National Gallery of Denmark
National Gallery of Denmark is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, maintains and handles Danish, the major part of the museums older collections comes from the art chambers of Danish kings. The display of European Art 1300–1800 is a collection of art over the 500-year period, featuring works by Mantegna, Titian, Rubens. The art is spread over thirteen rooms, and is the oldest art collection in Denmark, with a emphasis on Danish, Flemish, French, Spanish. Danish and Nordic Art 1750-1900 charts Scandinavian art from the beginnings of Danish painting through the ‘Golden Age’ to the birth of Modernism and it displays over 400 works through 24 galleries. It features work by Abildgaard, Eckersberg, Købke, Ring, SMK gained its modern French art collection in 1928 when it was donated by the late collector Johannes Rump. This collection features some of the museum’s most famous pieces from artists such as Matisse, Picasso and Braque. The collection was first offered to the SMK by Rump in 1923, housed in the museum’s 1993 extension, this 20th and 21st century collection is predominantly focused on the most important examples of modern Danish art.
A long corridor of paintings looking onto Østre Anlæg park works as an overview of the work from this period. The beginnings of this collection were made around the time of Christian II, in his diary from 1521 the German painter Albrecht Dürer says he has given the King the best pieces of all my prints. In 1843 the various works, which had so far been the private collection, were displayed to the public. It was moved into the Statens Museum for Kunst when the first building was completed in 1896, along with The Royal Collection of Paintings, although the papers contain a great number of foreign works, Danish art constitutes the main part of the collection. This collection is open to the public through the Print Room, the Royal Cast Collection is held at the West India Warehouse, Toldbodgade 40, between The Little Mermaid and Nyhavn in Copenhagen. It consists of over 2,000 naked plaster casts of statues and reliefs from collections, temples, the Royal Cast Collection is only open for special events.
At the start of the Second World War the art of antiquity became increasingly unfashionable, associated with an archaic artistic tradition. In 1966, as abstract art became popular, the Royal Cast Collection was removed to a barn outside Copenhagen for storage. The collections of the Danish National Gallery originate in the Art Chamber of the Danish monarchs, when the German Gerhard Morell became Keeper of Frederick Vs Art Chamber about 1750, he suggested that the king create a separate collection of paintings. To ensure that the collection was not inferior to those of other European royal houses and local counts, the collection became particularly well provided with Flemish and Dutch art
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
Frieboeshvile is a Baroque-style country house in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located across the street from Sorgenfri Palace, where Lyngby Main Street meets Lyngby Kongevej, the house takes its name after Frederik Casper Conrad Frieboe who is buried in the grounds together with his wife and a few other family members. Its most notable resident is Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz who played an important part in the Rescue of the Danish Jews during World War II. The house now serves as a house museum showing how Copenhagen peers decorated their country homes in the late 18th century. It hosts a permanent and special exhibitions about local history as well as the historic archives for Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality. The house was built from 1756 to 1758 owned by August Günther, a chemist from Copenhagen, in 1782 the property was acquired by the wealthy shipping agent Andreas Bodenhoff. His daughter Gjertrud Cathrine inherited it in 1794 and after she married rittmeister and General Frederik Caspar Conrad Frieboe and his testament gave the house its current name and converted the estate into Denmarks smallest fideicommissum.
The next resident was his sisters son, Lieutenant Colonel F. C. C, in 1919 the house came into ordinary ownership when the Lensafløsningsloven Act dissolved all Fideicommia. On the same occasion, the house was listed in 1919, the last member of the Funch family to live in the house was Agnete Bruhn, F. C. C. Her husband was Georg Bruhn who worked for Bank of Denmark, frieboueshviles stables in the side wing was in 1923 converted into a separate residence and rented out. In 1941, during the German Occupation of Denmark in World War II, on 18 August 1943, Frieboeshvile played host to a meeting between Werner Best and the Danish politicians Hans Hedtoft, H. C. Duckwitz served as West Germanyd Ambassador to Denmark after the war, following her husbands death, Agnete Bruhn sold the property to Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality in 1953 but continued to live there until 1968. Built in the Baroque style, Frieboeshvile is constructed in brick with white dressing and it consists of a single storey topped by a black-glazed mansard roof.
