Arkansas River Valley
The Arkansas River Valley is a region in Arkansas defined by the Arkansas River in the western part of the state. Defined as the area between the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains, the River Valley is characterized by flat lowlands covered in fertile farmland and lakes periodically interrupted by high peaks. Mount Magazine, Mount Nebo, Petit Jean Mountain compose the Tri-Peaks Region, a further subdivision of the River Valley popular with hikers and outdoors enthusiasts. In addition to the outdoor recreational activities available to residents and visitors of the region, the River Valley contains Arkansas's wine country as well as hundreds of historical sites throughout the area, it is one of six natural divisions of Arkansas. The Arkansas River Valley is not formally defined along county boundaries, including all of Logan and Sebastian counties and portions of Conway, Johnson, Perry and Yell counties. Arkansas Valley Hills - North and east of the Arkansas River, sometimes associated with the Ozarks Bottomlands - Low swamps and prairies along the Arkansas River itself, 10 miles wide in some places Fort Smith metropolitan area - Sebastian and Franklin counties in Arkansas Ozark National Forest - a small, discontinuous portion of the federally protected area is within the region Tri-peaks Region - Region punctuated by three steep mountains: Mount Magazine, Mount Nebo and Petit Jean Mountain Valley - south of the Arkansas River, level plains and rolling hills Wine Country - American Viticultural Area near Altus In the Pre-Colonial era, the River Valley was inhabited by Native American tribes, including Caddo, Choctaw, Osage and Quapaw tribes.
Most first encounters describe scattered villages and individual farmsteads in the River Valley, unlike the organized "towns" and groves and orchards encountered in eastern Arkansas. Much of what is known about these early societies has been uncovered by the Arkansas Archaeological Survey and the Arkansas Archaeological Society at Carden Bottoms in Yell County near the Arkansas and Petit Jean Rivers. Research at the site has linked artifacts to cave art in a cave on Petit Jean Mountain, as well as establishing links to the Caddo and Quapaw tribes. Hernando de Soto became the first European explorer to enter Arkansas in 1541, his expedition of 600 Spanish explorers searching for gold and riches crossed into Arkansas across the Mississippi River, explored the state for the next two years. The expedition traveled to Tanico, an important city somewhere in the River Valley, in September 1542; the following month, the expedition fought with a tribe referred to as the Tula somewhere near Fort Smith.
This fighting caused de Soto to turn the expedition back east, leaving the River Valley. Following the war, the Southern economy was including Arkansas; the cost of the war effort, loss of human capital, Confederate currency losing value were serious issues for the South in addition to the destruction of property and crops. Many parts of Arkansas had descended into lawlessness and violence between whitecapping groups, freedmen and unaffiliated bandits taking advantage of the chaos. Indicative of the disarray, Radical Republican Governor Powell Clayton declared martial law in ten counties following reelection in 1868. Although no River Valley counties were subject to the proclamation, Clayton added four more counties, including one partial-River Valley county, Conway County. Since settlement, the River Valley had been a cashless society with less reliance on slave labor compared to plantation agriculture areas like the Arkansas Delta and elsewhere in the Deep South; the Klan had limited support, much of the area was viewed Re Due to its strong position following the Civil War, the River Valley attracted new settlement throughout Reconstruction.
Populations of Austrian Catholics, German Catholics, German Catholics and Lutherans were relocating to the River Valley. Some most came from early settlements in the Ohio River Valley; the Lutherans immigrated in organized companies, where the Catholics came independently, although some Catholic settlements like Clarksville and Subiaco were founded by organized groups. These settlements received support from existing immigrant populations in Little Rock and Fort Smith, groups of Protestant settlers establishing settlements in the area. Several of the River Valley's small towns were founded by these groups, beginning as small clusters of immigrants and evolving into cohesive communities. Many immigrants came to the River Valley searching for agricultural prosperity by farming cotton, which could fetch high prices at market and turn a farm into a profitable enterprise. Upon arriving in the region, many found only densely forested upland to be the only property they could afford. River Valley soil and climate are much less conducive to cotton cultivation than the Arkansas Delta, many settlers struggled.
A preference for mixed farming emerged, including potatoes and other garden vegetables, to protect against a poor cotton crop sending a farm into economic ruin. Coal mining was an important industry in the River Valley's early history. Dangerous and demanding, the industry attracted Swiss and German immigrants who were unable to establish productive farms. Mining became prominent by 1873 around the Altus area; the Swiss and German immigrants found the rolling hills similar to the topography of their homeland. Due to the climate, fertile soil and immigrants accustomed to wine with their me
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Battle of Marks' Mills
The Battle of Marks' Mills known as the Action at Marks’ Mills, was fought in present-day Cleveland County, during the American Civil War. Confederate Brigadier-General James F. Fagan, having made a forced march, attacked a train of several hundred wagons, guarded by a brigade of infantry, 500 cavalry, a section of light artillery under command of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis M. Drake of the 36th Iowa, on its way from Camden to Pine Bluff for supplies. Drake had a reputation as an Indian fighter. Drake organized and led a spirited defense of his train and, although outnumbered, he and seven companions beat the attackers off after Drake killed their leader with his knife. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Drake was appointed Captain of a cavalry company of Lieutenant Colonel John Edwards' Southern Iowa Border Brigade. Drake participated in numerous skirmishes with that command while clearing northern Missouri of confederates and was rewarded with an appointment as commander of the federal supply depot at Hannibal, Missouri.
When the 36th Iowa was organized in September 1862, Iowa Governor Samuel Kirkwood appointed Drake Lieutenant Colonel of that regiment. The 36th were veterans, having participated in the Yazoo Pass Expedition, February–April, 1863, the Battle of Helena, July 4, 1863, as well as in every skirmish and battle of the Camden Expedition, including the Battle of Elkins Ferry, April 3–4, 1863, where Drake was in command of the advanced troops of General Fred Steele who forced the crossing of the Little Missouri River, holding the crossing with only two battalions of infantry against 2,500 Confederates. Following the Federal defeat at the Battle of Poison Spring on April 18, 1864, Major-General Frederick Steele retained possession of Camden while Confederate Major-General Sterling Price continued his ad hoc siege upon Camden from the countryside; as Federal provisions diminished, arrival of much-needed supplies from Pine Bluff convinced Steele that more could be obtained using the Camden-Pine Bluff Road.
Steele ordered Drake with over 1,400 infantrymen and cavalry support, 240 army wagons to obtain supplies from Pine Bluff. Reinforced on the morning of April 25, 1864 by some 350 additional troops, Drake's command contained 1,800 combatants, including the 43rd Indiana, 36th Iowa and the 77th Ohio plus additional cavalry and artillery. In addition to the army wagons, some 75 additional civilian wagons belonging to cotton speculators followed along behind. General Steele had instructed LTC Drake not to attempt a crossing of the Moro Bayou bottom—a few miles west of Marks Mills—after nightfall. According to Captain Samuel Swiggett of the 36th Iowa, as the supply train approached the bottom on Sunday afternoon, Drake was confronted with an nearly impassible road through the bottom due to flooding caused by recent heavy spring rainfall. Additionally, according to Swiggett, the civilian teamsters tagging along behind were growing argumentative and hard to handle due to the slow pace. Drake therefore ordered the train into encampment in a field on the side of the road west of Moro crossing at 2 pm, meanwhile ordered several dozen Black contrabands accompanying the train forward as pioneers to begin cutting down timber and laying a corduroy road across the muddy bottom.
Others, including members of the 43rd Indiana, stated that the train went into camp closer to 4pm. Regardless of the precise time, it is likely—as Swiggett pointed out—that the entire train could have crossed the Moro Bottom by evening. Union General Powell Clayton, in command at Pine Bluff, knew that Steele would be sending more wagons to Pine Bluff for additional supplies and he had posted some of his troops at Mount Elba, halfway between Marks Mills and Pine Bluff, to provide escort for any federal trains enroute Pine Bluff, it is Swiggett's contention, that had Drake pressed on that Sunday afternoon, the train would have crossed Moro bottom and could have been well on its way up the Pine Bluff Road to Mount Elba by nightfall. Swiggett reported that as they lay in camp on the west bank of the Moro, all experienced a feeling or foreboding. Swiggett's opinion is supported by the fact that the Confederate forces had crossed the Ouachita River well below Camden and made an all-night forced march of 52 miles on 24 April in order to get in front of Drake's command, the Confederates had just arrived at the ambush site in force early Monday morning and they were still sorting out their ambush plan when Drake's command crossed the Moro and continued up the road into the clearing at Marks Mills.
Thus, had Drake pressed forward on Sunday instead of going into camp in mid-afternoon, it is possible that the train would have been well ahead of the ambush site by 8:00 am on Monday morning and within range of Clayton's cavalry escort posted at Mount Elba. The 43rd took the lead, with the wagon train stretching more than a mile along muddy forest roads. Encountering mirey ground along the rain-swollen Moro River, Colonel Drake chose not to push through to Pine Bluff, instead camped about eight miles outside of town, he did so unaware. Though Major Wesley Norris tried to warn Drake of movement in the woods to his front during the night, Drake laughed off his concerns and told Norris—a combat veteran of the Mexican War—that he "got scared too easily."Although Drake was roundly criticized by surviving soldiers of the 2nd Brigade—particularly men of the 43rd Indiana—Drake had proven his brave
Petroleum is a occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation using a fractionating column. It consists of occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds; the name petroleum covers both occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterisation have been completed, it is refined and separated, most by distillation, into a large number of consumer products, from gasoline and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals.
Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, it is estimated that the world consumes about 95 million barrels each day. The use of petroleum as fuel is controversial due to its impact on global warming and ocean acidification. Fossil fuels, including petroleum, need to be phased out by the end of 21st century to avoid "severe and irreversable impacts for people and ecosystems", according to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the word petroleum comes from Medieval Latin petroleum, which comes from Latin petra', "rock", Latin oleum, "oil". The term was used in the treatise De Natura Fossilium, published in 1546 by the German mineralogist Georg Bauer known as Georgius Agricola. In the 19th century, the term petroleum was used to refer to mineral oils produced by distillation from mined organic solids such as cannel coal, refined oils produced from them. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, is now important across society, including in economy and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry the synthesis of plastics, solvents and pesticides. More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society; the use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than 2000 years ago. In I Ching, one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered and used in China in the first century BCE. In addition, the Chinese were the first to use petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. By 347 AD, oil was produced from bamboo-drilled wells in China. Crude oil was distilled by Arabic chemists, with clear descriptions given in Arabic handbooks such as those of Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi.
The streets of Baghdad were paved with tar, derived from petroleum that became accessible from natural fields in the region. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around Azerbaijan; these fields were described by the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan'Alī al-Mas'ūdī in the 10th century, by Marco Polo in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads. Arab and Persian chemists distilled crude oil in order to produce flammable products for military purposes. Through Islamic Spain, distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century, it has been present in Romania since the 13th century, being recorded as păcură. Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in 1795, had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production. Pechelbronn is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been used; the still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since 1498, notably for medical purposes.
Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century. In Wietze in lower Saxony, natural asphalt/bitumen has been explored since the 18th century. Both in Pechelbronn as in the coal industry dominated the petroleum technologies. Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton, Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery. In 1848, Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by sl
Battle of Jenkins' Ferry
The Battle of Jenkins' Ferry known as the Engagement at Jenkins' Ferry, was fought at Jenkins' Ferry, southwest of Little Rock, during the American Civil War. It was the climactic battle of a part of the Red River Campaign; as a result of the battle, Federal forces were able to complete a retreat from a precarious position at Camden to their defenses at Little Rock. In March 1864, the United States Army in Louisiana under the command of Major-General Nathaniel Banks and the United States Navy operating on the Mississippi River under the command of Admiral David Porter launched the Red River Campaign; the campaign's immediate objective was the capture of Shreveport, the headquarters of General E. Kirby Smith, commander of the Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department. Shreveport was the temporary capital of Louisiana, a major supply depot and a gateway to Texas. An incidental objective of the campaign was to purchase cotton, in short supply in the northern States and thereby to win the loyalty of planters along the river for the United States.
It was thought. Henry Halleck, Major-General and General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States, who devised the plan wanted to open the road to the occupation of Texas by U. S. forces and to discourage French incursions from Mexico. France had invaded and occupied Mexico in June 1863, setting up a government under their puppet "emperor," Maximilian. Since President Lincoln had approved the Red River Campaign plan before promoting Ulysses Grant to Lieutenant-General and appointing him General-in-Chief, Grant felt he could not stop the campaign. Grant did try to hurry its execution because he would have preferred to use a 10,000–man force, diverted to the campaign to reinforce Major-General William Sherman in Sherman's drive from north Georgia to Atlanta. Grant would have liked to have pinned down more Confederate troops in Alabama with an attack on the Confederate stronghold at Mobile. General Banks had a force of at least 20,000 men available near New Orleans for the campaign, he was to be joined by 10,000 men of Sherman's army from Vicksburg, Mississippi under the command of Brigadier-General Andrew Smith.
Smith's force accompanied Porter's flotilla up the Red River. They were successful in capturing Fort DeRussy to open passage up the Red River. Major-General Frederick Steele commanding 14,000 men was supposed to move his forces in support of Banks against Shreveport from their bases to the north at Little Rock, Fort Smith, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Steele's part in the campaign became known as the Camden Expedition. Steele said its objective was to reach and occupy Camden, Arkansas and to draw Confederate cavalry away from Shreveport in support of Banks's effort to take that city. Nonetheless, Banks planned for Steele to join him in the attempt to take Shreveport, not just to occupy Camden temporarily. Grant sent a telegram to Steele which told Steele that a demonstration alone was insufficient support of Banks. After Banks's forces were repulsed in their march toward Shreveport at the Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana by outnumbered forces led by Confederate Lieutenant-General Richard Taylor, Banks paused his retreat at Alexandria, Louisiana.
Banks still thought he could renew the campaign and communicated to Steele his desire for Steele's reinforcements to join his forces in another attempt to take Shreveport. Steele, with 8,000 men, first marched southwest from Little Rock to Arkansas. Steele planned to meet a federal column of 4,000 men from Fort Smith, led by Brigadier-General John Thayer, at Arkadelphia. A Federal cavalry force of about 2,000 men from Pine Bluff, Arkansas was supposed to keep watch on the Confederate garrison at Camden, divert attention from Steele's movement and to join up with Steele. Though Steele was three weeks behind schedule, he did not find Thayer at Arkadelphia when his forces arrived there on March 29, 1864. Steele's men had marched for the last three days in the rain on reduced rations; the people of the poor country along the route of the march were destitute and there was little food or forage to be had. After waiting until April 1, 1864, with his supplies being further depleted and no word from Thayer, Steele moved southwest toward Washington, the temporary capital of Confederate Arkansas.
He united with Thayer near Elkins' Ferry on the Little Missouri River on April 9, 1864. Thayer brought few supplies and the combined force became short of supplies. Steele succeeded in aiding Banks only to the extent of keeping the five Confederate cavalry brigades in the region from joining the forces opposing Banks. Two Confederate infantry divisions from Arkansas and Missouri under the overall command of Major-General Sterling Price, the commander of Confederate forces in Arkansas, were sent from the Camden area to support the forces opposing Banks. Under the command of Brigadier-General John Marmaduke and the overall command of Price, who stayed in Arkansas, three of the five Confederate cavalry brigades left in Arkansas harassed Steele's force as it moved from Arkadelphia, they could not stop its slow progress. The opposing forces fought a small battle at Elkins' Ferry on the Little Missouri River on April 3, 1864, where Steele's forces stymied Marmaduke's attempt to prevent them from crossing the Little Missouri River.
They fought another small battle at Prairie D'Ane, Arkansas on April 10, 1864. On April 12, Steele feinted toward Washington, where Price had moved to resist Steele's presumed objective to take the town. Steele sidestepped the Confederates with a move to Camden, out of
The Ouachita Mountains referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America; the Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U. S. Interior Highlands; the highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet. Louis R. Harlan claimed that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words ouac for buffalo and chito for large, together meaning "country of large buffaloes". At one time, herds of buffalo inhabited the lowland areas of the Ouachitas. Historian Muriel H. Wright wrote that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words owa for hunt and chito for big, together meaning "big hunt far from home".
According to the article Ouachita in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, "Ouachita" comes from the French spelling of the Caddo word washita, meaning "good hunting grounds". The Ouachitas are a major physiographic province of Arkansas and Oklahoma and are grouped with the Arkansas River Valley. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U. S. Interior Highlands, one of few mountainous regions between the Appalachians and Rockies; the Ouachitas are dominated by pine and hickory. The shortleaf pine and post oak are common in upland areas; the maple-leaf oak is found at only four sites worldwide. Some native tree species, such as the eastern red-cedar, are colonizers of human-disturbed sites; the Ouachita National Forest covers 1.8 million acres of the Ouachitas. It is one of the largest and oldest national forests in the Southern U. S. created through an executive order by President Theodore Roosevelt on December 18, 1907. There are six wilderness areas within the Ouachita National Forest, which are protected areas designed to minimize the impacts of human activities.
Bison and elk once have since been extirpated. Today, there are large populations of white-tailed deer and other common temperate forest animals. Though elusive, hundreds of black bear roam the Ouachitas. Several species of salamander are endemic to the Ouachitas and have traits that vary from one locale to another; the Athens Piedmont consists of a series of none exceeding 1,000 feet. It is located south of the Ouachitas and extends from Arkadelphia, Arkansas to the Arkansas-Oklahoma border; the Athens Piedmont runs through Clark, Howard and Sevier counties in Arkansas and McCurtain County in Oklahoma. The Caddo and Missouri mountains are a high, compact group of mountains composed of the weather-resistant Arkansas Novaculite, they are located in Montgomery and Polk counties, Arkansas. The highest natural point is Raspberry Mountain at 2,358 feet; the headwaters of multiple rivers are found in this area, including the Caddo and Little Missouri rivers. The Cross Mountains are located in Polk and Sevier counties, Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma.
The highest natural point is Whiskey Peak at 1,670 feet. The Crystal Mountains are located in Montgomery County, Arkansas, they are so named because of the occurrence of some of the world's finest quartz. The Crystal Mountains are taller than the nearby Zig Zag Mountains, achieving elevations over 1,800 feet; the Fourche Mountains are a long, continuous chain of mountains composed of the weather-resistant Jackfork Sandstone. They extend from Pulaski County, Arkansas to Atoka County and are home to several popular sites of interest, including Pinnacle Mountain State Park near Little Rock, Arkansas; the highest natural point is Rich Mountain at 2,681 feet, which intersects the Arkansas-Oklahoma border near Mena, Arkansas. The Fourche Mountains form a major watershed divide between the Arkansas River Basin to the north and the Red River Basin to the south; the Frontal Ouachita Mountains are located in the Arkansas River Valley and feature a number of isolated landforms. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet, the highest natural point of the Ouachitas and U.
S. Interior Highlands; the Frontal Ouachita Mountains are structurally quite different from the rest of the Ouachitas and are sometimes considered a separate range. The Trap Mountains are located in Garland and Hot Spring counties, Arkansas; the highest natural point is Trap Mountain at 1,310 feet. The Zig Zag Mountains are located in Garland County and are home to the thermal springs of Hot Springs National Park, they are so named because of their unique chevron shape when viewed from above, the result of plunging anticlines and synclines. The Zig Zag Mountains do reach heights over 1,400 feet; the Ouachitas are formed by a thick succession of deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, which outcrops for 220 miles in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. In a general sense, the Ouachitas are considered an anticlinorium because the oldest known rocks are located towards the center of the outcrop area; the Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and Mississippi where they plunge towards the Appalachian Mountains.
To the southwest, the Ouachitas join with the Marathon area of west Texas where rocks of the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt are exposed. Unlike many ranges in the United St
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti