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Arithmetic shift

In computer programming, an arithmetic shift is a shift operator, sometimes termed a signed shift. The two basic types are the arithmetic left the arithmetic right shift. For binary numbers it is a bitwise operation. Instead of being filled with all 0s, as in logical shift, when shifting to the right, the leftmost bit is replicated to fill in all the vacant positions; some authors prefer the terms sticky right-shift and zero-fill right-shift for arithmetic and logical shifts respectively. Arithmetic shifts can be useful as efficient ways to perform multiplication or division of signed integers by powers of two. Shifting left by n bits on a signed or unsigned binary number has the effect of multiplying it by 2n. Shifting right by n bits on a two's complement signed binary number has the effect of dividing it by 2n, but it always rounds down; this is different from the way rounding is done in signed integer division. This discrepancy has led to bugs in more than one compiler. For example, in the x86 instruction set, the SAR instruction divides a signed number by a power of two, rounding towards negative infinity.

However, the IDIV instruction divides a signed number. So a SAR instruction cannot be substituted for an IDIV by power of two instruction nor vice versa; the formal definition of an arithmetic shift, from Federal Standard 1037C is that it is: A shift, applied to the representation of a number in a fixed radix numeration system and in a fixed-point representation system, in which only the characters representing the fixed-point part of the number are moved. An arithmetic shift is equivalent to multiplying the number by a positive or a negative integral power of the radix, except for the effect of any rounding. An important word in the FS 1073C definition is "usually". Arithmetic left. Logical left shifts are equivalent, except multiplication and arithmetic shifts may trigger arithmetic overflow whereas logical shifts do not. However, arithmetic right shifts are major traps for the unwary in treating rounding of negative integers. For example, in the usual two's complement representation of negative integers, −1 is represented as all 1's.

For an 8-bit signed integer this is 1111 1111. An arithmetic right-shift by 1 yields 1111 1111 again, still −1; this is not the usual convention for division. It is stated that arithmetic right shifts are equivalent to division by a power of the radix, hence that division by a power of the radix can be optimized by implementing it as an arithmetic right shift. Large number of 1960s and 1970s programming handbooks and other specifications from companies and institutions such as DEC, IBM, Data General, ANSI make such incorrect statements. Logical right shifts are equivalent to division by a power of the radix only for positive or unsigned numbers. Arithmetic right shifts are equivalent to logical right shifts for positive signed numbers. Arithmetic right shifts for negative numbers in N−1's complement is equivalent to division by a power of the radix, where for odd numbers rounding downwards is applied. Arithmetic right shifts for negative numbers are equivalent to division using rounding towards 0 in one's complement representation of signed numbers as was used by some historic computers, but this is no longer in general use.

The ISO standard for the programming language C defines the right shift operator in terms of divisions by powers of 2. Because of the above-stated non-equivalence, the standard explicitly excludes from that definition the right shifts of signed numbers that have negative values, it does not specify the behaviour of the right shift operator in such circumstances, but instead requires each individual C compiler to define the behaviour of shifting negative values right. In applications where consistent rounding down is desired, arithmetic right shifts for signed values are useful. An example is in downscaling raster coordinates by a power of two, which maintains spacing. For example, right shift by 1 sends 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, … to 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, …, −1, −2, −3, −4, … to −1, −1, −2, −2, …, maintaining spacing as −2, −2, −1, −1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, … In contrast, integer division with rounding towards zero sends −1, 0, 1 all to 0, yielding −2, −1, −1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, … instead, irregular at 0.

This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C"

Iolanda Cintura

Iolanda Maria Pedro Campos Cintura Seuane is a Mozambiquean chemist and politician who served as Minister for Women and Social Affairs from 2010 to 2014 and has been governor of the capital city Maputo since 2015. Cintura was born on 24 October 1972 in Vila Pery, Manica Province, she attended primary school in Beira before moving to Maputo for her secondary schooling. She studied chemistry at Eduardo Mondlane University, graduating in 1999, she received certificates in fuel management from the Norwegian Petroleum Institute, energy relations from the United States Department of Energy and management from the Pedagogical University of Maputo. Cintura is a member of the Mozambique Liberation Front and held various positions in the Ministry of Energy from 2000 until 2010. On 15 January 2010, she was appointed to the cabinet by President Armando Guebuza as Minister for Women and Social Affairs. In this capacity, she made a statement to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in New York City in 2012.

