SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

In number theory, an arithmetic, arithmetical, or number-theoretic function is for most authors any function f whose domain is the positive integers and whose range is a subset of the complex numbers. Hardy & Wright include in their definition the requirement that an arithmetical function "expresses some arithmetical property of n". An example of an arithmetic function is the divisor function whose value at a positive integer n is equal to the number of divisors of n. There is a larger class of number-theoretic functions that do not fit the above definition, for example, the prime-counting functions; this article provides links to functions of both classes. Many of the functions mentioned in this article have expansions as series involving these sums. An arithmetic function a is additive if a = a + a for all natural numbers m and n. An arithmetic function a is additive if a = a + a for all coprime natural numbers m and n. ∑ p f and ∏ p f mean that the sum or product is over all prime numbers: ∑ p f = f + f + f + ⋯ ∏ p f = f f f ⋯.

∑ p k f and ∏ p k f mean that the sum or product is over all prime powers with positive exponent: ∑ p k f = ∑ p ∑ k > 0 f = f + f + f + f + f + f + f + ⋯ ∑ d ∣ n f and ∏ d ∣ n f mean that the sum or product is over all positive divisors of n, including 1 and n. For example, if n = 12, ∏ d ∣ 12 f = f f f f f f; the notations can be combined: ∑ p ∣ n f and ∏ p ∣ n f mean that the sum or product is over all prime divisors of n. For example, if n = 18, ∑ p ∣ 18 f = f + f, ∑ p k ∣ n f and ∏ p k ∣ n f mean that the sum or product is over all prime powers dividing n. For example, if n = 24, ∏ p k ∣ 24 f = f f f f; the fundamental theorem of arithmetic states that any positive integer n can be represented uniquely as a product of powers of primes: n = p 1 a 1 ⋯ p k a k {\displaystyle n=p_^{a_{

Mastermind LP, trading as Mastermind Toys, is a Canadian chain of toy stores. Based in Scarborough, Ontario, the company was founded in 1984 by Andy and Jonathan Levy, sells children's toys and books, with an emphasis on educational products. Mastermind was established after Andy and Jonathan, who were marketing software to construction firms at the time, encountered a computer store employee demonstrating educational software. Having foreseen the concept as soon becoming commonplace, the brothers established Mastermind Educational Technologies in North Toronto to serve as a retailer of such products; the store soon branched out towards educational toys in general. Proving successful, the chain began to expand; the Globe and Mail contrasted Mastermind to its main competitors, Toys "R" Us and Walmart, by classifying it as a mid-size "specialty retail" chain with a focus on premium and "trend-proof" products, as opposed to big-box rivals "sustained by branded plastic". As of September 2017, the chain operated 56 locations across the country, planned to expand to at least 90 locations by 2020, followed by expansion into Quebec.

In January 2020, Sarah Jordan was appointed CEO of Mastermind Toys a Principal at The Boston Consulting Group and Senior Vice President of Customer Experience and Omni Channel Strategy at Scotiabank. Co-founder and previous CEO, Jon Levy will remain on the board. Ms. Jordan’s strategic mandate is to enhance Mastermind Toys’ customer experience, amplify their brand as the Authority on Play in Canada, by bringing the best selection of educational, curated toys and books to feed curious minds, she is leading the charge to re-imagine the retailer’s Canadian brick-and-mortar footprint as well as its digital capabilities to deliver wonder to its loyal customer base and to attract new customers. On February 10, 2020, Retail Insider published the following article announcing Ms. Jordan’s appointment that includes a summary of her strategic vision for the retailer and her goal to ‘‘wow’ customers in the channel of their choice and delight them at the moments that matter’. Https://www.retail-insider.com/retail-insider/2020/2/mastermind-toys-appoints-new-ceo-amid-strategy-shift Official website

The European Health Insurance Card is issued free of charge and allows anyone, insured by or covered by a statutory social security scheme of the EEA countries and the United Kingdom to receive medical treatment in another member state free or at a reduced cost, if that treatment becomes necessary during their visit, or if they have a chronic pre-existing condition which requires care such as kidney dialysis. The term of validity of the card varies according to the issuing country; the intention of the scheme is to allow people to continue their stay in a country without having to return home for medical care. The costs not covered by self-liability fees are paid by the issuing country, the country of residence but may be the country where one receives the most pension from, it only covers healthcare, covered by a statutory health care system in the visited country, so it does not render travel insurance obsolete. The card was phased in from 1 June 2004 and throughout 2005, becoming the sole healthcare entitlement document on 1 January 2006.

The card is applicable in all French overseas departments as they are part of the EEA, but not non-EEA dependent territories such as Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Aruba, or French Polynesia. However, there are agreements for the use of the EHIC in the Faroe Islands and Greenland though they are not in the EEA; the reason for the existence of this card, is that the right to health care in Europe is based on the country of legal residence, not the country of citizenship. Therefore, a passport is not enough to receive health care, it is however possible that a photo ID document is asked for, since the European Health Insurance Card does not contain a photo. In some cases if a person is covered by the health insurance of an EU country, one is not eligible for a European Health Insurance Card. For instance, in Romania, a person, insured has to have been insured for the previous five years to be eligible. Romania is the only participating country where not all permanent residents are covered by a health insurance.

Due to these reasons the Romanian Roma people neither have European insurance cards nor is their costs paid by the country of residence. It replaced the following medical forms: E110 - For international road hauliers E111 - For tourists E119 - For unemployed people/job seekers E128 - For students and workers in another member state European Health Insurance cards are provided free to all legal residents of participating countries. There are however various businesses who act as non-official agents on behalf of individuals, arranging supply of the cards in return for payment offering additional services such as the checking of applications for errors and general advice or assistance; this has proved controversial. In 2010 the British government moved against companies that invited people to pay for the free EHIC, falsely implying that through payment the applicant could speed up the process. Despite this, the practice continues; as of 2020, 32 countries in Europe participate: the 30 member states of the European Economic Area plus Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

This includes the 27 member states of the European Union and 4 member states of the European Free Trade Association, as well as the UK while it is in the so called transition period after it withdrew from the EU on 31 January 2020. The Channel Islands and Isle of Man do not supply coverage under the EHIC, their residents are not eligible for EHICs. In August 2015 the Daily Mail ran a story about abuse of the EHIC system in which a card was issued to its undercover Hungarian reporter who “obtained the card after visiting the UK for less than one day” after another journalist posed as her landlord and presented a GP with the tenancy agreement of a property that neither occupied in order to get an NHS number, it claimed that "foreigners were charging the NHS for care in their own country." As The Guardian pointed out, the NHS issued a card to an individual that wasn’t eligible to receive the card because a GP was duped into issuing an NHS number, it was unclear what benefit would accrue as a result.

With no active investigation branch, the likelihood of NHS authorities discovering fraud is low. The Huffington Post reported that only nine instances of low-level fraud involving the EHIC in the UK had been discovered in five years with a combined cost of £712.56. Healthcare in the European Union Italian health insurance card Carte Vitale European driving licence EU site about the EHIC UK EHIC information at gov.uk UK EHIC application General UK EHIC information Irish EHIC site - includes details of coverage in various countries Dutch EHIC website Accessing healthcare in Switzerland

Engschrift is a condensed or "narrow" form of the DIN 1451 standard typeface. It is used in a modified form for road signage in Austria. Austria uses the transformed font from the German counterpart DIN 1451 Engschrift font. Scripture is used as the standard font for traffic signs in Austria. Since 2010 text TERN is used, which dates back to the EU regulations, but for the most part is used in place names in Austria - as well as the previous font Engschrift was designed. Because the existing road signs are replaced prematurely, Austria will continue to use the base font on all roads. New font that should be used throughout the EU, the font Schrift "Tern", according to experts, the test is easier to read and thus prevent accidents. New road signs font Tern is a result of the EU project, developed policy of uniform road signs in Europe; the project was funded by the Austrian Fund for road safety. Tern has been proven in many tests and readability decreased in comparison with the other fonts used in Europe as the winner.

Danube University Krems has made a test lab with 98 vehicle operators. This font has been verified as the best 20 languages. Although the EU directive should not be missed in the Austrian Extra solutions. Due to the length of names, a private Schrift Engschrift was on these long names developed. Novak, Sabine. "Neue Verkehrszeichen-Schrift soll Unfälle verhindern". Oberösterreichische Nachrichten

University of California Old Style is a serif font designed by Frederic Goudy and created for the University of California Press from 1936–8. It is one of Goudy's most popular serif fonts. University of California is an'old-style' serif font, one inspired by the styles of printing popular before the late eighteenth century. Goudy described it as inspired by the'Fell Types', a collection of 1670s fonts used by Oxford University Press, while other details such as the tilted cross-stroke of the'e' recall what is now called the'Venetian' style of typeface design, used by printers such as Nicolas Jenson up to the 1490s. Intended for fine book printing, the design has a delicate grace and strokes that alternate between thick and thin. Serifs are fine slabs with minimal bracketing. Goudy provided a set of swash capitals. Like many of Goudy's other families, it has been re-released and made available after his death, under a variety of names. While no longer the corporate font of the University of California Press, it retains a strong popularity in academia and is used as a corporate font by several universities.

Goudy used the font to set his book Typologia, printed by the University of California Press in the new font, he describes his inspiration for it in the chapter The Story of a Type. He described it as intended to be intended to be attractive in mass and said that the italic was intended to be "a refined letter, yet not, I hope, one which may be called prudish…some letters are a bit exuberant; as an italic is to emphasize a word…or sometimes to give a lighter touch, I have allowed myself to incorporate here and there in my font some forms more or less fanciful." It was finished just before a fire that destroyed Goudy's workshop, engraving machine and plan drawings, Goudy noted in his book that it was lucky that he had posted off finished work to Monotype to use as a basis for making punches for their hot metal typesetting system, allowing some letters to be redrawn from patterns. Goudy created the design from a position of great eminence as one of the most popular typeface designers of the first half of the twentieth century, uniquely for type founders of the period as an independent artisan, not employed by any one company and free to pursue his own projects.

However, tastes were changing away from his work at the time he was commissioned by the University Press. Contemporary trends in graphic design saw a movement away from Goudy's love of warm and rounded serif fonts, in favor crisper designs, such as sharp geometric sans-serif fonts and harder, more robust serifs such as Monotype's Times New Roman. Of his more than a hundred fonts designed, it would be his last—but two creation of a roman and italic. Goudy had high ambitions for his design, wrote to California that "I'm trying hard to make it a magnum opus and maybe the effort is preventing more rapid progress – maybe magnum opuses aren't made so consciously."Walter Tracy in his book Letters of Credit was unimpressed with the design, commenting "the design is not notable, but it is pleasant enough to read at 12 point and smaller...in the larger sizes some peculiarities show themselves: C, E, F and T look unfinished, s is too light, in italic the ball terminals in s look at odds with the other capitals, though they are acceptable in the lowercase s."

For a name, Goudy preferred'Berkeley' after the press's location, which, he thought more'aristocratic' than the alternative proposal of'Californian'. However, Samuel Farquhar, the University Press's manager, requested a name change in order to avoid associating its name with just one of the university system's campuses. Both the proposed alternatives would be used by rereleases. After the original type was commissioned for private use,'California' was released publicly by different companies, first in 1958, by Lanston Monotype as'Californian' and under the name of'Berkeley Old Style' by ITC. Both these versions have been digitized. In digital versions, ITC released Berkeley Old Style under its pre-existing name. Digital versions were issued as'Californian' by Font Bureau (included with some versions of Microsoft Office and by LTC and by Richard Beatty under the name of'University Old Style'. Most of these versions added a bold type. Font Bureau added a more delicate optical size for display use.

Although no longer the corporate font of the University of California Press or System, Goudy's font remains popular in academic use. As of 2016, it remains the corporate font of UC Davis, University of San Diego and Iowa State University. Citations Bibliography Loxley, Simon. Type: The Secret History of Letters. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-028-4

Aakraman is a 1975 Hindi war film, produced by Jagdish Kumar and directed by J. Om Prakash; the war film stars Ashok Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Rakesh Roshan, Farida Jalal, Sujit Kumar, Keshto Mukherjee, Mumtaz Shanti and Rajesh Khanna. The music is by Laxmikant Pyarelal; the Hindustan Times noted that Rajesh Khanna in his cameo in the 1975 movie Aakraman as the disabled Punjabi soldier was inspiring and motivational enhanced by the two emotional songs picturised on him. There were 2 songs picturised on Rajesh Khanna, though he was in a guest appearance in the film, playing a soldier disabled in the 1965 India-Pakistan war; this film portrays the love angle between two army officers who fall in love with the same woman, but when the Indo-Pak war breaks out, all hell breaks loose and the junior officer vows to take revenge with the other officer who has stolen his sweetheart by proposing her for marriage. But when they are posted on the front line during the war, he decides to get rid of his superior by planning to kill him once and for all, but fails to do so as he realises his mistake.

Sanjeev Kumar is killed by a Pakistani sentry in the end by deceit and the National flag falls on him. Besides this romantic drama, the film showcases the emotional remembrance of a father for his KIA son, who dies in the previous war i.e. 1965 Indo-Pak-war and highlights the bravery and courage of Indian soldiers and airmen during the last days of the present 1971 war when India defeats Pakistan and with this east Pakistan is finished and Bangladesh is created. Aakraman on IMDb Watch film on YouTube