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Arithmetic coding

Arithmetic coding is a form of entropy encoding used in lossless data compression. A string of characters such as the words "hello there" is represented using a fixed number of bits per character, as in the ASCII code; when a string is converted to arithmetic encoding used characters will be stored with fewer bits and not-so-frequently occurring characters will be stored with more bits, resulting in fewer bits used in total. Arithmetic coding differs from other forms of entropy encoding, such as Huffman coding, in that rather than separating the input into component symbols and replacing each with a code, arithmetic coding encodes the entire message into a single number, an arbitrary-precision fraction q where 0.0 ≤ q < 1.0. It represents the current information as a range, defined by two numbers. Recent family of entropy coders called asymmetric numeral systems allows for faster implementations thanks to directly operating on a single natural number representing the current information. In the simplest case, the probability of each symbol occurring is equal.

For example, consider a set of three symbols, A, B, C, each likely to occur. Simple block encoding would require 2 bits per symbol, wasteful: one of the bit variations is never used; that is to say, A=00, B=01, C=10, but 11 is unused. A more efficient solution is to represent a sequence of these three symbols as a rational number in base 3 where each digit represents a symbol. For example, the sequence "ABBCAB" could become 0.0112013, in arithmetic coding as a value in the interval [0, 1). The next step is to encode this ternary number using a fixed-point binary number of sufficient precision to recover it, such as 0.00101100102 – this is only 10 bits. This is feasible for long sequences because there are efficient, in-place algorithms for converting the base of arbitrarily precise numbers. To decode the value, knowing the original string had length 6, one can convert back to base 3, round to 6 digits, recover the string. In general, arithmetic coders can produce near-optimal output for any given set of symbols and probabilities.

Compression algorithms that use arithmetic coding start by determining a model of the data – a prediction of what patterns will be found in the symbols of the message. The more accurate this prediction is, the closer to optimal the output will be. Example: a simple, static model for describing the output of a particular monitoring instrument over time might be: 60% chance of symbol NEUTRAL 20% chance of symbol POSITIVE 10% chance of symbol NEGATIVE 10% chance of symbol END-OF-DATA. Models can handle alphabets other than the simple four-symbol set chosen for this example. More sophisticated models are possible: higher-order modelling changes its estimation of the current probability of a symbol based on the symbols that precede it, so that in a model for English text, for example, the percentage chance of "u" would be much higher when it follows a "Q" or a "q". Models can be adaptive, so that they continually change their prediction of the data based on what the stream contains; the decoder must have the same model as the encoder.

In general, each step of the encoding process, except for the last, is the same. Whichever interval corresponds to the actual symbol, next to be encoded becomes the interval used in the next step. Example: for the four-symbol model above: the interval for NEUTRAL would be [0, 0.6) the interval for POSITIVE would be [0.6, 0.8) the interval for NEGATIVE would be [0.8, 0.9) the interval for END-OF-DATA would be [0.9, 1). When all symbols have been encoded, the resulting interval unambiguously identifies the sequence of symbols that produced it. Anyone who has the same final interval and model, being used can reconstruct the symbol sequence that must have entered the encoder to result in that final interval, it is not necessary to transmit the final interval, however. In particular, it is only necessary to transmit enough digits of the fraction so that all fractions that begin with those digits fall into the final interval. Consider the process for decoding a message encoded with the given four-symbol model.

The message is encoded in the fraction 0.538 The process starts with the same interval used by the encoder: [0,1), using the same model, dividing it into the same four sub-intervals that the encoder must have. The fraction 0.538 falls into the sub-interval for NEUTRAL, [0, 0.6).


Botterens is a municipality in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. Botterens is first mentioned in 1227 as Botterens; the municipality was known by its German name Botteringen, that name is no longer used. Botterens has an area, as of 2009, of 4.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 1.46 km2 or 35.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 2.26 km2 or 54.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.38 km2 or 9.2% is settled and 0.07 km2 or 1.7% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 4.8% and transportation infrastructure made up 1.4%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 2.7% of the area Out of the forested land, 50.4% of the total land area is forested and 4.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 1.0% is used for growing crops and 24.6% is pastures and 8.9% is used for alpine pastures. Of the unproductive areas, 1.2% is too rocky for vegetation. The municipality is located on the right bank of Lake Gruyère.

It consists of the linear village of Botterens. On 1 January 2006 the former municipality of Villarbeney merged into the municipality of Botterens; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Gules a Bendlet Argent, overall on Coupeaux Vert a Chamois statant proper with head Or, hoofed and attired Sable. Botterens has a population of 577; as of 2008, 6.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 20.5%. Migration accounted for 21%, while births and deaths accounted for 7.2%. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, German is the second most common and Italian is the third; as of 2008, the population was 49.4 % female. The population was made up of 17 non-Swiss men. There were 15 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 91 or about 32.6% were born in Botterens and lived there in 2000. There were 127 or 45.5% who were born in the same canton, while 31 or 11.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 23 or 8.2% were born outside of Switzerland.

As of 2000, children and teenagers make up 24.7% of the population, while adults make up 63% and seniors make up 12.2%. As of 2000, there were 114 people who never married in the municipality. There were 17 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 156 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.4 persons per household. There were 31 households that consist of 7 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 101 apartments were permanently occupied, while 20 apartments were seasonally occupied and 9 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 6.4 new units per 1000 residents. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 35.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the CVP and the FDP; the SVP received about the same percentage of the vote. The SPS moved from third in 2007 to second in 2011, the CVP moved from second in 2007 to third and the FDP retained about the same popularity.

A total of 166 votes were cast in this election, of which 0.6 % was invalid. As of 2010, Botterens had an unemployment rate of 1.2%. As of 2008, there were 22 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 6 businesses involved in this sector. 87 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 10 businesses in this sector. 17 people were employed with 6 businesses in this sector. There were 147 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 42.9% of the workforce. In 2008 the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 106; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 14. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 79 of which 54 or were in manufacturing and 25 were in construction; the number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 13. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 19 workers who commuted into 114 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 6.0 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering.

Of the working population, 4% used public transportation to get to work, 79.4% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 236 or 84.6% were Roman Catholic, while 17 or 6.1% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there was 1 member of an Orthodox church, there was 1 individual who belongs to another Christian church. There were 2. 17 belonged to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 5 individuals did not answer the question. In Botterens about 103 or of the population have completed non-mandatory upper secondary education, 24 or have completed additional higher education. Of the 24 who completed tertiary sch


Zostera is a small genus of distributed seagrasses called marine eelgrass or eelgrass. The genus Zostera contains 15 species. Zostera marina is found on sandy substrates or in estuaries submerged or floating. Most Zostera are perennial, they have bright green, ribbon-like leaves, the width of which are about 1 centimetre. Short stems grow up from white branching rhizomes; the flowers are enclosed in the sheaths of the leaf bases. Zostera beds are important for sediment deposition, substrate stabilization, as substrate for epiphytic algae and micro-invertebrates, as nursery grounds for many species of economically important fish and shellfish. Zostera forms beds in bay mud in the estuarine setting, it is an important food for brant geese and wigeons, caterpillars of the grass moth Dolicharthria punctalis. The slime mold Labyrinthula zosterae can cause the wasting disease of Zostera, with Z. marina being susceptible, causing a decrease in the populations of the fauna that depend on Zostera. Zostera is able to maintain its turgor at a constant pressure in response to fluctuations in environmental osmolarity.

It achieves this by gaining solutes as the tide comes in. The genus as a whole is widespread throughout seashores of much of the Northern Hemisphere as well as Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia and southern Africa; the discovery of Z. chilensis in 2005 adds an isolated population on the Pacific coast of South America to the distribution. One species occurs along the land-locked Caspian Sea. Eelgrass has been used for food by the Seri tribe of Native Americans on the coast of Sonora, Mexico; the rhizomes and leaf-bases of eelgrass dried into cakes for winter food. It was used for smoking deer meat; the Seri language has many words related to eelgrass and eelgrass-harvesting. The month of April is called xnoois ihaat iizax "the month when the eelgrass seed is mature". Zostera has been used as packing material and as stuffing for mattresses and cushions. On the Danish island of Læsø it has been used for thatching roofs. Roofs of eelgrass are said to be heavy, but much longer-lasting and easier to thatch and maintain than roofs done with more conventional thatching material.

More the plant has been used in its dried form for insulation in eco-friendly houses and as a ground cover in permaculture gardens, once its salt layer washed off Zostera can be utilized to produce biomass energy using the Jean Pain method. Accepted speciesZostera angustifolia Rchb. – Russian Far East, British Isles, Sweden Zostera asiatica Miki – Russian Far East, Korea, NE China Zostera caespitosa Miki – Russian Far East, Korea, NE China Zostera capensis SetchellMadagascar. W. L. Jacobs & D. H. Les – Australia Zostera noltii Hornem. – shores of Northeastern Atlantic, Black Sea, Caspian Sea Zostera novazelandica Setchell – New Zealand Zostera polychlamys S. W. L. Jacobs & D. H. Les – Australia Zostera tasmanica Martens ex Ascherson – Australia Flora Europaea: Zostera Flora of North America: Zostera Flora of China: Zostera species list Wasting disease of Zostera Historical Changes of Eelgrass in Buzzards Bay, MA Long Island's Seagrass conservation website, Seagrass. LI

Carapa guianensis

Carapa guianensis is a species of tree in the family Meliaceae known by the common names andiroba or crabwood. Andiroba is native to the Amazon and is used by the indigenous populations of the northern region of Brazil, it grows in Central America and the Caribbean. It is a tall tree with dense foliage and grows in the tropical rainforest along the edge of rivers; the timber is used in flooring. While the wood is not classified as genuine mahogany, it is related to the mahogany family and is similar in appearance; the oil contained in the andiroba almond, known as crab oil or carap oil, is light yellow and bitter. When subjected to a temperature below 25 °C, it solidifies, with a consistency like that of petroleum jelly, it contains olein and glycerin. The oil and fats of the almond are extracted and used for the production of insect repellent and compounds for traditional medicine, it is used in Brazil to protect furniture from termites and other wood-chewing insects

Rim (firearms)

A rim is an external flange, machined, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge. Thus, rimmed cartridges are sometimes called "flanged" cartridges. All cartridges feature an extractor or headspacing rim, in spite of the fact that some cartridges are known as "rimless cartridges"; the rim may serve a number of purposes, including providing a lip for the extractor to engage, sometimes serving to headspace the cartridge. There are various types of firearms rims in use in modern ammunition; these types are rimmed, semi-rimmed, rebated rim, belted. These categories describe the size of the rim in relation to the base of the case; the rimmed cartridge, sometimes called flanged cartridge, is the oldest of the types and has a rim, larger in diameter than the base of the cartridge. Rimmed cartridges use the rim to hold the cartridge in the chamber of the firearm, with the rim serving to hold the cartridge at the proper depth in the chamber—this function is called "headspacing".

Because the rimmed cartridge headspaces on the rim, the case length is of less importance than with rimless cartridges. This allows some firearms chambered for similar rimmed cartridges to safely chamber and fire shorter cartridges, such as using.38 Special cartridges in a.357 Magnum revolver. Rimmed cartridges are well suited to certain types of actions, such as revolvers and break-action firearms, where the rim helps hold the cartridge in position. Rimmed cartridges do not work quite as well in firearms that feed from a box magazine, since the magazine must be loaded so that the rim from each successive case is loaded ahead of the round beneath it, so the round will not snag on the rim of the cartridge below it as the bolt strips it out of the magazine. However, box magazine firearms firing rimmed. Semi-automatic handguns have been chambered in rimmed cartridges as well, for example a LAR Grizzly or Desert Eagle in.357 or.44 Magnum. Some types of rimmed cartridges, such as rimfire cartridges use the rim to contain the priming compound used to ignite the cartridge instead of a centrally-mounted primer such as used in centerfire cartridges.

Under the metric cartridge designation system, a capitalized "R" added at the end of the designation denotes a rimmed cartridge. For example, "7.62 × 54mmR" is a rimmed cartridge. Under Imperial designations, there is no distinction between rimmed and unrimmed cartridges, unless one is referring to a rimmed version of a cartridge, rimless, such as the.45 Auto Rim, a special rimmed version of the.45 ACP, intended for use in M1917 service revolvers. Examples of rimmed handgun cartridges include.44 Magnum. Rimmed rifle cartridge examples include the.22 Hornet.303 British and 7.62×54mmR. On a "rimless" case, the rim has or the same diameter as the base of the case. Since there is no rim projecting past the edge of the case, the cartridge must headspace on the case mouth, for a straight walled case, or on the case's shoulder for a bottlenecked case; the lack of a projecting rim makes rimless cases feed smoothly from box magazines, they are used in firearms that feed from a box magazine, although they work well in belt and tube-fed weapons.

Rimless cases are not well suited to break-open and revolver actions, though they can be used with appropriate modifications, such as a spring-loaded extractor or, in a revolver, a moon clip. Since a straight-walled rimless cartridge is designed to headspace off of the case mouth, this prevents the ammunition loader or manufacturer from using a heavy crimp, a ring pinched or "crimped" into the cartridge case, designed to lock the bullet securely in place until fired. Crimping affects the overall length of the cartridge, thus cannot be used on cartridges which headspace on the case mouth; this can be a problem for magnum revolvers or rifles which hold more than one round of ammunition, as the recoil from the firing successive rounds can loosen the bullets in the remaining cartridges, cause their bullet seating depth to change, which can have a serious effect of accuracy. This is not an issue for break-action single shot firearms, for obvious reasons, although it could cause problems in double rifles or "drilling"-type big game rifles, provided they have more than one rifle barrel.

Examples of rimless handgun cartridges include the 9mm Parabellum.40 S&W, and.45 ACP. Rimless rifle examples include the.223 Remington.308 Winchester.30-06 Springfield and 7.92×57mm Mauser. On a semi-rimmed case the rim projects beyond the base of the case, though not as much as a rimmed cartridge; the tiny rim provides minimal interference feeding from a box magazine, while still providing enough surface to headspace on. Semi-rimmed cases are less common than the other types. The.38 Super, a higher pressure loading of the old.38 ACP case, is notorious for being less accurate than rimless cases, so most modern.38 Super handguns are chambered so that the cartridge headspac


Kishkinta is a theme park located in Chennai, India. Kishkinta Theme Park is located near Vandalur Railway station which has a serene atmosphere, 13 km south of Anakaputhur, it was founded by the owner of Navodaya Studio. This Park is spread across 120 acres of vast area with a scenic landscape, fountains and designs. Along with these, the park has various entertainment places of Wave pools, water ridings, roller coasters, toy trains etc. for children who visits for picnics. It is named after the fabled simian kingdom in the epicRamayana. Due to lack of proficient engineers for inspection and analysis, Kishkinta ride quality checks are done by amateurs and for weight test laborers are forced to participate. One such incident resulted in the death of a young laborer. Kishkinta Web Site Kishkinta Entrance Fee, Rides, Reviews List of rides in kishkinta chennai