In April 2013, she hosted the Southern African Development Community's meeting of ministers responsible for gender and women's affairs in Maputo. After the 2014 presidential election, Filipe Nyusi did not keep Cintura in the cabinet, but in January 2015 appointed her as governor of Maputo. Cintura has been a member of the National AIDS Council since 2010 and is president of the National Council for the Advancement of Women. Cintura is married to Mário Seuane and has two children. Government biography

Heishan bandits

The Heishan bandits or Black Mountain bandits was a bandit confederacy in the Taihang Mountain range during the years of the Eastern Han dynasty in China. They played a part in the internecine feuds that followed the Eastern Han dynasty's descent into chaos preceding the Three Kingdoms period, during which they surrendered to the warlord Cao Cao. Following the loosening of central government control due to the repercussions of the Yellow Turban Rebellion and rebels sprung up everywhere. One such bandit group under Zhang Niujue, unrelated to the Yellow Turban movement, rose to power in the hill countries of the Taihang Mountains by plundering the western areas of the North China Plain. In 185, Zhang Niujue and fellow bandit Chu Yan joined forces to raid the town of Yingtao. Zhang Niujue was killed in the skirmish, his followers followed his last order to join Chu Yan. Chu Yan changed his surname to Zhang to honour his fallen colleague, so he became known as Zhang Yan. Soon, he became the nominal chief of all bandits east of the Taihang range, forming a confederacy of bandits known as the Heishan bandits.

His ranks grew in number until they were said to reach a million. They conducted raids in the commanderies of Changshan, Zhongshan and Henei. Unable to control the situation, the government accepted a nominal surrender and offered the bandits official positions. However, when the central government fell under Dong Zhuo's chaotic control in 189, the Heishan bandits went back to their former activities. In the civil wars that followed the unsuccessful campaign against Dong Zhuo, Zhang Yan and the Heishan bandits sided with Gongsun Zan and thus attacked commanderies that were in the possession of Gongsun Zan's enemies. In 191 the Heishan bandits raided Dong Commandery, under the control of Yuan Shao's associate Cao Cao, but were driven back. Early in 193, the bandits and a contingent of the Southern Xiongnu under Yufuluo aided Yuan Shu, driven out of his original territory of Nanyang by Yuan Shao's ally Liu Biao, in Chenliu; as Chenliu was within Cao Cao's territories, he swiftly defeated the allies and chased Yuan Shu away to the south.

The Heishan bandits under Yu Du, joined by local rebels, stormed Yuan Shao's Ye city, capital of Wei Commandery, killed its Grand Administrator Li Cheng. This last attack drew Yuan Shao's furious retaliation. With heavy casualties on both sides, the opposing armies made a swift withdrawal from the area. Yuan Shao's campaign might have diminished the Heishan bandits' prospects in the south, but Zhang Yan and his people continued to hold out in the northern Changshan Commandery. In 199, Zhang Yan answered Gongsun Zan's call for help as he made his last stand in the Battle of Yijing, but his bandit army did not arrive in time and thus could not save Gongsun Zan from his demise. In 205, as Cao Cao drove out the Yuan family from the region, Zhang Yan led his men to submit to Cao Cao; as the members of the confederacy were outlaws, many of them used nicknames, named after their defining traits. While some of these names may be genuine names, there had been some efforts to translate the names and determine the possible logic behind them.

Boque Bo Rao Fuyun Guo Daxian Huanglong Kujiu - named for his baldness Li Damu Liu Shi Luoshi Pinghan Daji Qing Niujue Sili Yuancheng Sui Gu Sun Qing Tao Sheng Wang Dang Wulu - named for something he wore Yang Feng Yu Digen - named for having a hairy face or penis Yu Du Zhang Niujue Zhang Leigong - named for his loud voice Zhang Yan - named for his agility Zuo Zizhangba Zuoxiao - took his name from the title of the officer responsible for convict labourers under the Court Architect de Crespigny, Rafe. "Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 157 to 189 AD as recorded in Chapters 54 to 59 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang". Volume 2. Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra. ISBN 0-7315-0655-3. de Crespigny, Rafe. "To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang". Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.

1996. ISBN 0-7315-2526-4. de Crespigny, Rafe. A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. de Crespigny, Rafe. Imperial warlord: a biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. Leiden Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18522-7. Sima, Guang. Zizhi Tongjian

Cleverbot

Cleverbot is a chatterbot web application that uses an artificial intelligence algorithm to have conversations with humans. It was created by British AI scientist Rollo Carpenter, it was preceded by Jabberwacky, a chatbot project that began in 1986 and went online in 1997. In its first decade, Cleverbot held several thousand conversations with Carpenter and his associates. Since launching on the web, the number of conversations held has exceeded 150 million. Besides the web application, Cleverbot is available as an iOS, Windows Phone app. Unlike some other chatterbots, Cleverbot's responses are not pre-programmed. Instead, it learns from human input: Humans type into the box below the Cleverbot logo and the system finds all keywords or an exact phrase matching the input. After searching through its saved conversations, it responds to the input by finding how a human responded to that input when it was asked, in part or in full, by Cleverbot. Cleverbot participated in a formal Turing test at the 2011 Techniche festival at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati on 3 September 2011.

