Dale County, Alabama
Dale County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 50,251, its county seat and largest city is Ozark. Its name is in honor of General Samuel Dale. Dale County comprises the Ozark, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dothan-Enterprise-Ozark, AL Combined Statistical Area; the vast majority of Fort Rucker, the U. S. Army Aviation Center for Excellence, is located in Dale County; the area now known as Dale County was inhabited by members of the Creek Indian nation, who occupied all of southeastern Alabama during this period. Between the years of 1764 and 1783 this region fell under the jurisdiction of the colony of British West Florida; the county, together with the surrounding area, was ceded to the United States in the 1814 Treaty of Fort Jackson, ending the Creek Indian Wars. A blockhouse had been constructed during the conflict on the northwestern side of the Choctawhatchee River, the first non-Indian residents of Dale County would be veterans who began to settle in the area around 1820.
Dale County was established on December 22, 1824. It included the whole of what is now Coffee County and Geneva County, together with the "panhandle" portion of Houston County; the original county seat was located at Dale's Court House, but when Coffee County split from Dale in 1841, the seat was moved to Newton. Here it remained until 1870 when, following a courthouse fire in 1869 and the formation of Geneva County, the county seat was moved to the town of Ozark, where it remains. In 1903 a small portion of the southeast part of Dale county was joined to the newly formed Houston County. Portions of the 15th Regiment of Alabama Infantry, which served with great distinction throughout the U. S. Civil War, were recruited with all of Co.. "E" and part of Co. "H" being composed of Dale County residents. This unit is most famous for being the regiment that confronted the 20th Maine on the Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg on July 2, 1863. Despite several ferocious assaults, the 15th was unable to dislodge the Union troops, was forced to retreat after a desperate bayonet charge led by the 20th Maine's commander, Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain.
This assault was vividly recreated in Ronald F. Maxwell's 1993 film Gettysburg; the 15th would continue to serve until the final capitulation of Lee's army at Appomattox Court House in 1865. Another regiment recruited from Dale County was the 33rd Alabama. G coming from Daleville. B from Newton, Clopton and Barnes Cross Roads. I from Newton, Haw Ridge, Rocky Head and Ozark; this regiment fought with great distinction in the Army of Tennessee under famed General Patrick Cleburne, once winning the Thanks of the Confederate Congress for its action at Ringgold Gap. The regiment was annihilated during the battles of Perryville and Franklin, but a few men survived and returned to Dale County after the war. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 563 square miles, of which 561 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. It is the fifth-smallest county in Alabama by land third-smallest by total area. Barbour County Henry County Houston County Geneva County Coffee County Pike County As of the census of 2000, there were 49,129 people, 18,878 households, 13,629 families residing in the county.
The population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 21,779 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.4% White, 20.4% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.15% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 3.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 2.85 % of the population reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 18,878 households out of which 36% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.5 and the average family size was 3.0. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95 males; the median income for a household in the county was $31,998, the median income for a family was $37,806. Males had a median income of $29,844 versus $19,988 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,010. 15% of the population and 12.6% of families were below the poverty line. 19.4% of those under the age of 18 and 16.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of the census of 2010, there were 50,251 people, 20,065 households, 13,721 families residing in the county; the population density was 90 people per square mile. There were 22,677 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.1% White, 19.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. 5.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 20,065 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 li
Bob Jones University
Bob Jones University is a private, non-denominational evangelical university in Greenville, South Carolina, known for its conservative cultural and religious positions. The college, with 2,500 students, is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges and the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools; the university's athletic teams, the Bruins, compete in Division II of the National Christian College Athletic Association. In 2008, the university estimated the number of its graduates at 35,000. During the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy of the 1920s, Christian evangelist Bob Jones, Sr. grew concerned about the secularization of higher education and the influence of religious liberalism in denominational colleges. Children of church members were attending college. Jones recalled that in 1924, his friend William Jennings Bryan had leaned over to him at a Bible conference service in Winona Lake and said, "If schools and colleges do not quit teaching evolution as a fact, we are going to become a nation of atheists."
While he himself was not a college graduate, Jones grew determined to found a college, on September 12, 1927, he opened Bob Jones College in Panama City, with 88 students. Jones said that although he had been averse to naming the school after himself, his friends overcame his reluctance "with the argument that the school would be called by that name because of my connection with it, to attempt to give it any other name would confuse the people". Bob Jones took no salary from the college and helped support the school with personal savings and income from his evangelistic campaigns. Both time and place were inauspicious; the Florida land boom had peaked in 1925, a hurricane in September 1926 further reduced land values. The Great Depression followed hard on its heels. Bob Jones College survived bankruptcy and its move to Cleveland, Tennessee in 1933. In the same year, the college ended participation in intercollegiate sports. Jones's move to Cleveland proved extraordinarily advantageous. Bankrupt at the nadir of the Depression, without a home, with enough money to move its library and office furniture, the college became in thirteen years the largest liberal arts college in Tennessee.
With the enactment of the GI Bill at the end of World War II, the need for campus expansion to accommodate increased enrollment led to a relocation to South Carolina. Though he had served as Acting President as early as 1934, Jones' son, Bob Jones, Jr. became the school's second president in 1947 just before the college moved to Greenville, South Carolina, became Bob Jones University. In Greenville, the university more than doubled in size within two years and started its own radio station, film department, art gallery—the latter of which became one of the largest collections of religious art in the Western Hemisphere. During the late 1950s, BJU and alumnus Billy Graham, who had attended Bob Jones College for one semester and received an honorary degree from the university in 1948, engaged in a controversy about the propriety of theological conservatives cooperating with theological liberals to support evangelistic campaigns, a controversy that widened an growing rift between separatist fundamentalists and other evangelicals.
Negative publicity caused by the dispute precipitated a decline in BJU enrollment of about 10% in the years 1956–59, seven members of the university board resigned in support of Graham, including Graham himself and two of his staff members. When, in 1966, Graham held his only American campaign in Greenville, the university forbade any BJU dormitory student from attending under penalty of expulsion. Enrollment rebounded, by 1970, there were 3,300 students 60% more than in 1958. In 1971, Bob Jones III became president at age 32, though his father, with the title of Chancellor, continued to exercise considerable administrative authority into the late 1990s. At the 2005 commencement, Stephen Jones was installed as the fourth president, Bob Jones III assumed the title of chancellor. Stephen Jones resigned in 2014 for health reasons, Steve Pettit was named president, the first unrelated to the Jones family. In December 2011, in response to accusations of mishandling of student reports of sexual abuse and a concurrent reporting issue at a church pastored by a university board member, the BJU board of trustees hired an independent ombudsman, GRACE, to investigate.
Released in December 2014, the GRACE report suggested that BJU had discouraged students from reporting past sexual abuse, though the University declined to implement many of the report's recommendations, President Steve Pettit formally apologized "to those who felt they did not receive from us genuine love, compassion and support after suffering sexual abuse or assault". In 2011, the university became a member of the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools and reinstated intercollegiate athletics. In March 2017 the university regained its federal tax exemption after a complicated restructuring divided the organization into for-profit and non-profit entities, in June it was granted accreditation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools; the university consists of seven colleges and schools that offer more than 60 undergraduate majors, including fourteen associate degree programs. Given that BJU's faculty is untenured, most University employees consider their positions as much ministries as jo
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Big Mama Thornton
Willie Mae Thornton better known as Big Mama Thornton, was an American rhythm-and-blues singer and songwriter. She was the first to record Leiber and Stoller's "Hound Dog", in 1952, which became her biggest hit, staying seven weeks at number one on the Billboard R&B chart in 1953 and selling two million copies. Thornton's other recordings included the original version of "Chain", which she wrote. Thornton's performances were characterized by her powerful voice and strong sense of self, she was given her nickname, "Big Mama," by Frank Schiffman, the manager of Harlem's Apollo Theater, because of her strong voice and personality. Thornton stated that she was louder than any microphone and didn’t want a microphone to be as loud as she was. Alice Echols, the author of a biography of Janis Joplin, said that Thornton could sing in a "pretty voice" but did not want to. Thornton said, "My singing comes from my experience… My own experience. I never had no one teach me nothin’. I never went to school for music or nothin’.
