campaigns against Athens. In Sparta too, Alcibiades soon made powerful enemies and felt forced to defect to Persia. There he served as an adviser to the satrap Tissaphernes until his Athenian political allies brought about his recall.
He served as an Athenian general for several years, but his enemies succeeded in exiling him a second time. Scholars have argued that had the Sicilian expedition been under Alcibiades's command instead of that of Nicias, the expedition might not have met its eventual disastrous fate. In the years when he served Sparta, Alcibiades played a significant role in Athens's undoing. Once restored to his native city, however, he played a crucial role in a string of Athenian victories that brought Sparta to seek a peace with Athens, he favored unconventional tactics winning cities over by treachery or negotiation rather than by siege. Alcibiades's military and political talents proved valuable to whichever state held his allegiance, but his propensity for making powerful enemies ensured that he never remained in one place for long. Alcibiades was born in Athens, his father was Cleinias, who had distinguished himself in the Persian War both as a fighter himself and by subsidizing the cost of a trireme.
The family of Cleinias had old connections with the Spartan aristocracy through a relationship of xenia, the name "Alcibiades" was of Spartan origin. Alcibiades' mother was Deinomache, the daughter of Megacles, head of the powerful Alcmaeonid family, could trace her family back to Eurysaces and the Telamonian Ajax. Alcibiades thereby, through his mother, belonged to the powerful and controversial family of the Alcmaeonidae, his maternal grandfather named Alcibiades, was a friend of Cleisthenes, the famous constitutional reformer of the late 6th century BC. After the death of Cleinias at the Battle of Coronea and Ariphron became his guardians. According to Plutarch, Alcibiades had several famous teachers, including Socrates, was well trained in the art of Rhetoric, he was noted, for his unruly behavior, mentioned by ancient Greek and Latin writers on several occasions. It was believed that Socrates took Alcibiades as a student because he believed he could change Alcibiades from his vain ways. Xenophon attempted to clear Socrates' name at trial by relaying information that Alcibiades was always corrupt and that Socrates failed in attempting to teach him morality.
Alcibiades took part in the Battle of Potidaea in 432 BC, where Socrates was said to have saved his life and again at the Battle of Delium in 424 BC. Alcibiades had a close relationship with Socrates, whom he admired and respected. According to Plutarch, Alcibiades "feared and reverenced Socrates alone, despised the rest of his lovers". Alcibiades was married to the daughter of Hipponicus, a wealthy Athenian, his bride brought with her a large dowry, which increased Alcibiades' substantial family fortune. According to Plutarch, Hipparete loved her husband, but she attempted to divorce him because he consorted with courtesans but prevented her from appearing at court, he carried her home again through the crowded Agora. She lived with him until her death, which came soon after, gave birth to two children, a daughter and a son, Alcibiades the Younger. Alcibiades was famed throughout his life for his physical attractiveness, of which he was inordinately vain. Alcibiades first rose to prominence when he began advocating aggressive Athenian action after the signing of the Peace of Nicias.
That treaty, an uneasy truce between Sparta and Athens signed midway through the Peloponnesian War, came at the end of seven years of fighting during which neither side had gained a decisive advantage. Historians Arnold W. Gomme and Raphael Sealey believe, Thucydides reports, that Alcibiades was offended that the Spartans had negotiated that treaty through Nicias and Laches, overlooking him on account of his youth. Disputes over the interpretation of the treaty led the Spartans to dispatch ambassadors to Athens with full powers to arrange all unsettled matters; the Athenians received these ambassadors well, but Alcibiades met with them in secret before they were to speak to the ecclesia and told them that the Assembly was haughty and had great ambitions. He urged them to renounce their diplomatic authority to represent Sparta, instead allow him to assist them through his influence in Athenian politics; the representatives agreed and, impressed with Alcibiades, they alienated themselves fr
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis. It is a long work of literary and antiquarian references set in Rome at a series of banquets held by the protagonist Publius Livius Larensis for an assembly of grammarians, jurists and hangers-on, it is sometimes called the oldest surviving cookbook. The Greek title Deipnosophistaí derives from the combination of deipno- and sophistḗs, it and its English derivative deipnosophists thus describe people who are skilled at dining the refined conversation expected to accompany Greek symposia. However, the term is shaded by the harsh treatment accorded to professional teachers in Plato's Socratic dialogues, which made the English term sophist into a pejorative. In English, Athenaeus's work known by its Latin form Deipnosophistae but is variously translated as The Deipnosophists, Sophists at Dinner, The Learned Banqueters, The Banquet of the Learned, Philosophers at Dinner, or The Gastronomers.
