William Conklin was an American actor. He appeared in 85 silent films between 1913 and 1929, he was born in Brooklyn, New York, died in Hollywood, California. William Conklin on IMDb William Conklin at AllMovie
Eleanor Robson Belmont
Eleanor Robson Belmont was an English actress and prominent public figure in the United States. George Bernard Shaw wrote Major Barbara for her, but contractual problems prevented her from playing the role. Mrs. Belmont was involved in the Metropolitan Opera Association as the first woman on the board of directors, she founded the Metropolitan Opera Guild, she was born on 13 December 1879 in Wigan, Lancashire to Madge Carr Cook and Charles Robson, moved to the United States as a young girl. Her stage career began at age 17 in San Francisco and she worked in stock companies from Honolulu to Milwaukee before making her New York debut in 1900 as Bonita, the ranchman's daughter in Augustus Thomas's Arizona, her ten-year career as a leading Broadway actress included top roles in such plays as Robert Browning's In a Balcony, Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet opposite Kyrle Bellew, Israel Zangwill's Merely Mary Ann, Oliver Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer, Zangwill's Nurse Marjorie, Paul Armstrong's adaptation of Bret Harte's Salomy Jane.
She retired when she wed August Belmont, Jr. on 26 February 1910. In 1912 she started The Society for the Prevention of Useless Gift Giving with Anne Tracy Morgan, her husband died on 10 December 1924. Mrs. August Belmont, as she thereafter was known, joined the Metropolitan Opera's board of directors in 1933, founded the Metropolitan Opera Guild in 1935 and the National Council of the Metropolitan Opera in 1952; these organisations helped shape the multi-source public-private funding model used by US performing arts organisations in the ensuing decadesMrs. Belmont died in her sleep in New York City on 24 October 1979. Eleanor Robson Belmont on IMDb Eleanor Robson at the Internet Broadway Database Eleanor Robson Belmont at Find a Grave 1905 Magazine Article Eleanor Robson Belmont Papers 1851–1979 via Columbia University portrait gallery
A lost film is a feature or short film, no longer known to exist in any studio archives, private collections, or public archives, such as the U. S. Library of Congress. During most of the 20th century, U. S. copyright law required at least one copy of every American film to be deposited at the Library of Congress, at the time of copyright registration, but the Librarian of Congress was not required to retain those copies: "Under the provisions of the act of March 4, 1909, authority is granted for the return to the claimant of copyright of such copyright deposits as are not required by the Library." Of American silent films, far more have been lost than have survived, of American sound films made from 1927 to 1950 half have been lost. The phrase "lost film" can be used in a literal sense for instances where footage of deleted scenes and alternative versions of feature films are known to have been created, but can no longer be accounted for. Sometimes, a copy of a lost film is rediscovered. A film that has not been recovered in its entirety is called a lost film.
For example, the 1922 film Sherlock Holmes was discovered, but some of the footage is still missing. Most film studios had a still photographer with a large-format camera working on the set during production, taking pictures for potential publicity use; the high-quality photographic paper prints that resulted – some produced in quantity for display use by theaters, others in smaller numbers for distribution to newspapers and magazines – have preserved imagery from many otherwise lost films. In some cases, such as London After Midnight, the surviving coverage is so extensive that an entire lost film can be reconstructed scene by scene in the form of still photographs. Stills have been used to stand in for missing footage when making new preservation prints of lost films. Most lost films are from the silent film and early talkie era, from about 1894 to 1930. Martin Scorsese's Film Foundation estimates that more than 90% of American films made before 1929 are lost, the Library of Congress estimates that 75% of all silent films are lost forever.
The largest cause of silent film loss was intentional destruction, as silent films were perceived as having little or no commercial value after the end of the silent era by 1930. Film preservationist Robert A. Harris has said, "Most of the early films did not survive because of wholesale junking by the studios. There was no thought of saving these films, they needed vault space and the materials were expensive to house."Many other early motion pictures are lost because the nitrate film used for nearly all 35 mm negatives and prints made before 1952 is flammable. When in badly deteriorated condition and improperly stored, nitrate film can and will spontaneously combust. Fires have destroyed entire archives of films. For example, a storage vault fire in 1937 destroyed all the original negatives of Fox Pictures' pre-1935 films; the 1965 MGM vault fire resulted in the loss of early talkies. Nitrate film is chemically unstable and over time can decay into a sticky mass or a powder akin to gunpowder.
This process can be unpredictable: some nitrate film from the 1890s is still in good condition today, while some much nitrate had to be scrapped as unsalvageable when it was 20 years old. Much depends on the environment. Ideal conditions of low temperature, low humidity, adequate ventilation can preserve nitrate film for centuries, but in practice, the storage conditions were far from ideal; when a film on nitrate base is said to have been "preserved", this always means that it has been copied onto safety film or, more digitized. Eastman Kodak introduced a nonflammable 35 mm film stock in spring 1909. However, the plasticizers used to make the film flexible evaporated too making the film dry and brittle, causing splices to part and perforations to tear. By 1911, the major American film studios were back to using nitrate stock. "Safety film" was relegated to sub-35 mm formats such as 16 mm and 8 mm until improvements were made in the late 1940s. Some pre-1931 sound films made by Warner Bros. and First National have been lost because they used a sound-on-disc system with a separate soundtrack on special phonograph records.
If some of a film's soundtrack discs could not be found in the 1950s when 16 mm sound-on-film reduction prints of early "talkies" were being made for inclusion in television syndication packages, that film's chances of survival plummeted: many sound-on-disc films have survived only by way of those 16 mm prints. Before the eras of sound film and home video, films were viewed as having little future value when their theatrical runs ended. Thus, many were deliberately destroyed to save the cost of storage. Many Technicolor two-color negatives from the 1920s and 1930s were thrown out when the studios refused to reclaim their films, still being held by Technicolor in its vaults; some used prints were sold to scrap dealers and cut up into short segments for use with small, hand-cranked 35 mm movie projectors, which were sold as a toy for showing brief excerpts from Hollywood movies at home. As a consequence of this widespread lack of care, the work of many early filmmakers and performers has made its way to the present in fragmentary form.
A high-profile example is the case of Theda Bara. One of the best-known actresses of the early silent era, she made 40 films, but only six are now known to exist. Clara Bow was celebrated in her heyday, but 20 of her 57 films are lost, another five are inc
Arizona (1918 film)
Arizona is a 1918 American silent melodrama film produced by and starring Douglas Fairbanks and released by Famous Players-Lasky under its Artcraft Pictures banner. Based on the successful play of the same name by Augustus Thomas, the film was directed by Albert Parker. Despite mixed reviews and its release near the end of the Spanish flu epidemic, the film prospered at the box office on the strength of its star's drawing power. Arizona is presumed lost. Denton is a lieutenant in the U. S. Cavalry regiment commaded by Colonel Benham. Benham is married to the daughter of wealthy rancher Canby. Estrella has a sister, with whom Denton falls in love. Denton discovers an affair between Captain Hodgeman. In his effort to break up the affair, Denton follows Estrella to her room where Benham catches them and misunderstands what he sees. Denton in consequence must resign in disgrace. Canby hires Denton as foreman of his ranch. Denton's relationship with Bonita is endangered by Hodgeman. Hodgeman's grudge against Denton leads to a fight between the two during which Hodgeman is shot and mortally wounded.
Denton is suspected, but a cowboy, declares that he fired the shot to retaliate for Hodgeman's dealings with the girl that he loves. In the end, Estrella reveals the truth about her own indiscretion, enabling Denton and Bonita to marry with her family's blessing as well as a happy ending for Benham and Estrella; the source material for the film was the enormously successful play of the same name, first staged in 1899 and credited with launching the trend for Western-themed plays. Some of the cast recruited for the film were associated with the play: Theodore Roberts originated the role of Canby on the stage. Allan Dwan had directed Fairbanks in several successful pictures since signing with Fairbanks' studio in 1917. Signed by Fairbanks to direct, Albert Parker took over direction of Arizona; the extent of Dwan's contribution, how much remained in the final film, is not known. Besides directorial troubles, other issues interfered with the production of Arizona. Fairbanks was active in the war effort and production was interrupted by his participation in a Liberty Loan drive that took him to Washington, D.
C. New York City, several cities across the South; the Spanish flu epidemic caused a four-week suspension of production on 60 percent of California films and may have disrupted Arizona. Exteriors were filmed in Arizona. Arizona fared well at the box office overall. At the time of its release, theaters around the U. S. were just beginning to reopen after forced closures due to the Spanish flu epidemic. Many reviews focused on the effect Fairbanks had on the well-known material; the New York Times observed: "'Arizona' in the hands of some other actor might have become just another screen melodrama... but with Fairbanks in the leading role, it has become an enjoyable comedy in which the athletic stunts of the star play a conspicuous and entertaining... part." The Variety review repeated this opinion word for word. The review in The Billboard offered a similar point of view and added that the audience "echoed with spontaneous laughter in response to the energetic portrayal". P. S. Harrison of Motion Picture News and Edward Weitzel of Moving Picture World were less complimentary.
Harrison opined that when Fairbanks attempted heavy drama, both "the actor's ability to entertain and the dignity of the drama ". Weitzel found Fairbanks' characterization of Denton lacking: "The athletic star has, as usual, put his own personality into the picture, acts Douglas Fairbanks with his customary life-like perfection." Wid's Daily rated elements of the picture as "fair", "unobjectionable", "nothing to brag about", called the star "same old Doug". So, the reviews were positive as to the film's drawing power due to its star. List of lost films Arizona at AllMovie Arizona on IMDb 1918 Ad
Augustus Thomas was an American playwright. Born in St. Louis and son of a doctor, Thomas worked a number of jobs including as a page in the 41st Congress, studying law, gaining some practical railway work experience before he turned to journalism and became editor of the Kansas City Mirror in 1889. Thomas had been writing since his teens when he wrote plays and organized a small theatrical touring company. Thomas was hired to work as an assistant at Pope's Theatre in St. Louis. During this time, he wrote a one-act play called Editha's Burglar, based on a short story by Frances Hodgson Burnett called The Burglar. After touring in the play, he expanded the show to four acts, renamed it The Burglar, was able to get Maurice Barrymore to play the title role. Subsequently, he was hired to succeed Dion Boucicault adapting foreign plays for the Madison Square Theatre, his first successful play, was produced by Kirke La Shelle in 1891 and its financial reward allowed Thomas to write full-time. Alabama is the story of an un-reconstructed Confederate.
Notably, Thomas was one of the first playwrights to make use of American material. Other plays along the same lines include Arizona, In Mizzoura and Rio Grande, his most successful play was The Copperhead which made Lionel Barrymore a star. Thomas reached a high artistic level in The Witching Hour. A novelization of the latter appeared in 1908, he was elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Letters, was awarded the National Institute's gold medal in 1913, in 1914 received an honorary A. M. degree from Williams College. According to the Oxford Companion to the Theatre, his plays are "on the whole, not profound, provided entertainment of a kind acceptable to his audiences." Thomas was elected to The Lambs theatrical club in 1889 and served as its president from 1907 to 1910. He was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis. Editha’s Burglar, 1884 The Burglar, 1889 A Man of the World, 1889 Reckless Temple, 1890 A Woman of the World, 1890 Alabama, 1891 Colonel Carter of Cartersville, 1892 In Mizzoura, 1893 New Blood, 1894 Arizona, 1900 Oliver Goldsmith, 1900 Colorado, 1900 Soldiers of Fortune, 1902 The Earl of Pawtucket, 1903 The Other Girl, 1903 Mrs. Leffingwell’s Boots, 1905 The Witching Hour, 1907 The Harvest Moon, 1909 The Member from Ozark, 1910 As a Man Thinks, 1911 The Copperhead, 1918 Nemesis, 1921 The Print of My Remembrance, 1922 Still Waters, 1926 Arizona The Jungle Paid in Full The Nightingale Arizona The Bonnie Brier Bush Thirty Days The Family Secret Arizona This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Hartnoll, Phyllis, ed; the Oxford Companion to the Theatre. 4th edition. London:Oxford UP, 1983. Pps. 827–828. Moody, Richard. "Augustus Thomas". in Banham, Martin, ed. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre, London:Cambridge UP, 1992. Augustus Thomas at Find a Grave Augustus Thomas on IMDb Augustus Thomas at the Internet Broadway Database Bio. Works by Augustus Thomas at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Augustus Thomas at Internet Archive
Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, gamblers and settlers; the ambience is punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, rancheras. Westerns stress the harshness of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains; the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Common plots include: The construction of a telegraph line on the wild frontier.
Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire. Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone, wronged. Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans. Outlaw gang plots. Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel; the Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s. Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star; the popularity of Westerns continued with the release of classics such as Red River. Westerns were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon, The Searchers, Cat Ballou, The Wild Bunch and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner, set in the 1970s, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, set in the 21st century. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier; the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them; this Western depiction of personal justice contrasts with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominately through impersonal institutions such as courtrooms.
The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer a cowboy or a gunfighter. A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds and bound to no fixed social structures but only to their own innate code of honor, and like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns rescue damsels in distress. The wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture; the Western takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples are more morally ambiguous.
Westerns stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films have specific settings such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, it is the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West: it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting. In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank and a school; the American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." The term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western
Vincent Serrano was an American actor in plays and silent films. Serrano's best-known role was as Lieutenant Denton in the Augustus Thomas play Arizona, which had its New York opening in September 1900, he acted the role in over 1,000 performances. He appeared in 13 movies, the last of, 1927's Convoy, his last stage role was as General Esteban in the 1927 Broadway musical Rio Rita. His mother was the well known translator Mary J. Serrano, wife of a South American government minister, he was buried at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in New York. Lydia Gilmore One Law for Both Eyes of Youth The Virtuous Model The Deep Purple Silk Husbands and Calico Wives The Branded Woman Convoy Vincent Serrano on IMDb Vincent Serrano at the Internet Broadway Database