St. Francis River
The St. Francis River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, about 426 miles long, in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States; the river drains a rural area and forms part of the Missouri-Arkansas state line along the western side of the Missouri Bootheel. The river rises in a region of granite mountains in Iron County and flows southwardly through the Ozarks and the St. Francois Mountains near Missouri's highest point Taum Sauk, it forms the Missouri-Arkansas border in the Bootheel and exits the state at Missouri's lowest point in the "toe" at 241 feet above sea level. It passes through Lake Wappapello, formed by a dam constructed in 1941. Below the dam the river meanders through cane forests and willow wetlands or forested swamp, transitioning from a clear stream into a slow and silt-laden muddy river as it enters the flat lands of the Mississippi embayment. In its lower course the river parallels Crowleys Ridge and is part of a navigation and flood-control project that encompasses a network of diversion channels and ditches along it and the Castor and Little rivers.
Below the mouth of the Little River in Poinsett County, the St. Francis is navigable by barge, it joins the Mississippi River in Phillips County, about 7 miles north of Helena. Along its course in Missouri, the river flows through the Mark Twain National Forest and past Sam A. Baker State Park and the towns of Farmington and Fisk. In Arkansas it passes the towns of St. Francis, Lake City, Marked Tree and Parkin, continues through two additional namesakes of the river — St. Francis County, St. Francis Township in northeastern Phillips County — ending its course adjoining the St. Francis National Forest. In addition to the Little River, tributaries of the St. Francis include the Little St. Francis River, which joins it along its upper course in Missouri. General overview and logistics: The most popular section of the St. Francis River for whitewater boating is divided into two sections, the Upper and the Lower; the Upper section's put-in is near Fredericktown, off HW 72 just after it crosses the river.
The put is located just upstream of where Stouts Creek joins in with the St. Francis River; the take out for the upper St. Francis is at Millstream Gardens Conservation Area or downstream of that at Tiemann Shut-ins, which serves as the usual put-in for the lower St. Francis; the total five-mile stretch that encompasses both the upper and the Lower St. Francis River ends at Silver Mines Recreation Area. Upper St. Francis: The upper section of the river is much less technical than the lower and has extensive flat water sections between rapids; the upper section is the longer of the two sections at 3.2 miles. At the put-in for the upper section, the water is calm and is a great place for beginner paddlers to practice skills and rolling. Following the calm pool, the river constricts as it makes a large right turn and a great eddy line is formed to practice in; the first rapid encountered on the upper is Entrance Rapid. Entrance is a long, wide rapid with a series of ledges, steeper on the right, which provide good play waves for more technical boaters at lower levels.
At flood levels, Entrance Rapid can be hazardous due to the willows growing along the sides and can present a challenge greater than the whitewater! The second rapid on the upper is Kitten's Crossing and consists of a series of 3 drops with the third having a sizable surfing, wave/hole and a service eddy on the left; the final rapid for the upper is Land of Oz and has two back-to-back surfing waves on the left but the drop just below that collects wood and debris, so be cautious. After a several pools, the river makes a bend to the right before the take-out at Fisherman's Access in Millstream Gardens Conservation Area. Lower St. Francis: The lower section is the much more exciting half of the river and contains the largest rapids, but is the shorter section of the river at 2.3 miles in length. "This is Missouri's premier whitewater run. 80% of the whitewater paddling in Missouri occurs on this section of the St. Francis River with the other 20% taking place either on the Upper St. Francis, on the whitewater creeks close to the St. Francis, on the Mississippi River Chain of Rocks at St. Louis, or at park-and-play spots around the state."
The put-in at in Millstream Gardens Conservation Area, marks the beginning of a granite gorge with the river dropping 60 feet per mile. The whitewater action picks up and continues through four major drops known as Big Drop, Cat's Paw, Double Drop, Rickety-Rack. Throughout the lower St. Francis there are numerous play-spots with surfing waves/holes found everywhere. Downstream of Rickety-Rack, a high bluff can be seen on the right where Mud Creek enters on river right; the entrance of mud creek onto the Lower St. Francis is a good place to stretch you legs and take a small hike up the creek; the creek can be floated down at high water, but an inner-tube would work best. After mud creek and a slow section, Turkey Creek enters on the left at Turkey Creek Picnic Area, part of the USFS Silver Mine Recreation Area. Following this the river bends to the right and is divided by a forest of willow trees; this section contains some small happy white water and higher levels can produce some small surfing waves.