The Deipnosophistae professes to be an account given by the author to his friend Timocrates of a series of banquets held at the house of Larensius, a scholar and wealthy patron of the arts. It is thus a dialogue within a dialogue, after the manner of Plato, although each conversation is so long that, realistically, it would occupy several days. Among the numerous guests, Zoilus, Galen and Plutarch are named, but most are to be taken as fictitious personages, the majority take little or no part in the conversation. If Ulpian is identical with the famous jurist, the Deipnosophistae must have been written after his death in 223. Prosopographical investigation, has shown the possibility of identifying several guests with real persons from other sources; the work is invaluable for providing fictionalized information about the Hellenistic literary world of the leisured class during the Roman Empire. To the majority of modern readers more useful is the wealth of information provided in the Deipnosophistae about earlier Greek literature.
In the course of discussing classic authors, the participants make quotations and short, from the works of about 700 earlier Greek authors and 2,500 separate writings, many of them otherwise unrecorded. Food and wine, music, sexual mores, literary gossip and philology are among the major topics of discussion, the stories behind many artworks such as the Venus Kallipygos are transmitted in its pages; the Deipnosophistae is an important source of recipes in classical Greek. It quotes the original text of one recipe from the lost cookbook by Mithaecus, the oldest in Greek and the oldest recipe by a named author in any language. Other authors quoted for their recipes include Glaucus of Locri, Epaenetus, Hegesippus of Tarentum, Diocles of Carystus, Timachidas of Rhodes, Philistion of Locri, Euthydemus of Athens, Chrysippus of Tyana and Harpocration of Mende, it describes in detail the meal and festivities at the wedding feast of Caranos. In addition to its main focuses, the text offers an unusually clear portrait of homosexuality in late Hellenism.
Books XII-XIII holds a wealth of information for studies of homosexuality in Roman Greece. It is subject to a big discussion that includes Alcibiades, Autolycus and Sophocles. Furthermore, numerous books and now lost plays on the subject are mentioned, including the dramatists Diphilus, Cratinus and Sophocles and the philosopher Heraclides of Pontus; the Deipnosophistae was in fifteen books. The work survives in one manuscript from which the whole of books 1 and 2, some other pages too, disappeared long ago. An Epitome or abridgment was made in medieval times, survives complete: from this it is possible to read the missing sections, though in a disjointed form; the English polymath Sir Thomas Browne noted in his encyclopaedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica- Athenæus, a delectable Author various, justly stiled by Casaubon, Græcorum Plinius. There is extant of his, a famous Piece, under the name of Deipnosophista, or Coena Sapientum, containing the Discourse of many learned men, at a Feast provided by Laurentius.
It is a laborious Collection out of many Authors, some whereof are mentioned no where else. It containeth strange and singular relations, not without some spice or sprinkling of all Learning; the Author was a better Grammarian Philosopher, dealing but hardly with Aristotle and Plato, betrayeth himself much in his Chapter De Curiositate Aristotelis. In brief, he is an Author of excellent use, may with discretion be read unto great advantage: and hath therefore well deserved the Comments of Casaubon and Dalecampius. Browne's interest in Athenaeus reflects a revived interest in the Banquet of the Learned amongst scholars following the publication of the Deipnosophistae in 1612 by the Classical scholar Isaac Casaubon. Browne was the author of a Latin essay on Athenaeus. By the nineteenth century however, the poet James Russell Lowell in 1867 characterized the Deipnosophistae and its author thus: the somewhat greasy heap of a literary rag-and-bone-picker like Athenaeus is turned to gold by time. Modern readers question whether the Deipnosophistae genuinely evokes a literary symposium of learned disquisitions on a range of subjects suitable for such an occasion
Cornelius Nepos was a Roman biographer. He was born at a village in Cisalpine Gaul not far from Verona. Nepos's Cisalpine birth is attested by Ausonius, Pliny the Elder calls him Padi accola, he was a friend of Catullus, who dedicates his poems to him and Titus Pomponius Atticus. Eusebius places him in the fourth year of the reign of Augustus, supposed to be when he began to attract critical acclaim by his writing. Pliny the Elder notes, his simple style of writing has made him, in the UK at least, a standard choice for passages of unseen translation in Latin exams, from prep school up to degree level. Nearly all of Nepos's writings are lost, but several allusions to them survive in works by other authors. Aulus Gellius's Attic Nights are of special importance in this respect. Chronica, an epitome of universal history. Ausonius mentions it in his sixteenth Epistle to Probus, as does Aulus Gellius in the Noctes Atticae. "Probably a chronological summary which included the history of outside nations as well as of Rome," it is thought to have been written in three books.