Out of the 1334 votes cast, Cleverbot was judged to be 59.3% human, compared to the rating of 63.3% human achieved by human participants. A score of 50.05% or higher is considered to be a passing grade. The software running for the event had to handle just 1 or 2 simultaneous requests, whereas online Cleverbot is talking to around 80,000 people at once. Cleverbot is being controversial growing in data size at a rate of 400 to 7 million interactions per second. Updates to the software have been behind the scenes. In 2014, Cleverbot was upgraded to use GPU serving techniques. Unlike Eliza, the program does not respond in a fixed way, instead choosing its responses heuristically using fuzzy logic, the whole of the conversation being compared to the millions that have taken place before. Cleverbot now uses over 279 million interactions, about 3-4% of the data it has accumulated; the developers of Cleverbot are attempting to build a new version using machine learning techniques. A significant part of the engine behind Cleverbot and an API for accessing it has been made available to developers in the form of Cleverscript.

A service for directly accessing Cleverbot has been made available to developers in the form of Cleverbot.io. An app that uses the Cleverscript engine to play a game of 20 Questions, has been launched under the name Clevernator. Unlike other such games, the player asks the questions and it is the role of the AI to understand, answer factually. An app that allows owners to create and talk to their own small Cleverbot-like AI has been launched, called Cleverme! for Apple products. In early 2017, a Twitch stream of two Google Home devices modified to talk to each other using Cleverbot.io garnered over 700,000 visitors and over 30,000 peak concurrent viewers. Omegle Official website Cleverscript website Cleverbot.io website Livestream of 2 cleverbots chatting with each other on Twitch

Tibor Gašpar

Tibor Gašpar was the President of police of Slovakia. He assumed office in 2012. Gašpar was born in Kežmarok Czechoslovakia, he attended Comenius University from 1982 until he graduated in 1987. Gašpar assumed office on 15 May 2012. Over his tenure he has led many high-level investigations, including investigations into corruption and theft within the Government of Slovakia. In February 2018, Gašpar and the Slovak Police came under international media attention after the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak. Gašpar announced that his killing was to "have something to do with investigative activities". At the time of his murder, Kuciak was working on a report about the Slovak connections of the'Ndrangheta; the National Police and Government offered €1 million for information leading to the arrest of the murderers. Gaspar resigned in April 2018 List of Presidents of the Slovak Police Force Slovak Police Force Murder of Ján Kuciak

Bettiah Raj

Bettiah Raj was the third-largest zamindari estate in the region of India now known as Bihar. It accrued land revenue rentals of 2 million rupees per annum belonging to Bhumihar Brahmins. Gangeswar Deo, a Brahmin of jaitharia clan, popularly known as jaitharias now a sect of Bhumihar Brahmin family. Gangeswar Deo descendants are among the present day Vaid Caste of Mohyal Brahmins and another branch of this clan, that first set up residence at a place called Jai Theriya near Lucknow moved east and established a state at Bettiah in Bihar, they were known as Jaitheria Brahmin, now a sect of Bhumihar Brahmins. In 1765, when the East India Company acquired the Diwani Bettiah Raj held the largest territory under its jurisdiction, it consisted of all of Champaran except for a small portion held by the Ram Nagar Raj. Bettiah Raj came into being as a result of mallikana chaudharai and quanungoi, the connection with the revenue administration building on local dominance and the capability of controlling and protecting hundreds of villages.

Internal disputes and family quarrels divided the Raj in course of time. Madhuban Raj was created as a consequence, but Bettiah Raj was the oldest in the region and had been a branch of Raj Riyasat Sirkar of Champaran since the 16th century when the raja of Bettiah was Ugrasen Singh. Both the Madhuban Raj and Ram nagar estates had broken off from Bettiah Raj. then making it the largest zamindari in Bihar. The last zamindar was Harendra Kishore Singh, born in 1854 and succeeded his father, Rajendra Kishore Singh in 1883. In 1884, he received the title of Maharaja Bahadur as a personal distinction and a Khilat and a sanad from the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, Sir Augustus Rivers Thompson, he was created a Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire on 1 March 1889. He was appointed a member of the Legislative Council of Bengal in January 1891, he was a member of The Asiatic Society He was the last ruler of Bettiah Raj. Maharaja Sir Harendra Kishore Singh Bahadur died issueless on 26 March 1893 leaving behind him two widows, Maharani Sheo Ratna Kuer and Maharani Janki Kuer.

Maharani Sheo Ratna Kuer who succeeded to the estate of Maharaja Harendra Kishore Singh on his death as his senior widow died on 24 March 1896 and on her death Maharani Janki Kuer became entitled to the possession of the estate. Since it was found that Maharani Janki Kuer was not able to administer the estate, its management was taken over by the Court of Wards, Bihar in 1897. Maharani Janki Kuer, a limited holder of the estate died on 27 November 1954; the Bettiah Raj forests were managed for timber production. Bihar state government took over management of the Bettiah Raj forests in 1953 and 1954 under the Bihar Private Protected Forests Act. Valmiki National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary include portion of the former Bettiah Raj estate. Zamindars of Bihar