Boss Key Productions
Boss Key Productions, Inc. was an American video game developer based in Raleigh, North Carolina. Founded in April 2014 by Cliff Bleszinski and Arjan Brussee of Epic Games, the company developed LawBreakers and Radical Heights, both of which failed commercially leading the developer to shut down in May 2018. Boss Key Productions was founded by former Epic Games employees Cliff Bleszinski and Arjan Brussee, in Raleigh, North Carolina, on April 30, 2014; the studio's inception and name were revealed on July 4, 2014, with Bleszinski and Brussee helming the establishment as chief executive officer and chief operating officer, respectively. Boss Key Productions' first project was LawBreakers, a first-person shooter for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4. Although LawBreakers was received positively following its August 2017 release, it failed to succeed commercially, leading the team to move on to develop a battle royale game instead of supporting LawBreakers in the long term. Subsequently, Brussee left Boss Key Productions in December 2017, announcing that he had returned to Epic Games to work on an "exciting secret project".
The battle royale game, titled Radical Heights, was released in April 2018 as a Steam Early Access title dubbed "X-Treme Early Access". The game was received negatively and, due to its early state, described as a mere "cash-in" in the light of the popularity of other battle royale games, such as PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds and Fortnite Battle Royale. On May 14, 2018, following the overall under-performance of both LawBreakers and Radical Heights, Bleszinski announced via Twitter that Boss Key Productions had shut down; the studio had 65 employees as of September 2017. Official website
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones, they duplicate exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as AT models; the IBM AT compatible bus was named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales. Descendants of the IBM PC compatibles comprise the majority of personal computers on the market presently with the dominant operating system being Microsoft Windows, although interoperability with the bus structure and peripherals of the original PC architecture may be limited or non-existent.
Some computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used. Only the Macintosh kept significant market share without compatibility with the IBM PC. IBM decided in 1980 to market a low-cost single-user computer as as possible in response to Apple Computer's success in the burgeoning microcomputer market. On 12 August 1981, the first IBM PC went on sale. There were three operating systems available for it; the least expensive and most popular was PC DOS made by Microsoft. In a crucial concession, IBM's agreement allowed Microsoft to sell its own version, MS-DOS, for non-IBM computers; the only component of the original PC architecture exclusive to IBM was the BIOS. IBM at first asked developers to avoid writing software that addressed the computer's hardware directly, to instead make standard calls to BIOS functions that carried out hardware-dependent operations; this software would run on any machine using MS-DOS or PC-DOS. Software that directly addressed the hardware instead of making standard calls was however.
Software addressing IBM PC hardware in this way would not run on MS-DOS machines with different hardware. The IBM PC was sold in high enough volumes to justify writing software for it, this encouraged other manufacturers to produce machines which could use the same programs, expansion cards, peripherals as the PC; the 808x computer marketplace excluded all machines which were not hardware- and software-compatible with the PC. The 640 KB barrier on "conventional" system memory available to MS-DOS is a legacy of that period. Rumors of "lookalike", compatible computers, created without IBM's approval, began immediately after the IBM PC's release. InfoWorld wrote on the first anniversary of the IBM PC that The dark side of an open system is its imitators. If the specs are clear enough for you to design peripherals, they are clear enough for you to design imitations. Apple... has patents on two important components of its systems... IBM, which has no special patents on the PC, is more vulnerable. Numerous PC-compatible machines—the grapevine says 60 or more—have begun to appear in the marketplace.