I taught myself to sing and to blow harmonica and to play drums by watchin’ other people! I can't read music, but I know what I'm singing! I don't sing like nobody but myself."Her style was influenced by gospel music, which she grew up listening to at the home of a preacher, though her genre could be described as blues. Thornton was quoted in a 1980 article in the New York Times: "when I was comin' up, listening to Bessie Smith and all, they sung from their heart and soul and expressed themselves. That's why when I do a song by somebody, I have my own way of singing it; because I don't want to be Jimmy Reed, I want to be me. I like to put myself into whatever I'm doin' so I can feel it". Scholars such as Maureen Mahon have praised Thornton for subverting traditional roles of African-American women, she added a female voice to a field, dominated by white males, her strong personality transgressed stereotypes of what an African-American woman should be. This transgression was an integral part of her stage persona.
Elvis Presley and Janis Joplin admired her unique style of singing and incorporated elements of it in their own work. Her vocal sound and style of delivery are key parts of her style and are recognizable in Presley's and Joplin's work. Thornton's birth certificate states that she was born in Ariton, but in an interview with Chris Strachwitz she claimed Montgomery, Alabama, as her birthplace because Montgomery was better known than Ariton, she was introduced to music in a Baptist church, where her father was a minister and her mother a singer. She and her six siblings began to sing at early ages, her mother died young, Willie Mae left school and got a job washing and cleaning spittoons in a local tavern. In 1940 she left home and, with the help of Diamond Teeth Mary, joined Sammy Green's Hot Harlem Revue and was soon billed as the "New Bessie Smith", her musical education started in the church but continued through her observation of the rhythm-and-blues singers Bessie Smith and Memphis Minnie, whom she admired.
Thornton's career began to take off when she moved to Houston in 1948. "A new kind of popular blues was coming out of the clubs in Texas and Los Angeles, full of brass horns, jumpy rhythms, wisecracking lyrics." She signed a recording contract with Peacock Records in 1951 and performed at the Apollo Theater in 1952. In 1952, she recorded "Hound Dog" while working with another Peacock artist, Johnny Otis; the songwriters, Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, were present at the recording, with Leiber demonstrating the song in the vocal style they had envisioned. "We wanted her to growl it," Stoller said, which she did, it sold more than half a million copies, helping to bring in the dawn of rock'n' roll. The record was produced by Stoller. Otis played drums, it was the first recording produced by Stoller. The record went to number one on the R&B chart; the record made her a star. On Christmas Day 1954 in a Houston, Texas theatre she witnessed fellow performer Johnny Ace signed to Duke and Peacock record labels, accidentally shot and killed himself while playing with a.22 pistol.
Thornton continued to record for Peacock until 1957 and performed in R&B package tours with Junior Parker and Esther Phillips. Thornton's success with "Hound Dog" was followed three years by Elvis Presley recording his hit version of the song, his recording at first annoyed Leiber who wrote, "I have no idea what that rabbit business is all about. The song is not about a dog, it's about a man, a freeloading gigolo." But Elvis' version sold ten million copies, so today few fans know that "Hound Dog" began as "an anthem of black female power." Thornton recorded her song "Ball'n' Chain" for Bay-Tone Records in the early 1960s, "and though the label chose not to release the song… they did hold on to the copyright"—which meant that Thornton missed out on the publishing royalties when Janis Joplin recorded the song in the decade. As her career began to fade in the late 1950s and early 1960s, she left Houston and relocated to the San Francisco Bay area, "playing clubs in San Francisco and L. A. and recording for a succession of labels", notably the Berkeley-based Arhoolie Records.
In 1965, she toured with the American Folk Blues Festival in Europe, where her success was notable "because few female blues singers at that time had enjoyed success across the Atlantic." While in England that year, she recorded her first album for Arhoolie, Big Mama Thornton – In Europ
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif