Confederate Arizona referred to as Arizona Territory, the Territory of Arizona, was a territory claimed by the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865. Delegates to secession conventions had voted in March 1861 to secede from the New Mexico Territory and the United States, seek to join the Confederacy, it consisted of the portion of the New Mexico Territory south of the 34th parallel, including parts of the modern states of New Mexico and Arizona. Its capital was Mesilla along the southern border; the Confederate territory overlapped the Arizona Territory established by the Union government in 1863. The physical geography differed in that the Confederate Arizona Territory was the southern half of the historic New Mexico Territory; the Union-defined Arizona Territory was the western half of what had been New Mexico Territory, became the basis for the future state. The territory was declared on August 1, 1861, following the Confederate victory at the Battle of Mesilla.
The Confederate hold in the area was broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, March 26–28, 1862, the defining battle of the New Mexico Campaign. In July 1862, the government of the Confederate Territory of Arizona relocated to Texas. With the approach of Union troops, it withdrew to eastern Texas, where it remained for the duration of the war; the territory continued to be represented in the Confederate Congress, Confederate troops continued to fight under the Arizona banner until the war's end. Before the start of the war, the land of the current states of New Mexico and Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory and the Gadsden Purchase, which ran parallel to William Walker's Republics of Lower California and Sonora; as early as 1856, the territorial government in Santa Fe had raised concerns about being able to govern the southern part of the territory. It was separated from the rest by a difficult stretch of desert. In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislature adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona Territory.
The north-south border was to be defined along the 32nd parallel. The legislature proposed. In April 1860, impatient for Congress to act, the territory called a convention and 31 delegates met in Tucson. In July 1860, the convention drafted a constitution for a "Territory of Arizona" to be organized out of the New Mexico Territory south of 34° N; the convention elected Lewis S. Owings as the Territorial Governor, elected a delegate to Congress. Anti-slavery Representatives opposed creating a new territory, as they feared it had the potential to become a slave state. Many people in the area were pro-slavery, with business connections in southern states, from which some had migrated. In addition, most of this new territory lay below the old Missouri Compromise line of demarcation between slave and free states. Since the proceedings of the Tucson convention were never ratified by the United States Congress, the Provisional Territory was not considered a legal entity. For a time it operated as a de facto, government for the intended Arizona Territory.
Dr. Lewis S. Owings, Governor of the Provisional Territory, appointed James Henry Tevis to raise the first Territorial Militia; this comprised three companies of Arizona Rangers for the protection of the Territory from marauding Apaches and bandits. Two companies were raised in the Pinos Altos mining camp, another at Mesilla. After the start of the American Civil War, support for the Confederacy was strong in the southern part of the New Mexico Territory; some residents felt neglected by the United States government. They worried about the lack of sufficient troops to fight the Apache; these Native Americans were defending their territory against encroaching white settlement, fighting off ranchers and mining camps all over Traditional Arizona. This became open warfare following the February 3-9, 1861 Bascom Affair, that brought Cochise into the war. Arizona settlers were disturbed by the closing of the Butterfield Overland Mail route and their stations in March 1861, which had connected the Arizona frontier colonies to the East and California.
In March 1861, the citizens of Mesilla called a secession convention to join the Confederacy. On March 16 the convention adopted a secession ordinance, citing the region's common interests and geography with the Confederacy, the need of frontier protection, the loss of postal service routes under the United States government, as reasons for their separation; the ordinance proposed the question of secession to the western portions of the territory. On March 28 a second convention in present-day Tucson ratified the ordinance; the conventions subsequently established a provisional territorial government for the Confederate "Territory of Arizona." Owings was elected again as provisional governor and Granville Henderson Oury was chosen as a delegate to petition for the territory's admission into the Confederacy. Arizona Militia Arizona Guards Arizona Rangers Minute Men Herbert's Battalion, Arizona Cavalry Capt. Thomas Helm's Company Capt. G. H. Oury's Company Capt. R. L. Swope's Company Arizona was thought to be important to the role of the New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War because it offered Confederate access to California.
It was the scene of several important battles in the war's Trans-Mississippi Theater. In July 1861 a force under Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Baylor arrived in El Paso, Texas across the border from Mesilla. With support from the sec
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
New Mexico Territory
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting 62 years. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the U. S. provisional government of New Mexico was established. Territorial boundaries were somewhat ambiguous. After the Mexican Republic formally ceded the region to the United States in 1848, this temporary wartime/military government persisted until September 9, 1850. Earlier in the year 1850, a bid for New Mexico statehood was underway under a proposed state constitution prohibiting slavery; the request was approved at the same time. The proposed state boundaries were to extend as far east as the 100th meridian West and as far north as the Arkansas River, thus encompassing the present-day Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and parts of present-day Kansas, Colorado and Arizona, as well as most of present-day New Mexico.
Texas raised great opposition to this plan, as it claimed much of the same territory, although it did not control these lands. In addition, slaveholders worried about not being able to expand slavery to the west of their current slave states; the Compromise of 1850 put an end to the push for immediate New Mexico statehood. Approved by the United States Congress in September 1850, the legislation provided for the establishment of New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory, it firmly established the disputed western boundary of Texas. The status of slavery during the territorial period provoked considerable debate; the granting of statehood was up to a Congress divided on the slavery issue. Some maintained that the territory could not restrict slavery, as under the earlier Missouri Compromise, while others insisted that older Mexican Republic legal traditions of the territory, which abolished black, but not Indian, slavery in 1834, took precedence and should be continued. Regardless of its official status, slavery was rare in antebellum New Mexico.
Black slaves never numbered more than about a dozen. As one of the final attempts at compromise to avoid the Civil War, in December 1860, a U. S. House of Representatives committee proposed to admit New Mexico as a slave state immediately. Although the measure was approved by the committee on December 29, 1860, Southern representatives did not take up this offer, as many of them had left Congress due to imminent declarations of secession by their states. On February 24, 1863, during the Civil War, Congress passed the "Arizona Organic Act", which split off the western portion of the 12-year-old New Mexico Territory as the new Arizona Territory, abolished slavery in the new Territory; as in New Mexico, slavery was extremely limited, due to earlier Mexican traditions and patterns of settlement. The northwestern corner of New Mexico Territory was included in Arizona Territory until it was added to the southernmost part of the newly admitted State of Nevada in 1864. Arizona Territory was organized as the State of Arizona.
The Purchase treaty defines the new border as "up the middle of that river to the point where the parallel of 31° 47' north latitude crosses the same 31°47′0″N 106°31′41.5″W. The new border included a few miles of the Colorado River at the western end; the boundaries of the New Mexico Territory at the time of establishment contained most of the present-day State of New Mexico, more than half of the present-day State of Arizona, portions of the present-day states of Colorado and Nevada. Although this area was smaller than what had been included in the failed statehood proposal of early 1850, the boundary disputes with Texas had been dispelled by the Compromise of 1850; the Gadsden Purchase was acquired by the United States from Mexico in 1853/1854, arranged by the then-American ambassador to Mexico, James Gadsden. This added today's southern strip of Arizona and a smaller area in today's southwestern New Mexico to the New Mexico Territory, bringing its land area to the maximum size achieved in its history as an organized territory.
The land of 29,640 square miles provided a more constructed route for a future southern transcontinental railroad line for the future Southern Pacific Railroad, constructed in 1881/1883. The Colorado Territory was established by the "Colorado Organic Act" on February 28, 1861, with the same boundaries that would constitute the State of Colorado; this Act removed the Colorado lands from the New Mexico Territory. T
Prescott is a city in Yavapai County, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 39,843; the city is the county seat of Yavapai County. In 1864 Prescott was designated as the capital of the Arizona Territory, replacing the temporary capital at Fort Whipple; the Territorial Capital was moved to Tucson in 1867. Prescott again became the Territorial Capital in 1877, until Phoenix became the capital in 1889; the towns of Prescott Valley, 7 miles east. This sometimes refers to central Yavapai County in general, which would include the towns of: Mayer, Paulden and Williamson Valley. Combined with these smaller communities the area had a population of 103,260 as of 2007. Prescott is the center of the Prescott Metropolitan Area, defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as all of Yavapai County; the Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe reservation is located adjacent to and within the borders of Prescott. Prescott is in the Granite Creek watershed and contains the convergence of Miller Creek and Granite Creek on its north side.
Arizona Territorial Governor John Noble Goodwin selected the original site of Prescott following his first tour of the new territory. Goodwin replaced Governor John A. Gurley, appointed by Abraham Lincoln, who died before taking office. Downtown streets in Prescott are named in honor of each of them. Goodwin selected a site 20 miles south of the temporary capital on the east side of Granite Creek near a number of mining camps; the territorial capital was moved to the new site along with Fort Whipple, with the new town named in honor of historian William H. Prescott during a public meeting on May 30, 1864. Robert W. Groom surveyed the new community, an initial auction sold 73 lots on June 4, 1864. By July 4, 1864, a total of 232 lots had been sold within the new community. Prescott was incorporated in 1881. Prescott served as capital of Arizona Territory until November 1, 1867, when the capital was moved to Tucson by act of the 4th Arizona Territorial Legislature; the capital was returned to Prescott in 1877 by the 9th Arizona Territorial Legislature.
The capital was moved to Phoenix on February 4, 1889, by the 15th Arizona Territorial Legislature. The three Arizona Territory capitals reflected the changes in political influence of different regions of the territory as they grew and developed. Prescott has a place in western folklore with the fact that Virgil Earp, Wyatt Earp's older brother, lived in Prescott in 1879 and told him of the boom town in Tombstone, Arizona, it is rumored that Doc Holliday spent some time in Prescott just before heading to Tombstone. The Sharlot Hall Museum houses much of Prescott's territorial history, the Smoki and Phippen museums maintain local collections. Whiskey Row in downtown Prescott boasts many historic buildings, including The Palace, Arizona's oldest restaurant and bar is still the oldest frontier saloon in Arizona. Many other buildings that have been converted to boutiques, art galleries and restaurants. Prescott is home to the Arizona Pioneers' Home; the Home opened during territorial days, February 1, 1911.
After several major fires in the early part of the century, downtown Prescott was rebuilt with brick. The central courthouse plaza, a lawn under huge old elm trees, is a meeting place. Cultural events and performances take place on many nights in the summer on the plaza. Barry Goldwater, the 1964 Republican nominee for president, launched his presidential campaign from the steps of Prescott's Yavapai County Courthouse. Nineteen members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots, part of the Prescott Fire Department, lost their lives Sunday, June 30, 2013, while battling the Yarnell Hill fire that had ignited two days earlier south of Prescott. Prescott is 55 mi west-northwest of the State of Arizona's geographic center. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.5 sq mi, of which 40.7 sq mi is land and 0.81 sq mi is water. Prescott is considered part of North Central Arizona, it is just south of the Granite Dells. The Granite Dells area, or called ‘The Dells’, is known for its large boulder outcroppings of granite that have eroded into a spectacular appearance of bumpy rock features.
Withi n'The Dells' are Willow Lakes, which are two small, man-made reservoirs. Here a number of hiking trails connect to the Peavine Trail; the Peavine National Recreation Trail follows. This railroad traveled from Prescott to Phoenix through the Granite Dells; the “Peavine” got its name from the winding portion of this railroad that twists and curves, resembling the vine on which peas grow. The Peavine trail connects to the Iron King Trail, the route of the old Prescott Railroad through the Granite Dells. Natural lakes include Lynx, Granite Basin and Goldwater, all surrounding different areas of this rustic community. Goldwater Lake, by Goldwater Park, is 4 miles from downtown Prescott, has 15 acres of water surface, is a popular destination for park recreation and picnic facilities. Lynx Lake is another lake close to Prescott in tall ponderosa pines, gets some 125,000 visitors every year; this 55-acre lake offers visitors recreational activities, camping, hiking, mountain biking, picnicking and a small, seasonal restaurant with a view of the lake.
There is the smallest of the natural lakes with 5 acres of surface water at Granite Basin Lake. None of these lakes permits swimming, however all are popular recrea
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.