The left rout in the Willow jungle contains a small squeeze between two rocks
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing
William S. Fulton
William Savin Fulton was an American politician who served as the fourth Governor of Arkansas Territory and United States Senator for Arkansas. Fulton was born in Cecil County and graduated from Baltimore College in 1813, he had intended to study law, but with the outbreak of the War of 1812 he enlisted in a company of volunteers at Fort McHenry. Fulton was military secretary to General Andrew Jackson during the First Seminole War in 1818. After the war, Fulton moved to Gallatin, where he was admitted to the bar in 1817. In 1820, Fulton settled in Florence and became county judge in 1822, he was appointed Secretary of the Arkansas Territory by President Andrew Jackson in 1829. He served as Secretary until 1835; when Arkansas was admitted as a state in 1836, he became one of its first Senators. In the Senate he became a member of the Democratic Party. Fulton remained a Senator until his death in 1844. Fulton died at his home in Little Rock and was buried in the historic Mount Holly Cemetery in Little Rock.
Fulton County, Arkansas is named for him. List of Governors of Arkansas List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "William S. Fulton". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William S. Fulton at Find a Grave The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. The 1890 Oklahoma Organic Act organized the western half of Indian Territory and a strip of country known as No Man's Land into Oklahoma Territory. Reservations in the new territory were opened to settlement in land runs that year and in 1891 and 1893. Seven counties were defined upon the creation of the territory. Although they were designated by number, they would become Logan, Oklahoma, Kingfisher and Beaver counties; the Land Run of 1893 led to the addition of Kay, Woods, Garfield and Pawnee counties. The territory acquired an additional county through the resolution of a boundary dispute with the U. S. state of Texas, which today is split into Greer, Jackson and part of Beckham counties. Oklahoma Territory's history began with the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 when the United States Congress set aside land for Native Americans.
At the time, the land was unorganized territory that consisted of the federal land "west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas..." By 1856, the territory had been reduced to the modern-day borders of the State of Oklahoma, except for the Oklahoma Panhandle and Old Greer County. These lands became known as Indian Territory, as they had been granted to certain Indian nations under the Indian Removal Act, in exchange for their historic territories east of the Mississippi River; until this point, Native Americans had used the land. In 1866, after the American Civil War, the federal government required new treaties with the tribes that had supported the Confederacy, forced them into land and other concessions; as a result of the Reconstruction Treaties, The Five Civilized Tribes were required to emancipate their slaves and offer them full citizenship in the tribes if they wanted to stay in the Nations. This forced many of the tribes in Indian Territory into making concessions.
U. S. officials forced the cession of some 2,000,000 acres of land in the center of the Indian Nation Territory. Elias C. Boudinot a railroad lobbyist, wrote an article, published in the Chicago Times on February 17, 1879, that popularized the term Unassigned Lands to refer to this tract. Soon the popular press began referring to the people agitating for its settlement as Boomers. To prevent settlement of the land by European-Americans, President Rutherford B. Hayes, issued a proclamation forbidding unlawful entry into Indian Territory in April 1879. Despite federal obstruction, popular demands for the land did not end. Captain David L. Payne was one of the main supporters of the opening of Oklahoma to white settlement. Payne traveled to Kansas, where he founded the Boomer "Colonial Association." Payne's organization of 10,000 members hoped to establish a white colony in the Unassigned Lands. The formation of the group prompted President Hayes to issue a proclamation ordering Payne not to enter Indian Territory on February 12, 1880.
In response and his group traveled to Camp Alice in the Unassigned Lands, east of Oklahoma City. There, they made plans for a city, which they named "Ewing." The Fourth Cavalry arrested them, escorted them back to Kansas. Payne was furious, as public law prohibited the military from interfering in civil matters; the federal government freed Payne and his party denying them access to the courts. Anxious to prove his case in court, Payne and a larger group returned to Ewing in July; the Army again escorted them back to Kansas. Again they were freed but this time the federal government charged Payne with trespassing under the Indian Intercourse Act. Judge Isaac Parker fined him the maximum amount of one thousand dollars. Since Payne had no money and no property, the government could not collect the fine; the ruling settled nothing on the question of the public domain lands, Payne continued his activities. Payne tried a third time to enter the Unassigned Lands. In December and his group moved along the northern border of Indian Territory.
They were followed by a unit of cavalry under the command of Colonel J. J. Copinger. Colonel Copinger warned Payne that if he crossed the border that they would be "forcibly resisted." As the number of Boomers grew as people joined Payne, they sent a messenger to President Hayes asking permission to enter Indian Territory. After weeks of no response, Payne led his followers to the Unassigned Lands. Once again, they were arrested and Payne was sent back to Fort Smith, he was sentenced to pay a $1,000 fine. Upon his release, he returned to Kansas. During Payne's last venture, this time into the Cherokee Outlet in 1884, the Army again arrested him, they took him several hundred miles under severe physical circumstances over a tortuous route to Ft. Smith; the public was outraged about his treatment by the military, the US government decided to try his case. Payne was turned over to the United States District Court at Kansas, he was indicted for the crime of bringing whiskey into a Federal offense. In the fall term, Judge Cassius G. Foster quashed the indictments and ruled that settling on the Unassigned Lands was not a criminal offense.