By June 1983 PC Magazine defined "PC'clone'" as "a computer accommodate the user who takes a disk home from an IBM PC, walks across the room, plugs it into the'foreign' machine". Because of a shortage of IBM PCs that year, many customers purchased clones instead. Columbia Data Products produced the first computer more or less compatible with the IBM PC standard during June 1982, soon followed by Eagle Computer. Compaq announced its first IBM PC compatible in the Compaq Portable; the Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer, 100% PC-compatible. The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and write its own BIOS using clean room design. At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Texas Instruments, Tulip and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tandy described the Tandy 2000, for example, as having a "'next generation' true 16-bit CPU", with "More speed. More disk storage. More expansion" than the IBM PC or "other MS-DOS computers". While admitting in 1984 that many MS-DOS programs did not support the computer, the company stated that "the most popular, sophisticated software on the market" was available, either or "over the next six months". Like IBM, Microsoft's intention was that application writers would write to the application programming interfaces in MS-DOS or the firmware BIOS, that this would form what would now be termed a hardware abstraction layer; each computer would have its own Original Equipment Manufacturer version of MS-DOS, customized to its hardware. Any software written for MS-DOS would operate on any MS-DOS computer, despite variations in hardware design; this expectation seemed reasonable in the computer marketplace of the time. Until Microsoft was based on computer languages such as BASIC; the established small system operating software was CP/M from Digital Research, in use both at the hobbyist level and by the more professional of t
Epic Games, Inc. is an American video game and software development company based in Cary, North Carolina. The company was founded by Tim Sweeney as Potomac Computer Systems in 1991 located in his parents' house in Potomac, Maryland. Following his first commercial video game release, ZZT, the company became Epic MegaGames in early 1992, brought on Mark Rein, the company's vice president to date. Moving their headquarters to Cary in 1999, the studio's name was simplified to Epic Games. Epic Games develops the Unreal Engine, a commercially available game engine which powers their internally developed video games, such as Fortnite and the Unreal, Gears of War and Infinity Blade series. In 2014, Unreal Engine was named the "most successful videogame engine" by Guinness World Records. Epic Games owns video game developer Chair Entertainment and cloud-based software developer Cloudgine, operates eponymous sub-studios in Seattle, Berlin and Seoul. Key personnel at Epic Games include chief executive officer Tim Sweeney, lead programmer Steve Polge and art director Chris Perna.
Tencent acquired a 48.4% outstanding stake, equating to 40% of total Epic, in the company in 2012, after Epic Games realized that the video game industry was developing towards the games as a service model. Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeney in 1991. At the time, Sweeney was studying mechanical engineering at the University of Maryland. Though he lived in a dorm located in Potomac, Maryland, he visited his parents, who lived in the same town, where his personal computer, used for both work and leisure, was situated. Out of this location, Sweeney started Potomac Computer Systems as a computer consulting business, but figured that it would be too much work he would have to put into keeping the business stable, scrapped the idea. After finishing his game ZZT in October 1991, Sweeney opted to re-use the Potomac Computer Systems name to release the game to the public, it was only with the unexpected success of ZZT, caused in most part by the easy modifiability of the game using Sweeney's custom ZZT-oop programming language, that made Sweeney consider turning Potomac Computer Systems into a video game company.
ZZT was sold through bulletin board systems, while all orders were fulfilled by Sweeney's father, Paul Sweeney. The game sold several thousand copies as of May 2009, Paul Sweeney still lived at the former Potomac Computer Systems address at the time, fulfilling all orders that came by mail; the final copy of ZZT was shipped by Paul Sweeney in November 2013. In early 1992, Sweeney found himself and his new-found video game company in a business where larger studios, such as Apogee Software and id Software, were dominant, he had to find a more serious name for his; as such, Sweeney came up with "Epic MegaGames", a name which incorporated "Epic" and "Mega" to make it sound like it represented a large company, although he was its only employee. Sweeney soon underwent searching for a business partner, caught up with Mark Rein, who quit his job at id Software and moved to Toronto, Ontario. Rein worked remotely from Toronto, handled sales and publishing deals; some time this season, the company soon had 20 employees consisting of programmers, artists and composers.
Among them was the 17-year old Cliff Bleszinski, who joined the company after submitting his game Dare to Dream to Sweeney. The following year, they had over 30 employees. In 1996, Epic MegaGames produced a shareware isometric shooter called Fire Fight, developed by Polish studio Chaos Works, it was published by Electronic Arts. By 1997, Epic MegaGames had 50 people working for them worldwide. In 1998, Epic MegaGames released Unreal, a 3D first-person shooter co-developed with Digital Extremes, which expanded into a series of Unreal games; the company began to license the core technology, the Unreal Engine, to other game developers. In February 1999, Epic MegaGames announced that they had moved their headquarters to a new location in Cary, North Carolina, would henceforth be known as Epic Games. Rein explained that "Unreal was first created by developers who were scattered across the world the team came together to finish the game and that's when the real magic started; the move to North Carolina centralizes Epic, bringing all of the company's talented developers under one roof."
Furthermore, Sweeney stated that the "Mega" part of the name was dropped because they no longer wanted to pretend to be a big company, as was the original intention of the name when it was a one-man team. The follow-up game, Unreal Tournament, shipped to critical acclaim the same year, at which point the studio had 13 employees; the company launched the Make Something Unreal competition in 2004, aiming to reward video game developers who create mods using the Unreal game engine. Tripwire Interactive won US$80,000 in cash and computer hardware prizes over the course of the contest in the first contest in 2004. Around 2006, the personal computer video game market was struggling with copyright infringement in the form of software piracy, it became difficult to make single-player games, elements, part of Epic's business model to that point; the company decided to shift focus into developing on console systems, a move which Sweeney called the start of the third major iteration of the company, "Epic 3.0".
In 2006, Epic released the Xbox 360 shooter Gears of War, which became a commercial success for the company, grossing about US$100 million off a US$12 million budget. A year late
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Battlefield Hardline is a first-person shooter video game developed by Visceral Games and published by Electronic Arts. It was released in March 2015 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox 360 and Xbox One. Unlike the previous games in the Battlefield series, Hardline focuses on crime and policing elements instead of military warfare. Upon release, the game received a mixed critical reception, with critics praising the game's multiplayer mode and voice acting, while criticizing the game's plot and narrative, it is the final Battlefield game to be released for the PlayStation Xbox 360 platforms. It was the last game to be developed by Visceral Games before the company shut down in 2017; the focus of the game is the "war on crime", breaking away from the military setting that characterized the series. As such, the main factions in Hardline are the police Special Response criminals. Players have access to various military-grade weapons and vehicles, such as the Lenco BearCat, as well as having police equipment such as tasers and handcuffs.
Hardline uses the "Levolution" mechanic from Battlefield 4. For example, in the map "Downtown" players can send a construction crane crashing into the building, ripping down debris from the central buildings in downtown, which falls down on the streets of Los Angeles; this time, every map features multiple Levolution events, both large. Many new game modes are featured in Hardline, including "Heist", "Rescue", "Hotwire", "Blood Money", "Crosshair" Mode. Heist: The criminals must break into a cash filled vault move the cash filled packages to an extraction point. If the Criminals manage to escape by bringing all the money to the extraction point, they win. Blood Money: Both factions must retrieve money from an open crate in the center of the map move it back to their respective side's armored truck. Players can steal money from the opposing team's truck; the team that first deposits $5 million worth of money into their truck or the team with the most money under a time limit wins. Hotwire: Drivable cars take the role of traditional Conquest "flags".
Like Conquest, capturing cars will bleed the enemy team's reinforcement tickets. The team who reduces the other's to zero or who has the most tickets remaining after the time limit wins. Rescue: In a 3 minute long 5 vs 5 competitive mode, S. W. A. T. Officers must try to rescue hostages held by criminal forces; the cops win by killing all the criminals. Criminals win by defending the hostages until the negotiations are over; each player has only one life in this mode. Crosshair: The second competitive game mode in Battlefield Hardline. Crosshair is 3 minutes long, 5 vs 5 with only one life. In Crosshair the criminals are trying to kill a player controlled VIP on the cops side, a former gang member turned states witness; the criminals win by killing the VIP and the cops win by getting the VIP to the extraction point. Visceral Games ratified that the single-player campaign will not be linear and promised to deliver a better one than the predecessors; the campaign features episodic crime dramas where choices will change situational outcomes and gameplay experiences.
As a cop, players can use personal equipments. The police badge can be used in ordering criminals to lay down their weapons, the scanner is used to stake out a situation, identify high-value targets, log evidences, tag alarms, mark other threats. To slip past unnoticed, players can use bullet cases to distract enemies. Miami is embroiled in a drug war and Officer Nick Mendoza has just made detective. Alongside his partner, veteran detective Khai Minh Dao, he follows the drug supply chain from the streets to the source. In a series of off-the-books cases, the two detectives come to realize that power and corruption can affect both sides of the law. In 2012, Miami Police Detectives Nick Mendoza and Carl Stoddard make a drug bust. After arresting a fleeing suspect, Captain Julian Dawes has Nick partner up with Khai Minh Dao to follow a lead to cocaine broker Tyson Latchford. Forcing his associate to wear a wire, they find a new drug called Hot Shot being sold in the streets of Miami and rescue Tyson from a group of armed men.
In the process Khai is wounded, putting her out of action for several weeks. After returning, Dawes orders the two to bring in Leo Ray from the Elmore Hotel but are forced to fight their way through armed men connected to drug dealer Remy Neltz, distributing the Hot Shot drug. While capturing Leo, Khai beats him up for insulting her. Leo's information leads the two detectives to the Everglades. Investigating the area, they discover several of Neltz's drug operations and Leo's mutilated corpse, killed for cooperating with the Miami Police, they find Neltz only to escape back to Miami. Before leaving, he mentions; the officers corner him in a Miami warehouse only for Stoddard to kill Neltz as he was about to elaborate more on their deal. Nick leaves in disgust after Khai take some cash before more officers arrive; as a hurricane makes landfall, Dawes sends Nick and Khai back to the crime scene for any evidence incriminating Stoddard. Finding Neltz's recording implicating Stoddar
Killzone is a series of first-person shooter and twin sticks shooter video games for Sony Computer Entertainment's video game consoles. The main series and the PlayStation Portable installment were developed by Guerrilla Games, a subsidiary of SCE, the PlayStation Vita installment was developed by Guerrilla Cambridge. Killzone consists of six games, beginning on the PlayStation 2 in November 2004 with Killzone, continued on the PlayStation Portable in October 2006 with Killzone: Liberation. Killzone 2 was released for the PlayStation 3 in February 2009, Killzone 3 was released in February 2011 for the PlayStation 3. Killzone: Mercenary was released for the PlayStation Vita in September 2013, followed by Killzone Shadow Fall, a launch title for the PlayStation 4, in November 2013; the series is set in the 24th century, showing the galactic war between the Interplanetary Strategic Alliance and the Helghan Empire. The Killzone series follows the continuous war between the ISA and Helghast taking place on both ISA Earth colonies and the planet Helghan, the home planet of the Helghast.
The series has featured four main protagonists: Cpt/Col. Jan Templar, Sgt. Tomas "Sev" Sevchenko, mercenary Arran Danner, Shadow Marshal Lucas Kellan; the main antagonist was Helghast Autarch Scolar Visari. After Orlock's death and the unknown details of Stahl's death and the destruction of Helghan, now covered in petrusite, the Helghast now live on Vekta with a giant wall dividing them from the Vektans. "The Black Hand", a Helghast paramilitary terrorist group, was formed under Vladko Tyran, who became an antagonist, along with Lady Hera Visari who has inherited her father's throne. By the end of Killzone Shadow Fall, it is revealed that the main antagonist is Stahl, who managed to survive the events of Killzone 3, but is dispatched by Vektan Security Agency director Thomas Sinclair. Killzone, Killzone 2, Killzone 3, Killzone: Mercenary, Killzone Shadow Fall are first-person shooters. Killzone: Liberation is presented as an isometric twin sticks shooter; the games were developed by Guerrilla Games, except for Killzone: Mercenary, developed by Guerrilla Games' sister studio, Guerrilla Cambridge, published by Sony.
Players can carry two different weapons at any given time. Players can either obtain ammo or swap out their current weapons with any weapon dropped by a downed foe or from those scattered around the various maps. In Killzone 3, players can carry up to three weapons, with the third weapon spot reserved for heavy weapons. Online competitive multi-player features up to 16 players in Killzone, 32 players in Killzone 2, 24 players in Killzone 3 and Shadow Fall, up to 8 players in Mercenary. There are various modes of multiplayer. There is an objective based rotation mode, called Warzone, where players play all game modes one after the other until all modes have been played. Shadow Fall' game modes in Warzone are different. Operations is a new mode for Killzone 3, a cinematic mini-campaign for the multiplayer mode. Killzone 3 features. Shadow Fall has a team deathmatch titled Team Deathmatch. Killzone and Killzone 3 are the only games in the series to feature offline split-screen co-op for two players, while Killzone is the only game in the series to feature offline split-screen multiplayer in the Botzone mode.
Liberation features an online co-op campaign as well as a multiplayer mode that supports up to 6 players in ad-hoc and up to 8 players on infrastructure. Shadow Fall features an online co-op survival mode for up to 4 players. Killzone was released for the PlayStation 2 in 2004; the game is set in 2357, where the Helghast Empire has recovered from its defeat in the First Extrasolar War and launched a blitzkrieg against the outer Interplanetary Strategic Alliance colony planet Vekta. Vekta's orbital Strategic Defense platforms failed during the initial assault, allowing the Helghast to land swarms of soldiers onto the surface and making it difficult for the outnumbered ISA forces. Captain Jan Templar, the main protagonist, his squad are ordered back to the base for reassignment, are sent to find the ISA operative Hakha and the key in his possession. Templar meets other characters who assist him such as Shadow Marshal Luger, a heavy weapons specialist Sergeant Rico Velasquez, Colonel Hakha, a half-Helghast, half-Human spy.
Killzone 2 was released for the PlayStation 3 in 2009. Killzone 2 follows the events of Killzone and Killzone: Liberation, is set on the planet Helghan, the home world of the Helghast who invaded an Interplanetary Strategic Alliance colony. Two years after the Helghast assault on Vekta, the ISA has launched an assault on the enemy's homeworld of Helghan; the ISA goal is to capture the Helghast leader, Scolar Visari and bring the Helghast war machine to a halt. The main protagonists is Sergeant Tomas "Sev" Sevchenko, a battle-hardened veteran of the special forces unit the "Legion" assigned to Alpha team, who go on a mission to take out th
Electronic Arts Inc. is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018. Founded and incorporated on May 27, 1982, by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. EA published numerous games and productivity software for personal computers and experimented on techniques to internally develop games, leading to the 1987 release of Skate or Die!. The company would decide in favor of abandoning their original principles and acquiring smaller companies that they see profitable, as well as annually releasing franchises to stay profitable. EA develops and publishes games including EA Sports titles FIFA, Madden NFL, NHL, NBA Live, UFC. Other EA established franchises includes Battlefield, Need for Speed, The Sims, Medal of Honor, Command & Conquer, as well as newer franchises such as Dead Space, Mass Effect, Dragon Age, Army of Two and Star Wars: The Old Republic.
Their desktop titles appear on self-developed Origin, an online gaming digital distribution platform for PCs and a direct competitor to Valve's Steam. EA owns and operates major gaming studios, EA Tiburon in Orlando, EA Vancouver in Burnaby, BioWare in Edmonton as well as Austin, DICE in Sweden and Los Angeles. Trip Hawkins had been an employee of Apple Inc. since 1978, at a time when the company had only about fifty employees. Over the next four years, the market for home personal computers skyrocketed. By 1982, Apple had completed its initial public offering and become a Fortune 500 company with over one thousand employees. In February 1982, Trip Hawkins arranged a meeting with Don Valentine of Sequoia Capital to discuss financing his new venture, Amazin' Software. Valentine encouraged Hawkins to leave Apple, where Hawkins served as Director of Product Marketing, allowed Hawkins use of Sequoia Capital's spare office space to start the company. On May 27, 1982, Trip Hawkins incorporated and established the company with a personal investment of an estimated US$200,000.
For more than seven months, Hawkins refined his Electronic Arts business plan. With aid from his first employee, Rich Melmon, the original plan was written by Hawkins, on an Apple II in Sequoia Capital's office in August 1982. During that time, Hawkins employed two of his former staff from Apple, Dave Evans and Pat Marriott, as producers, a Stanford MBA classmate, Jeff Burton from Atari for international business development; the business plan was again refined in September and reissued on October 8, 1982. By November, employee headcount rose to 11, including Tim Mott, Bing Gordon, David Maynard, Steve Hayes. Having outgrown the office space provided by Sequoia Capital, the company relocated to a San Mateo office that overlooked the San Francisco Airport landing path. Headcount rose in 1983, including Don Daglow, Richard Hilleman, Stewart Bonn, David Gardner, Nancy Fong; when he incorporated the company, Hawkins chose Amazin' Software as their company name, but his other early employees of the company universally disliked the name.
He scheduled an off-site meeting in the Pajaro Dunes, where the company once held such off-site meetings. Hawkins had developed the ideas of treating software as an art form and calling the developers, "software artists". Hence, the latest version of the business plan had suggested the name "SoftArt"; however and Melmon knew the founders of Software Arts, the creators of VisiCalc, thought their permission should be obtained. Dan Bricklin did not want the name used. However, the name concept was liked by all the attendees. Hawkins had recently read a bestselling book about the film studio United Artists, liked the reputation that the company had created. Hawkins said everyone had a vote but they would lose it if they went to sleep. Hawkins liked the word "electronic", various employees had considered the phrases "Electronic Artists" and "Electronic Arts"; when Gordon and others pushed for "Electronic Artists", in tribute to the film company United Artists, Steve Hayes opposed, saying, "We're not the artists, they are..."
This statement from Hayes tilted sentiment towards Electronic Arts and the name was unanimously endorsed and adopted in 1982. He recruited his original employees from Apple, Xerox PARC, VisiCorp, got Steve Wozniak to agree to sit on the board of directors. Hawkins was determined to sell directly to buyers. Combined with the fact that Hawkins was pioneering new game brands, this made sales growth more challenging. Retailers wanted to buy known brands from existing distribution partners. Former CEO Larry Probst arrived as VP of Sales in late 1984 and helped expand the successful company; this policy of dealing directly with retailers gave EA higher margins and better market awareness, key advantages the company would leverage to leapfrog its early competitors. A novel approach to giving credit to its developers was one of EA's trademarks in its early days; this characterization was further reinforced with EA's packaging of most of their games in the "album cover" pioneered by EA because Hawkins thought that a record album style would both save costs and convey an artistic feeling.
EA referred to their developers as "artists" and gave them photo credits in their games and numerous full-page magazine ads. Their first such ad, accompanied by the slogan "We see far