Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, from which many of the settlers had come, it was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau; the city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census. Fayetteville is home to the University of the state's largest university; when classes are in session, thousands of students on campus change the city's demographics. Thousands of Arkansas Razorbacks alumni and fans travel to Fayetteville to attend football and baseball games.
The University's men's track and field program has won 41 national championships to date. Fayetteville was named the third best place to live in the United States in the 2016 U. S. News Best Places To Live Rankings, one of the best places to retire in the South. Forbes ranked Fayetteville as the 24th-best city for business and careers in 2016. Lonely Planet named Fayetteville among its top 20 places to visit in the South in 2016; the city hosts the Walmart Shareholders Meetings each year at the Bud Walton Arena. In 1828, George McGarrah settled at Big Spring with his family on the modern day corner of Spring and Willow, founding the town of Washington, starting work on the courthouse. On October 17, Washington County was established, Washington chosen as the county seat; the Washington Courthouse was finished in 1829, contained the post office. In the year Postmaster Larkin Newton changed the name to the Fayetteville Courthouse, to avoid confusing with Washington, Hempstead County. Two councilmen selected to name the city were from Fayetteville, itself named for Fayetteville, North Carolina.
That original Fayetteville was named for General Lafayette, a French general who helped the colonies gain independence in the American Revolutionary War. The first store in Fayetteville was opened by John Nye in a small building constructed by James Holmsley. In 1832 David Walker, Chief Justice of the Arkansas supreme court, built a double log cabin on what is now Center Street. In 1822 Archibald Yell, the second Governor of Arkansas, built a house and called it "Waxhaw" after his home in North Carolina; this was on the outskirts of town but now is a street named after him that connects College and School streets. The first hotels were the Onstott House. Fayetteville was incorporated as a town on November 3, 1836. In 1859, a city charter was obtained from the Legislature. During the Civil War the municipal government was suspended and was not reinstated until 1867. P. V. Rhea was the president of the town trustees in 1836. W. Walker was the first mayor under the charter of 1859, M. L. Harrison was the first mayor when the government was reorganized in 1867.
The telegraph came to Fayetteville in 1860, strung along the Military Road from St. Louis, Missouri to Little Rock. During the American Civil War, the Union General Samuel Ryan Curtis occupied Fayetteville on February 18, 1862 and the following week, the Battle of Pea Ridge took place northeast of Fayetteville; the city housed wounded soldiers from the Battle of Prairie Grove in December 1862, housed injured troops on Dickson Street. Confederate troops besieged Union soldiers in Fayetteville on April 18, 1863 at the present-day intersection of College Avenue and Dickson Street, at their headquarters. Union soldiers held the city against cannon fire and cavalry attacks, although their headquarters sustained damage; the building was restored and is operated as the Headquarters House, a museum of the Washington County Historical Society. Fayetteville was occupied from December 1862 until May 1865 by the First Arkansas Union Cavalry, a regiment of Union men from Northwest Arkansas. Union forces repelled a Confederate attack in October 1864.
After the war, the United States government established the Fayetteville National Cemetery in 1867. A cemetery for Confederate dead was founded in 1873. Newspapers were established early; the Fayetteville Weekly Democrat began publishing in 1868. It developed as the Northwest Arkansas Times, is still in print today; the Fayetteville Schools District was founded on March 20, 1871 as the first independent school district in Arkansas. The public school system was established by the Reconstruction era legislature. Arkansas had struggled with a state banking crisis, resulting in the illegality of banking until 1868. Following the reinstatement, the Stark Bank became the first bank in the state in 1872, becoming the William McIlroy Bank four years later; this institution remains today as Arvest Bank. In 1954, a few days after Charleston, Fayetteville was the second school district in the southern United States to implement school integration in response to Brown v. Board of Education. Fayetteville is located in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks which run through Northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Eastern Oklahoma.
The rocks of the Boston Mountains were formed when sandstones and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period. In the Fayettevill
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Springdale is the fourth-largest city in Arkansas, United States. It is located in both Benton counties in Northwest Arkansas. Located on the Springfield Plateau deep in the Ozark Mountains, Springdale has long been an important industrial city for the region. In addition to several trucking companies, the city is home to the world headquarters of Tyson Foods, the world's largest meat producing company. Named Shiloh, the city changed its name to Springdale when applying for a post office in 1872; the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau. The city had a population of 69,797 at the 2010 Census. Springdale has been experiencing a population boom in recent years, as indicated by a 133% growth in population between the 1990 and 2010 censuses. During this period of rapid growth, the city has seen a new Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, the establishment of a Springdale campus of Northwest Arkansas Community College and the Northwest Arkansas Naturals minor league baseball team move into Arvest Ballpark.
Tyson remains the city's top employer, is visible throughout the city. Many public features bear the Tyson name, including the Randal Tyson Recreational Complex, Don Tyson Parkway, Helen Tyson Middle School, John Tyson Elementary and Don Tyson School of Innovation. Governor Mike Beebe signed an act into law recognizing Springdale as "The Poultry Capital Of The World" in 2013. Springdale was called "Shiloh", after the local Shiloh church, under the latter name was platted in 1866. In 1878, the town was incorporated with the name of Springdale. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.9 square miles, of which, 108.3 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it, or 0.62%, is water. The city limits extend north into southern Benton County. Springdale is bordered by the cities of Cave Springs and Bethel Heights to the north, by Elm Springs and Tontitown to the west, by Johnson and Fayetteville to the south; the city is located in both Benton and Washington counties along Interstate 49/US Highway 62/US Highway 71.
This is the only controlled access route through the area, which replaced the winding US 71 in the 1990s. An interstate connection with Fort Smith to the south and Kansas City, Missouri to the north has helped to grow Springdale. Within Washington County, Springdale is bordered along the south by Johnson. In some locations, this transition is seamless; the city extends east along Highway 412 toward Tontitown and Beaver Lake, respectively. Springdale is located on the Springfield Plateau, a subset of The Ozarks which run through northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Northeastern Oklahoma. In the Springdale area and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period; these were eroded after the Ouachita orogeny and uplift, exposing Mississippian limestone formations of the Springfield Plateau visible today. The Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington, McDonald County, Missouri; the area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census.
Springdale lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 69 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are uncommon but not rare, occurring on average twice a year, with 57 days over 90 °F annually. January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 26 °F; the city's highest temperature was 111 °F, recorded in 1954. The lowest temperature recorded was −24 °F, in 1899. Precipitation is weakly seasonal, with a bimodal pattern: wet seasons in the spring and fall, drier summers and winters, but some rain in all months; as of the census of 2010, there were 69,797 people, 22,805 households, 16,640 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.7% White, 1.8% Black or black, 1.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 5.7% Pacific Islander, 22% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races.
35.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,678 households out of which 41.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.54. The median income for a household in the city was $26,523, the median income for a family was $46,407. Males had a median income of $31,495 versus $26,492 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,645. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 33.6% of those under the age of 18 and 6.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.56.8% of Springdale's population describes themselves as religious above the national average of 48.8%. 25.6% of people in Springdale who describe themselves as having a religion are Baptist.
12.5% of people holding a religion are Catholic. There are higher proportions of
Gravette is a city in Benton County, United States. The population was 2,325 at the 2010 census, it is AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gravette is located in northwestern Benton County at 36°25′12″N 94°27′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.0 square miles, all land. Gravette is situated 105 miles east of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 41 miles northwest of Fayetteville, 60 miles south of Joplin, MO. Gravette annexed nearby unincorporated Hiwasse in 2012; the original name of the first European-American settlement at this location was Nebo. The Nebo area is now referred to as Old Town in Chalk Valley and was the earliest pioneer settlement of the community; the settlement was platted in the 1870s by Joseph P. Covey, who relocated to Southwest City, Missouri, in 1881. Ellis Tillman Gravett opened the Chalk Valley Distillery in Nebo and was the proprietor of a general merchandise store. In 1891, he moved that store west out of the valley to. Gravette was incorporated on January 27, 1899.
By 1910 the population of Gravette amounted to 569. As of 2010 Gravette had a population of 2,325; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 87.8% non-Hispanic white, 0.6% black or African American, 3.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 4.1% from two or more races and 4.0% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,810 people, 697 households, 471 families residing in the city; the population density was 775.1 people per square mile. There were 773 housing units at an average density of 331.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.87% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 2.10% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 1.05% from other races, 3.20% from two or more races. 2.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 697 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.2% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,881, the median income for a family was $34,844. Males had a median income of $28,571 versus $18,906 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,241. About 11.5% of families and 16.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 19.3% of those age 65 or over. Public education is provided for elementary and secondary school students by the following school districts: Gravette School District, which leads to graduation from Gravette High School. Bentonville School District, which leads to graduation from Bentonville High School.
Local newspapers Westside Eagle Observer The Northwest Arkansas Times Arkansas Democrat-Gazette Jim Hendren, current Arkansas state senator Kim Hendren, former Arkansas state senator Tommy Morrison, heavyweight boxer Mary Lou Slinkard, current Arkansas state representative Gene Stephens, former Major League Baseball player Dr. Arnold B. Murray, founding senior pastor of tele-ministry The Shepherd's Chapel Field Eugene Kindley and World War I flying ace Lloyd "Arkansas Slim" Andrews, sidekick to western stars, host of children's television program The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Gravette has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Gravette is the site of the coldest recorded temperature in Arkansas: -29 °F on February 13, 1905. According weather data tallied between July 1, 1985 and June 30, 2015 for every location in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's official climate database, Arkansas, is the snowiest place in the state of Arkansas with an average of 16 inches of snow per year.
City of Gravette official website
Cave Springs, Arkansas
Cave Springs is a city in Benton County, United States. The population was 1,729 at the 2010 census, up from 1,103 in 2000, it is AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cave Springs is located in southern central Benton County at 36°16′40″N 94°13′24″W, in the valley of Osage Creek. Arkansas Highway 112 leads south 16 miles to Fayetteville. Arkansas Highway 264 leads east 6 miles to Lowell and west 5 miles to Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.9 square miles, of which 6.9 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.84%, is water. Lake Keith, a small water basin in the middle of Cave Springs, holds the rare cave fish. Fishing in Lake Keith has been banned due to the endangered species. In October 2013, Lake Keith was temporarily drained; as of 2010 census the population of Cave Springs was 1,729. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 89.9% non-Hispanic white, 0.9% black or African American, 1.3% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from some other race and 1.9% from two or more races.
4.5% of the population was Hispanic of Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,103 people, 420 households, 333 families residing in the city; the population density was 151.7 people per square mile. There were 449 housing units at an average density of 61.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 93.02% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 3.54% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 1.54% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races. 2.18% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 420 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.5% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.5% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,500, the median income for a family was $42,813. Males had a median income of $29,167 versus $22,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,946. About 7.2% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Public education for elementary and secondary students is provided by two school districts; the major school district is Bentonville School District, which leads to graduation from Bentonville High School. For some residents, public education is zoned to the Rogers School District. Bart Hester, member of the Arkansas State Senate.
John Timothy Griffin is an American politician and member of the Republican Party, the 20th and current Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas, a post he has held since January 2015 under Governor Asa Hutchinson. Griffin was the U. S. Representative for Arkansas's 2nd congressional district from 2011 to 2015; as the Republican nominee for lieutenant governor in 2014 he defeated Democrat John Burkhalter. Griffin was the interim United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Arkansas from December 2006 to June 2007 but was never confirmed by the United States Senate. Griffin was born in Charlotte, North Carolina, reared in Magnolia in Columbia County in southern Arkansas, he graduated from Hendrix College in Conway, in 1994 from Tulane Law School in New Orleans, Louisiana. Griffin worked from September 1995 to January 1997 with Special Prosecutor David Barrett in the investigation of former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Henry Cisneros. For two years after that he was the Senior Investigative Counsel for the House Committee on Government Reform.
In September 1999, he became Deputy Research Director for the Republican National Committee. From March 2001 through June 2002 he was a special assistant to the Assistant Attorney General Michael Chertoff. From June 2002 to December 2004, Griffin was Research Director and Deputy Communications Director for Bush's 2004 reelection campaign, a high-ranking position within the RNC. In June 2007, Senators Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts and Sheldon Whitehouse of Rhode Island asked the U. S. Justice Department to investigate whether Griffin led an RNC effort to suppress the African-American vote in Jacksonville, through caging during the 2004 election. Griffin called the allegations of voter suppression "absolutely, positively false" and there was no finding of any wrongdoing. In April 2005, Griffin began working at the White House as Karl Rove's aide, with the title of Special Assistant to the President and Deputy Director in the Office of Political Affairs. In September 2006, after ending a one-year military mobilization assignment, Griffin began working as a special assistant to U.
S. Attorney Bud Cummins in the Eastern District of Arkansas. On December 15, 2006, the Justice Department announced that Griffin would be appointed interim U. S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Arkansas, effective December 20, 2006, the date when the resignation of Cummins took effect. Before a March 2006 revision to the PATRIOT Act, interim U. S. Attorneys had pending confirmation by the Senate of a presidential nominee; the Attorney General makes interim appointments. Griffin was among the first group of interim attorneys appointed by the Attorney General without a term limit. Gonzales's decision to bypass confirmation for Griffin angered Arkansas's Democratic senators, Blanche Lincoln and Mark Pryor, who both stated that Gonzales promised them Griffin would go before the Senate for confirmation. Gonzales's decision not to do so prompted Lincoln and Pryor to join many of their Democratic colleagues to demand Gonzales's resignation or firing. On May 30, 2007, Griffin resigned from his position effective June 1, 2007 with a tearful speech declaring that public service "not worth it.
I have a kid. I'm sorry I put my wife through this and I'm trying to move on."Documents released by a subsequent congressional investigation showed that, in the summer of 2006, White House officials wanted a vacant slot in the U. S. Attorney's office in Little Rock. Prior to this, he was aide to Rove. On February 16, 2007, ten days after McNulty testified that Cummins was dismissed and resigned under duress to create a vacancy for Griffin's appointment, Griffin announced he would not seek the presidential nomination to be U. S. attorney in Little Rock. In September 2008, the Office of the Inspector General in the Department of Justice issued a report concluding that Cummins had not been removed for any reasons related to his performance, but rather to make a place for Griffin. On August 11, 2009, The New York Times reported that classified White House emails showed that Karl Rove had lobbied for Griffin to be appointed Cummins's successor. On May 31, 2007, The Washington Post reported speculation that Griffin was in discussions with the then-nascent presidential campaign of Fred Thompson for a top-level post.
Instead, Griffin set up an office in Little Rock for Mercury Public Affairs, a New York City-based firm, part of the Omnicom Group, at which Griffin had worked as general counsel and managing director. After a short period with Mercury, he started Griffin Public Affairs and the Griffin Law Firm. In late May 2008, columnist Robert Novak reported that Griffin had been named as the RNC's director of research for the presidential campaign of Senator John McCain of Arizona. Griffin was assigned to direct opposition research, "although final arrangements have not been pinned down," Novak said, but Griffin said he was not going back to the Republican National Committee, that he had not talked to anyone in the GOP's leadership structure or with the McCain campaign about that role. 2010 On September 21, 2009, Griffin announced that he was running for Congress, to replace Democrat Vic Snyder who stepped down after fourteen years in Arkansas' 2nd congressional