The Boomers celebrated. Payne planned another expedition, but he would not lead it. On November 28, 1884, i
The Arkansas Post was the first European settlement in the lower Mississippi River Valley and present-day Arkansas when Henri de Tonti established it in 1686 as a French trading post on the banks of the lower Arkansas River. The French and Spanish traded with the Quapaw for years, the post was of strategic value to the French and Americans, it was designated as the first capital of the Arkansas Territory in 1819, but lost that status to Little Rock in 1821. During the years of fur trading, Arkansas Post was protected by a series of forts; the forts and associated settlements were located at three known sites and a fourth, as the waterfront area was prone to erosion and flooding. The land encompassing the second Arkansas Post site was designated as a state park in 1929. In 1960 about 757.51-acre of land at the site was protected as a National Memorial and National Historic Landmark. Three archeological excavations have been conducted beginning in the 1950s. Experts say the most extensive cultural resources at the site are archeological, both for the 18th and 19th-century settlements, the earlier Quapaw villages.
Due to changes in the river and navigation measures, the water level has risen closer to the height of the bluffs, which used to be well above the river. The site is now considered low lying. Erosion and construction on the river have resulted in the remains of three of the historic forts being under water in the river channel; the Arkansas Post was founded in the summer of 1686 by Henri de Tonti, Jacques Cardinal, Jean Couture, four other Frenchmen as a trading post near the site of a Quapaw village named Osotouy, about 35 miles upriver from the strategically significant confluence of the Arkansas with the Mississippi River. The post was established on land given to De Tonti for his service in René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle's 1682 expedition; the agreement with the local Quapaw consisted of trading French goods for beaver furs, although this arrangement did not yield much profit, as the Quapaw had little interest in hunting beaver. So, trade and friendly relations with the Quapaw and other local native peoples, such as the Caddo and Osage, were integral to the post's survival for most of its operations.
The French settlers called the post Aux Arcs. The first structures erected at the site were fence; the small settlement was the first permanent French holding west of the Mississippi and the first European settlement in the Lower Mississippi Valley. There the French conducted the first documented Christian services in Arkansas; the importance of the post was realized in 1699, when King Louis XIV began to invest more resources into French Louisiana. John Law's Mississippi Company made a venture from 1717 to 1724 recruiting German settlers to turn the surrounding area into a major agricultural hub; the plan was to grow crops on the lower Arkansas for trade with Arkansas Post, New Orleans, French Illinois. About 100 slaves and indentured servants were brought to the area as workers, land grants were offered to German settlers. However, this project failed when the company withdrew from Arkansas Post due to the burst of the Mississippi Bubble. Most of the slaves and indentured servants were relocated elsewhere along the Lower Mississippi, but a few remained in or near the post, becoming hunters and traders.
By 1720, the post had lost much of its significance to the French because of the lack of profit in trading with the Quapaw, the population was low. In 1723, the post was occupied by thirteen French soldiers and Lieutenant Avignon Guérin de La Boulaye was the commander. Father Paul du Poisson was priest at the post from July 1727 until his death in 1729; the post was expanded in 1731, when its new commander, First Ensign Pierre Louis Petit de Coulange, built a barrack, a powder magazine, a prison, a house for himself and future commanders. On May 10, 1749, during the Chickasaw Wars, the post experienced its first military engagement. Chief Payamataha of the Chickasaw attacked the rural areas of the post with 150 of his warriors and capturing several settlers; the site of this first post is believed to be near what is now called the Menard-Hodges Site, located about 5 miles from the Arkansas Post Memorial. This property, like the memorial a National Historic Landmark, is owned by the National Park Service, but is undeveloped.
As a result of the Chickasaw raid and continued threats of attack, Ensign Louis Xavier Martin de Lino, the commander at the time, moved the post upriver, further from the Chickasaw territory east of the Mississippi, closer to the Quapaw villages, the post's main trading partners. This new location, about 45 miles from the mouth of the Arkansas, was called Écores Rouges, at "the heights of the Grand Prairie" and was situated on a bend in the river, on higher ground than the previous location. In 1752, Captain Paul Augustin Le Pelletier de La Houssaye, the next commander, rebuilt the post's important structures such as the barrack and powder magazine. In addition to these structures, he expanded the commander's house to include a chapel and quarters for the priest, he added a storehouse, bake house, latrine. To protect the post's new buildings, he erected a stockade eleven feet in hei
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt