The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sloan Park is an American baseball park in Mesa, which opened in 2014. The primary operator is the Chicago Cubs and the ballpark serves as their spring training home and is the home of the Arizona League Cubs of the Arizona League and the Mesa Solar Sox of the Arizona Fall League. Sloan Park was paid for by residents of the City of Mesa, approved by ballot measure, it was built to house spring training operations for the Chicago Cubs, who had played at nearby Hohokam Stadium. The stadium design was led by Populous; the dimensions of the playing surface match those of the Cubs' regular home stadium, Wrigley Field. With a capacity of 15,000, Sloan Park is the largest spring training stadium by capacity in Major League Baseball, surpassing Camelback Ranch in Glendale by 2,000 seats. Known as Cubs Park, on January 8, 2015, it was announced that Sloan Valve Company had signed a naming-rights deal to the ballpark, giving it its current Sloan Park name. Mesa Riverview Venue website Populous Selected As Designer
Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Idaho, is the county seat of Ada County. Located on the Boise River in southwestern Idaho, the population of Boise at the 2010 Census was 205,671, the 99th largest in the United States, its estimated population in 2016 was 223,154. The Boise-Nampa metropolitan area known as the Treasure Valley, includes five counties with a combined population of 709,845, the most populous metropolitan area in Idaho, it contains. Boise is the 80th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Accounts differ regarding the name's origin. One account credits Capt. B. L. E. Bonneville of the U. S. Army as its source. After trekking for weeks through dry and rough terrain, his exploration party reached an overlook with a view of the Boise River Valley; the place where they stood is called Bonneville Point, located on the Oregon Trail east of the city. According to the story, a French-speaking guide, overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river, yelled "Les bois!
Les bois!" —and the name stuck. The name may instead derive from earlier mountain men. In the 1820s, French Canadian fur trappers set trap lines in the vicinity. Set in a high-desert area, the tree-lined valley of the Boise River became a distinct landmark, an oasis dominated by cottonwood trees, they called this "La rivière boisée", which means "the wooded river." The area was called Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise by the federal government. The original Fort Boise was 40 miles west, near Parma, down the Boise River near its confluence with the Snake River at the Oregon border; this private sector defense was erected by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U. S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863 during the U. S. Civil War; the new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail with a major road connecting the Boise Basin and the Owyhee mining areas, both of which were booming.
During the mid-1860s, Idaho City was the largest city in the Northwest, as a staging area, Fort Boise grew rapidly. The first capital of the Idaho Territory was Lewiston in north central Idaho, which in 1863 was the largest community, exceeding the populations of Olympia and Seattle, Washington Territory and Portland, Oregon combined; the original territory was larger than Texas. But following the creation of Montana Territory, Boise was made the territorial capital of a much reduced Idaho in a controversial decision which overturned a district court ruling by a one-vote majority in the territorial supreme court along geographic lines in 1866. Designed by Alfred B. Mullett, the U. S. Assay Office at 210 Main Street was built in 1871 and today is a National Historic Landmark. Most native and longtime residents use the pronunciation / ˈbɔɪsiː /; the pronunciation is sometimes used as a shibboleth, as outsiders tend to pronounce the city's name as /ˈbɔɪziː/. Boise is in southwestern Idaho, about 41 miles east of the Oregon border, 110 miles north of the Nevada border.
The downtown area's elevation is 2,704 feet above sea level. Most of the metropolitan area lies on a flat plain, descending to the west. Mountains rise to the northeast, stretching from the far southeastern tip of the Boise city limits to nearby Eagle; these mountains are known to locals as the Boise foothills and are sometimes described as the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. About 34 miles southwest of Boise, about 26 miles southwest of Nampa, the Owyhee Mountains lie in neighboring Owyhee County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 80.05 square miles, of which, 79.36 square miles is land and 0.69 square miles is water. The city is drained by the Boise River; the City of Boise is considered part of the Treasure Valley. Boise occupies a large area — 64 sq mi according to the United States Census Bureau. Like all major cities, it has several neighborhoods, including the Bench, the North End, West Boise and Downtown. In January 2014, the Boise Police Department partnered with the folksonomic neighborhood blogging site Nextdoor, the first city in the Northwest and the 137th city in the U.
S. to do so. Since the app, which enables the city's police and parks departments to post to self-selected localized areas, first became available in October 2011, 101 neighborhoods and sections of neighborhoods have joined. Downtown Boise is Boise's cultural home to many small businesses and a few mid-rises. While downtown Boise lacks a major retail/dining focus like Seattle and Portland, the area has a variety of shops and growing option for dining choices. Centrally, 8th Street contains a pedestrian zone with sidewalk restaurants; the neighborhood has many local restaurants and boutiques and supports a vibrant nightlife. The area contains the Basque Block, which gives visitors a chance to learn about and enjoy Boise's Basque heritage. Downtown Boise's main attractions include the Idaho State Capitol, the classic Egyptian Theatre on the corner of Capitol Boulevard and Main Street, the Boise Art Museum on Capitol in front of Julia Davis Park, Zoo Boise on the grounds of Julia Davis Park. Boise's economy was threatened in the late 1990s by commercial development at locations away from the downtown center, such as Boise Towne Square Mall and at shopping centers near new housing developments.
Cultural events in Dow
San Francisco Giants
The San Francisco Giants are an American professional baseball team based in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1883 as the New York Gothams, renamed three years the New York Giants, the team moved to San Francisco in 1958; the Giants compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League West division. As one of the longest-established and most successful professional baseball teams, the franchise has won the most games of any team in the history of American baseball; the team was the first major league team based in New York City, most memorably playing at the legendary Polo Grounds. They have won 23 NL pennants and have played in 20 World Series competitions – both NL records; the Giants' eight World Series championships rank fifth overall. The Giants have played in the World Series 20 times – 14 times in New York, six in San Francisco – but boycotted the event in 1904. Playing as the New York Giants, they won 14 pennants and five World Series championships behind managers such as John McGraw and Bill Terry and players such as Christy Mathewson, Carl Hubbell, Mel Ott, Bobby Thomson, Willie Mays.
The Giants' franchise has the most Hall of Fame players in all of professional baseball. The Giants' rivalry with the Dodgers is one of the longest-standing and biggest rivalries in American sports; the teams began their rivalry as the New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers before both franchises moved west for the 1958 season. The Giants have won six pennants and three World Series championships since arriving in San Francisco; those three championships have come in 2010, 2012, most in 2014, having defeated the Kansas City Royals four games to three during the 2014 World Series. The Giants are the only major professional sports team based in the City and County of San Francisco, following the San Francisco 49ers' relocation to Santa Clara in 2014, they will be joined by the Golden State Warriors once they move to the Chase Center in 2019. The Giants began as the second baseball club founded by millionaire tobacconist John B. Day and veteran amateur baseball player Jim Mutrie; the Gothams, as the Giants were known, entered the National League in 1883, while their other club, the Metropolitans played in the American Association.
Nearly half of the original Gotham players were members of the disbanded Troy Trojans, whose place in the National League the Gothams inherited. While the Metropolitans were the more successful club and Mutrie began moving star players to the Gothams, in 1888 the team won its first National League pennant, as well as a victory over the St. Louis Browns in a pre-modern-era World Series, they repeated as champions the next year with a pennant and Championship victory over the Brooklyn "Bridegrooms". A contemporaneous account claims that after one satisfying victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, the team's manager, strode into the dressing room and exclaimed, "My big fellows! My giants!" From on, the club was known as the Giants. The Giants' original home stadium, the Polo Grounds, dates from this early era, it was located north of Central Park adjacent to 5th and 6th Avenues and 110th and 112th Streets, in Harlem in upper Manhattan. After their eviction from that first incarnation of the Polo Grounds after the 1888 season, they moved further uptown to various fields they named the Polo Grounds located between 155th and 159th Streets in Harlem and Washington Heights, playing in the Washington Heights Polo Grounds until the end of the 1957 season, when they moved to San Francisco.
The Giants were a powerhouse in the late 1880s, winning their first two National League Pennants and World Championships in 1888 and 1889. But nearly all of the Giants' stars jumped to the upstart Players' League, whose New York franchise was named the Giants, in 1890; the new team built a stadium next door to the Polo Grounds. With a decimated roster, the National League Giants finished a distant sixth. Attendance took a nosedive, the financial strain affected Day's tobacco business as well; the Players' League dissolved after the season, Day sold a minority interest in his NL Giants to the defunct PL Giants' principal backer, Edward Talcott. As a condition of the sale, Day had to fire Mutrie as manager. Although the Giants rebounded to third in 1891, Day was forced to sell a controlling interest to Talcott at the end of the season. Four years Talcott sold the Giants to Andrew Freedman, a real estate developer with ties to the Tammany Hall political machine running New York City. Freedman was one of the most detested owners in baseball history, getting into heated disputes with other owners and his own players, most famously with star pitcher Amos Rusie, author of the first Giants no-hitter.
When Freedman offered Rusie only $2,500 to play in 1896, the disgruntled hurler sat out the entire season. Attendance fell off throughout the league without Rusie, prompting the other owners to chip in $50,000 to get him to return for 1897. Freedman hired former owner Day as manager for part of 1899. In 1902, after a series of disastrous moves that left the Giants 53½ games behind, Freedman signed John McGraw as player-manager, convincing him to jump in mid-season from the Baltimore Orioles of the fledgling American League and bring with him several of his teammates. McGraw went on to manage the Giants for three decades until 1932, one of the longest and most successful tenures in professional sports. Hiring "Mr. McGraw", as his players referred to him, was one of Freedman's last significant moves as
The Arizona Diamondbacks shortened as the D-backs, are an American professional baseball team based in Phoenix, Arizona. The club competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the National League West division; the team has played every home game in franchise history at Chase Field known as Bank One Ballpark. The Diamondbacks have won one World Series championship – becoming the fastest expansion team in the Major Leagues to win a championship, which it did in only the fourth season since the franchise's inception, they remain the only professional men's sports team from Arizona to have won a championship title. On March 9, 1995, Phoenix was awarded an expansion franchise to begin play for the 1998 season. A $130 million franchise fee was paid to Major League Baseball and on January 16, 1997, the Diamondbacks were voted into the National League; the Diamondbacks' first major league game was played against the Colorado Rockies on March 31, 1998, at Bank One Ballpark. The ballpark was renamed Chase Field in 2005, as a result of Bank One Corporation's merger with JPMorgan Chase & Co.
Since their debut, the Diamondbacks have won five NL West division titles, one NL pennant, one Wild Card game, the 2001 World Series. The Diamondbacks' original colors were purple, black and copper, their first logo was an italicized block letter "A" with a diamond pattern, the crossbar represented by a snake's tongue. Prior to their inaugural season, they released their baseball caps; the home cap had a cream color crown with a purple button. The road cap had a turquoise visor and button, their alternate cap had a turquoise crown with a purple button. Depending on the cap, the "A" logo on the front of the cap had different color variations. In the Diamondbacks' second season, they introduced a new logo, a copper color snake in the shape of a letter "D", it was used on a solid black cap. The franchise unveiled new uniforms and colors of Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black on November 8, 2006; the red shade is named for the sandstone canyon at Red Rock State Park near Sedona, while the beige shade is named for the Sonoran Desert.
A sleeve patch was added featuring a lowercase. The team kept the "D" logo, but was altered and put on an all red cap to be used as their game cap, they kept the "A" logo with the new colors applied to it, with a solid black cap used as the alternate cap. A similar color scheme is used by the Arizona Coyotes of the National Hockey League. Prior to the 2016 season, the Diamondbacks reincorporated teal into its color scheme while keeping Sedona Red, Sonoran Sand and black, they unveiled eight different uniform combinations, including two separate home white and away grey uniforms. One major difference between the two sets is that the non-teal uniforms feature a snakeskin pattern on the shoulders, while the teal-trimmed uniforms include a charcoal/grey snakeskin pattern on the back. Arizona kept the throwback pinstriped sleeveless uniforms from their 2001 championship season for use during Thursday home games; the primary television play-by-play voice for the team's first nine seasons of play was Thom Brennaman, who broadcasts baseball and college football games nationally for Fox Television.
Brennaman was the TV announcer for the Chicago Cubs and Cincinnati Reds before being hired by Diamondbacks founder Jerry Colangelo in 1996, two years before the team would begin play. In October 2006, Brennaman left the Diamondbacks to call games with his father for the Reds beginning in 2007, signing a four-year deal; the English language flagship radio station is KTAR. Greg Schulte is the regular radio play-by-play voice, a 25-year veteran of sports radio in the Phoenix market well known for his previous work on Phoenix Suns, Arizona Cardinals and Arizona State University broadcasts. Jeff Munn is a backup radio play-by-play announcer, he is well known to many Phoenix area sports fans, having served as the public address announcer for the Suns at America West Arena in the 1990s. He is the play-by-play radio voice for ASU women's basketball. On November 1, 2006, the team announced that the TV voice of the Milwaukee Brewers since 2002, Daron Sutton, would be hired as the Diamondbacks primary TV play-by-play voice.
Sutton was signed to a five-year contract with a team option for three more years. Sutton is considered one of the best of the younger generation of baseball broadcasters, his signature chants include "let's get some runs". Sutton's father is Hall of current Atlanta Braves broadcaster Don Sutton. Former Diamondbacks and Chicago Cubs first baseman Mark Grace and former Major League knuckleball pitcher Tom Candiotti were the Diamondbacks primary color analysts for the 2006 and 2007 seasons. Former Diamondbacks third baseman Matt Williams did color commentary on occasion, as did former Cardinals and NBC broadcast legend Joe Garagiola, Sr. a longtime Phoenix-area resident and father of Joe Garagiola, Jr. the first GM of the Diamondbacks. The Diamondbacks announced in July 2007 that for the 2008 season, all regionally broadcast Diamondbacks TV games will be shown on Fox Sports Arizona, a few could be shown on the national Fox
Scottsdale Stadium is a baseball field located in Scottsdale, United States. The stadium holds 12,000 people, it has been the spring training home of the San Francisco Giants since 1984. The stadium hosted three games of the 2006 World Baseball Classic; the stadium was built on the site of the old Scottsdale Stadium, built in 1956. The Baltimore Orioles, Boston Red Sox, Chicago Cubs and Oakland Athletics used old Scottsdale Stadium as their spring training base at different points until 1984, when the Giants moved in; the new stadium was constructed in under a year. In 1992, Angels pitcher Matt Keough was struck by a foul ball while sitting in the dugout during spring training and was critically injured, his life was saved in part. The stadium underwent a $23.1 million renovation in 2006. In return, the San Francisco Giants agreed to play at the stadium for an additional 20 years, through 2025, with an option to extend the lease to 2035; the Giants hold minor league training operation at the two facilities.
Scottsdale Stadium is one of the top attended venues in Arizona's Cactus League. The Scottsdale Charros promote San Francisco spring training in the city. Scottsdale Stadium was the home of the Phoenix Firebirds of the Pacific Coast League from 1992 until 1997, who had moved from Phoenix Municipal Stadium after the new stadium was completed; the Firebirds moved to Fresno and became the Grizzlies, in order to make room for the National League's Arizona Diamondbacks, who began play in 1998. Scottsdale hosted the Valley Vipers of the independent Western Baseball League in 2000, the only season of that team's existence. Arizona United SC of the United Soccer League played at Scottsdale in 2015; the stadium is host of the Scottsdale Scorpions in the Arizona Fall League, hosts the Fall League's championship game at the end of November. During the summer the stadium is home the Arizona League Giants of the Arizona League. In March 2006, the stadium hosted three games from Pool B of the World Baseball Classic.
March 7, 2006 Canada 11, South Africa 8 March 8, 2006 Mexico 10, South Africa 4 March 10, 2006 United States 17, South Africa 0 Scottsdale Stadium Official Website