Exempla, a collection of anecdotes after the style of Valerius Maximus. The book contained "models for imitation, drawn from the early Romans, whose simplicity contrasted with the luxury" of Nepos' era."letters to Cicero. Aulus Gellius corrects an error in this work; the book is thought to have been written after the death of the consul and orator Cicero. According to Roberts, "his friendship for Cicero and Atticus and his access to their correspondence would have made the work an valuable one for us."lives of Cato the elder. De viris illustribus, parallel lives of distinguished Romans and foreigners, in sixteen books. Epistulae ad Ciceronem, an extract of which survives in Lactantius, it is unclear whether they were formally published. Pliny the Younger mentions verse written by Nepos, in his own Life of Dion, Nepos himself refers to a work of his own authorship, De Historicis. If a separate work, this would be from a hypothesized De Historicis Latinis, only one book in the larger De Viris Illustribus, although comprising biographies of Romans.
Pliny mentions a longer Life of Cato at the end of the extant Life of Cato, written at the request of Titus Pomponius Atticus, the "complete biography" now lost. His only surviving work is the Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae; this book is in fact only one volume of Nepos' larger "De Viris Illustribus," containing "descriptions of foreign and Roman kings, lawyers, poets and philosophers," in addition to this sole surviving book of commanders and generals. It appeared in the reign of Theodosius I, as the work of the grammarian Aemilius Probus, who presented it to the emperor with a dedication in Latin verse, he claims it to have been the work of his grandfather. Despite the obvious questions, no one seemed to have doubted Probus's authorship. Peter Cornerus discovered in a manuscript of Cicero's letters the biographies of Cato and Atticus, he added them to the other existing biographies, despite the fact that the writer speaks of himself as a contemporary and friend of Atticus, that the manuscript bore the heading E libro posteriore Cornelii Nepotis.
At last Dionysius Lambinus's edition of 1569 bore a commentary demonstrating on stylistic grounds that the work must have been of Nepos alone, not Aemilius Probus. This view has been tempered by more recent scholarship, which agrees with Lambinus that they are the work of Nepos, but that Probus abridged the biographies when he added the verse dedication; the Life of Atticus, however, is considered to be the exclusive composition of Nepos. Bradley, J. R; the Sources of Cornelius Nepos: Selected Lives. New York: Garland Pub. 1991. Conte, Gian Biagio. Latin Literature: a History. Baltimore. 1994. Esp. pp. 221–3. Geiger, M. J. Cornelius Nepos and Ancient Political Biography. Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden, 1985. Hägg, T; the Art of Biography in Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Lindsay, H. “The Biography of Atticus: Cornelius Nepos on the Philosophical and Ethical Background of Pomponius Atticus.” Latomus, vol. 57, no. 2, 1998, pp. 324–336. Lord, L. E. “The Biographical Interests of Nepos.”
The Classical Journal, vol. 22, no. 7, 1927, pp. 498–503. Malcovati, Enrica. Quae exstant. Includes a summary of all references to Nepos' lost works. Marshall, P. K; the Manuscript Tradition of Cornelius Nepos. London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1977. Millar, F. “Cornelius Nepos,'Atticus' and the Roman Revolution.” Greece & Rome, vol. 35, no. 1, 1988, pp. 40–55. Peck, Harry Thurston: "Nepos" Pryzwansky, M. M. “Cornelius Nepos: Key Issues and Critical Approaches.” The Classical Journal, vol. 105, no. 2, 2010, pp. 97–108. Roberts, Arthur W. Selected Lives from Cornelius Nepos. Boston: Ginn & Company, 1895. Stem, S. R; the Political Biographies of Cornelius Nep
Sparta was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece. In antiquity the city-state was known as Lacedaemon, while the name Sparta referred to its main settlement on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. Around 650 BC, it rose to become the dominant military land-power in ancient Greece. Given its military pre-eminence, Sparta was recognized as the leading force of the unified Greek military during the Greco-Persian Wars. Between 431 and 404 BC, Sparta was the principal enemy of Athens during the Peloponnesian War, from which it emerged victorious, though at a great cost of lives lost. Sparta's defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC ended Sparta's prominent role in Greece. However, it maintained its political independence until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BC, it underwent a long period of decline in the Middle Ages, when many Spartans moved to live in Mystras. Modern Sparta is the capital of the Greek regional unit of Laconia and a center for the processing of goods such as citrus and olives.
Sparta was unique in ancient Greece for its social system and constitution, which configured their entire society to maximize military proficiency at all costs, focused on military training and excellence. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates, mothakes and helots. Spartiates underwent the rigorous agoge training and education regimen, Spartan phalanges were considered to be among the best in battle. Spartan women enjoyed more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical antiquity. Sparta was the subject of fascination in its own day, as well as in Western culture following the revival of classical learning; this love or admiration of Sparta is known as Laconophilia. At its peak around 500 BC the size of the city would have been some 20,000–35,000 citizens, plus numerous helots and perioikoi; the total of 40,000–50,000 made Sparta one of the largest Greek cities. The French classicist François Ollier in his 1933 book Le mirage spartiate warned that a major scholarly problem regarding Sparta is that all the surviving accounts were written by non-Spartans who presented an excessively idealized image of Sparta.
The earliest attested term referring to Lacedaemon is the Mycenaean Greek, ra-ke-da-mi-ni-jo, "Lacedaimonian", written in Linear B syllabic script, being the equivalent of the written in the Greek alphabet, latter Greek, Λακεδαιμόνιος, Lakedaimonios. The ancient Greeks used one of three words to refer to the home location of the Spartans; the first refers to the main cluster of settlements in the valley of the Eurotas River: Sparta. The second word was Lacedaemon. Herodotus seems to denote by it the Mycenaean Greek citadel at Therapne, in contrast to the lower town of Sparta, it could be used synonymously with Sparta, but it was not. It denoted the terrain. In Homer it is combined with epithets of the countryside: wide, lovely and most hollow and broken; the hollow suggests the Eurotas Valley. Sparta on the other hand is the country of a people epithet; the name of the population was used for the state of Lacedaemon: the Lacedaemonians. This epithet utilized the plural of the adjective Lacedaemonius.
If the ancients wished to refer to the country more directly, instead of Lacedaemon, they could use a back-formation from the adjective: Lacedaemonian country. As most words for "country" were feminine, the adjective was in the feminine: Lacedaemonia; the adjective came to be used alone. "Lacedaemonia" was not in general use during the classical period and before. It does occur in Greek as an equivalent of Laconia and Messenia during the Roman and early Byzantine periods in ethnographers and lexica glossing place names. For example, Hesychius of Alexandria's Lexicon defines Agiadae as a "place in Lacedaemonia" named after Agis; the actual transition may be captured by Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, an etymological dictionary. He relied on Orosius' Historiarum Adversum Paganos and Eusebius of Caesarea's Chronicon as did Orosius; the latter defines Sparta to be Lacedaemonia Civitas but Isidore defines Lacedaemonia as founded by Lacedaemon, son of Semele, relying on Eusebius. There is a rare use the earliest of Lacedaemonia, in Diodorus Siculus, but with Χὠρα suppressed.
The immediate area around the town of Sparta, the plateau east of the Taygetos mountains, was referred as Laconice. This term was sometimes used to refer to all the regions under direct Spartan control, including Messenia. Lakedaimona was until 2006 the name of a province in the modern Greek prefecture of Laconia. Sparta is located in the south-eastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the main river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water; the valley of the Eurotas is a natural fo