The roof is not part of the building but was added in 1977 when the house was restored. The original roof was clad in wooden roof shingles which in 1867 were replaced with slate shingles, the renovation restored the Neoclassical interiors which date from Friboes period of ownership. August Günthers initials are found above the entrance as well as on the first floor. Apart from the site of General Frieboe and his family. These include a grotto which originally afforded access to a now collapsed fruit cellar, Frieboeshvile today serves as a historic house museum showing how the Copenhagen bourgeoisie of the late 18th century decorated their country houses where they would reside throughout the summer
Ordrupgaard is a state-owned art museum situated near Jægersborg Dyrehave, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum houses one of Northern Europe’s most considerable collections of Danish and French art from the 19th, Ordrupgaard was founded 1916–1918 by former Hafnia managing director, titular Councillor of State Wilhelm Hansen and his wife Henny Hansen. Wilhelm Hansen established his collection of Danish art covering the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century during the period of 1892 to 1916. The Danish Golden Age is comprehensively represented by works by, amongst others, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, Christen Købke, Johan Thomas Lundbye, during World War I, Wilhelm Hansen focused his interest on French art. From 1916 to 1918 he purchased French paintings, pastels and sculptures and it was Wilhelm Hansen’s great wish to acquaint the Danes with French 19th-century art. His first purchases were paintings by Alfred Sisley, Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, Wilhelm Hansen’s main focus was on French Impressionism.
In order, however, to put Impressionism into perspective, his collection comprised the genres immediately preceding and following, Ordrupgaard is able to show Eugène Delacroix, representing Romanticism, Théodore Rousseau, Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet, and Paul Gauguin. When purchasing French art, Wilhelm Hansen often took advice from the French art critic Théodore Duret, parallel to Wilhelm Hansen’s interest in Danish and French art was his interest for furniture and handicrafts. He was especially interested in ceramics and furniture executed by Thorvald Bindesbøll and this consortium, founded in 1918 by Wilhelm Hansen together with the collector Herman Heilbuth and art dealers Winkel & Magnussen, was of great importance to the French purchases. Their declared goal was Buying and selling works of art with the purpose of bringing good, for this reason they bought several collections en bloc in Paris. Wilhelm and Henny Hansen bought a piece of land by Ordrup Krat, near Jægersborg Dyrehave, north of Copenhagen.
Between 1916 and 1918 they built their stately home Ordrupgaard, designed by architect Gotfred Tvede, at the same time an extensive park was laid out by landscape gardener Valdemar Fabricius Hansen. Ordrupgaard was inaugurated on 14 September 1918, in his opening speech Wilhelm Hansen declared that the collection would be left to the Danish State. Ordrupgaard was originally built as a three-winged trellised country mansion in the neo-classical style, the gallery which houses the French collection is connected to the main building by a small conservatory. Additionally a porter’s lodge, a residence and a coach house were erected. A shed and a small half-timbered summerhouse comprise the rest of the buildings on the estate. The Park at Ordrupgaard is laid out in the English style with a smaller French-inspired rose garden, the Park at Ordrupgaard originally functioned as a kitchen garden as well as a flower garden. The extensive produce and the fruit trees sustained the family with fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year while the rest of the grounds were used for leisure
The Hirschsprung Collection is an art museum located on Stockholmsgade in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in a setting in Østre Anlæg, near the Danish National Gallery. The emphasis is on the Danish Golden Age, from 1800 to 1850, the museum is built around the personal art collection of Heinrich Hirschsprung, a tobacco manufacturer and patron of the arts who founded his art collection in 1865. Almost four decades later, in 1902, he donated it to the Danish state and it is displayed in a purpose-built Neoclassical museum building designed by Hermann Baagøe Storck and completed in 1911. Heinrich Hirschsprung was a tobacco manufacturer, over a period of four decades, beginning in 1866, Hirschsprung built an extensive collection of Danish art from the beginning of the 18th century and up to their own day. The collection was shown to the public for the first time in 1888 at Charlottenborg and this happened in connection with the Nordic exhibition of Industry and Art which was expected to draw many foreign visitors to Copenhagen.
The exhibition catalogue included 313 items, representing some 60 Danish artists, about half were paintings while the rest were drawings, watercolours and some sculptures. In 1900, Pauline and Heinrich Hirschsprung decided to donate their art collection to the Danish state and they had a deed of gift drawn up, which was deposited with the Danish Ministry of Cultural Affairs. However, the donation was not made public two years later, in 1902, when the collection was once again exhibited at Charlottenborg. At the same event, the art historian Emil Hannover was put in charge of cataloging the collection, the exhibition at Charlottenborg included renderings of the planned museum building, which had been designed by the architect Hermann Baagøe Storck. Under the terms of the deed of gift, the Danish state and the City of Copenhagen, on their side, were required to make a site and a building available for its exhibition. This scheme was similar to the one which had agreed upon in connection with Carl Jacobsens foundation of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.
Still Hirschsprungs demand for an independent building gave rise to a debate on arts politics which went on for several years. A number of individuals promised to donate works to the collection once it passed into public ownership while others were purchased by Hirschsprung conditional on the same event. In less than a year, Hirschsprung managed to collect the majority of the 180 sculptures included in the 1902 catalogue. The collection represents 20 Danish sculptors,1907 finally saw a successful conclusion to negotiations and a start could be made on building Storcks project from 1902. The site which was chosen was in Østre Anlæg, a park which had been laid out on the grounds of the citys former fortifications. Heinrich Hirschsprung died the year, in 1908, and thus never saw his museum materialize
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museums main building is located a distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world, from Greenland to South America, the museum sponsors SILA - The Greenland Research Centre at the National Museum of Denmark to further archaeological and anthropological research in Greenland. Danish coins from Viking times to the present and coins from ancient Rome and Greece, as well as examples of the coinage, the National Museum keeps Denmark’s largest and most varied collection of objects from the ancient cultures of Greece and Italy, the Near East and Egypt. For example, it holds a collection of objects that were retrieved during the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957, the Danish pre-history section was re-opened in May 2008 after years of renovating. In 2013, an exhibition on the Vikings was opened by Queen Margrethe.
It has toured to other museums, including the British Museum in London, larsen Per Kristian Madsen Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark is the title of the museums yearbook which has been published since 1928 and contains articles and other contributions. ISSN 0084-9308 Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1807 -2007
Louisiana Museum of Modern Art
The Louisiana Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located directly on the shore of the Øresund Sound in Humlebæk,35 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum is acknowledged as a milestone in modern Danish architecture, noted for the synthesis it creates of art, the museum has at occasions exhibitions with works of the great impressionists and expressionists, like the large Claude Monet impressionist exhibition in 1994. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die, the name of the museum derives from the first owner of the property, Alexander Brun, who named the villa after his three wives, all named Louise. The museum was created in 1958 by Knud W. Jensen and he contacted architects Vilhelm Wohlert and Jørgen Bo who spent a few months walking around the property before deciding how a new construction would best fit into the landscape. This study resulted in the first version of the museum consisting of three connected by glass corridors. Since it has been extended several times until it reached its present circular shape in 1991, in late November 2012 Louisiana Museum of Modern Art launched Louisiana Channel, a web-TV channel contributing to the continual development of the museum as a cultural platform.
In 2013 the music department of the museum launch Louisiana Music, the videos are often housed in room settings where the viewer is made to feel part of the scene being portrayed. Perched above the sea, there is a garden between the museums two wings with works by artists including Henry Moore, Alexander Calder, and Jean Arp. Besides the collection of art, Louisiana displays a collection of Pre-Columbian art. Consisting of more than 400 objects, the collection was a donation from the Wessel-Bagge Foundation in 2001 and it is the personal collection left by Niels-Wessel Bagge, who was a Danish dancer and art collector living in California and who died in 1990. The Concert Hall was built in 1976 in connection with the West Wing which had built in 1966 and 1971. Its acoustics make it fit for chamber music but it is used for other musical genres as well as a wide array of others events and activities such as debates, lectures. The chairs are designed by Poul Kjærholm and the wall is decorated with paintings created for the site by Sam Francis.
In 2007 began a project to produce concerts filming and musical clips directed by Stéphan Aubé, all the movies are available for free on the Louisiana Music website. The grounds around the museum contain a sculpture garden. It is made up by a plateau and the sloping terrain towards Øresund and is dominated by huge, ancient specimen trees and sweeping vistas of the sea. It contains works by artists as Jean Arp, Max Ernst, Max Bill, Alexander Calder, Henri Laurens, Louise Bourgeois, Joan Miró. The sculptures are placed so that they can be viewed from within, in special sculpture yards or independently around the gardens, forming a synthesis with the lawns, the trees
The Cisterns is a museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Cisterns, A Cave within a City Located under Frederiksberg Hill in the heart of Søndermarken Park, the natural formation of stalactites and stalagmites are not uncommon for concrete structures, yet none anywhere can offer the sheer magnitude and diversity of those found here. In February 2009 Forbes listed Cisternerne as one of the more unusual exhibition spaces in Europe, the Cisterns, a long forgotten subterranean reservoir, once contained the supply of drinking water for the Danish capital and could hold as much as 16 million liters of clean water
In 1995 he established Studio Olafur Eliasson in Berlin, a laboratory for spatial research. Olafur represented Denmark at the 50th Venice Biennale in 2003 and that year installed The Weather Project in the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern, London. He was a professor at the Berlin University of the Arts from 2009 to 2014 and is a professor at the Alle School of Fine Arts. Olafur Eliasson was born in Copenhagen in 1967 to Elías Hjörleifsson and his parents had emigrated to Copenhagen from Iceland in 1966, he to find work as a cook, and she as a seamstress. He was 8 when his parents separated, he lived with his mother and his stepfather and his father, an artist, moved back to Iceland, where their family spent summers and holidays. At 15 he had his first solo show, exhibiting landscape drawings, Olafur considered his break-dancing during the mid-1980s to be his first artworks. With two school friends, he formed a group — they called themselves the Harlem Gun Crew — and they performed at clubs and dance halls for four years, Olafur studied at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts from 1989 to 1995.
Olafur received his degree from the academy in 1995, after having moved in 1993 to Cologne for a year, and to Berlin, where he has since maintained a studio. First located in a former train depot right next door to the Hamburger Bahnhof. In 1996, Olafur started working with Einar Thorsteinn, an architect, the first piece they created called 8900054, was a stainless-steel dome 30 feet wide and 7 feet high, designed to be seen as if it were growing from the ground. Though the effect is an illusion, the mind has a hard time believing that the structure is not part of a grander one developing from deep below the surface. Thorsteinns knowledge of geometry and space has been integrated into Olafurs artistic production, often seen in his lamp works as well as his pavilions, tunnels. As professor at the Berlin University of the Arts, Olafur Eliasson founded the Institute for Spatial Experiments, early works by Olafur consist of oscillating electric fans hanging from the ceiling. Ventilator swings back and forth and around, rotating on its axis, quadrible light ventilator mobile is a rotating electrically powered mobile comprising a searchlight and four fans blowing air around the exhibition room and scanning it with the light cone.
The weather project was installed at the Londons Tate Modern in 2003 as part of the popular Unilever series, the installation filled the open space of the gallerys Turbine Hall. Olafur used humidifiers to create a fine mist in the air via a mixture of sugar and water, the ceiling of the hall was covered with a huge mirror, in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows against a mass of orange light. Many visitors responded to this exhibition by lying on their backs and waving their hands, open for six months, the work reportedly attracted two million visitors, many of whom were repeat visitors. Olafur has been developing various experiments with atmospheric density in exhibition spaces, in Room For One Colour, a corridor lit by yellow monofrequency tubes, the participants find themselves in a room filled with light that affects the perception of all other colours
Damien Steven Hirst is an English artist and art collector. He is the most prominent member of the known as the Young British Artists. He is internationally renowned, and is reportedly the United Kingdoms richest living artist, during the 1990s his career was closely linked with the collector Charles Saatchi, but increasing frictions came to a head in 2003 and the relationship ended. Death is a theme in Hirsts works. He became famous for a series of artworks in which animals are preserved—sometimes having been dissected—in formaldehyde. The best known of these was The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living and he has made spin paintings, created on a spinning circular surface, and spot paintings, which are rows of randomly coloured circles created by his assistants. In September 2008, he took a move for a living artist by selling a complete show, Beautiful Inside My Head Forever, at Sothebys by auction. Hirst was born Damien Steven Brennan in Bristol and grew up in Leeds and he never met his father, with his mother marrying his stepfather when he was 2 and divorcing 10 years later.
His stepfather was reportedly a motor mechanic, Hirsts mother who was from an Irish Catholic background worked for the Citizens Advice Bureau, and has stated that she lost control of her son when he was young. He was arrested on two occasions for shoplifting, Hirst sees her as someone who would not tolerate rebellion, she cut up his bondage trousers and heated one of his Sex Pistols vinyl records on the cooker to turn it into a fruit bowl. He says, If she didnt like how I was dressed and she did, encourage his liking for drawing, which was his only successful educational subject. His art teacher at Allerton Grange School pleaded for Hirst to be allowed to enter the sixth form and he was refused admission to Jacob Kramer School of Art when he first applied, but attended the college after a subsequent successful application to the Foundation Diploma course. He went to an exhibition of work by Francis Davison, staged by Julian Spalding at the Hayward Gallery in 1983. Davison created abstract collages from torn and cut coloured paper which, Hirst said, blew me away, and which he modelled his own work on for the next two years.
He worked for two years on London building sites, studied Fine Art at Goldsmiths, University of London, although again he was refused a place the first time he applied. In 2007, Hirst was quoted as saying of An Oak Tree by Goldsmiths senior tutor, Michael Craig-Martin, That piece is, I think, I still cant get it out of my head. While a student, Hirst had a placement at a mortuary and he gained sponsorship from the London Docklands Development Corporation. The show was visited by Charles Saatchi, Norman Rosenthal and Nicholas Serota, Hirsts own contribution to the show consisted of a cluster of cardboard boxes painted with household paint
Danish Museum of Art & Design
The Danish Museum of Art & Design is a museum in Copenhagen for Danish and international design and crafts. The exhibition features a variety of Chinese and German porcelain, the museum houses the biggest library for design in Scandinavia. The museum was founded in 1890 at the initiative of, among others, a purpose-built building designed by Vilhelm Klein and located next to Industriforeningens premises on City Hall Square was completed in 1894 and opened to the public the following year. The exhibitions were housed in galleries, each dedicated to a particular field such as porcelain, silver, glass. In 1926 the museum moved to its current building, the defunct Fredericks Hospital from 1757, the architects Kaare Klint and Ivar Bentsen had undertaken the necessary alterations and furnishings. The museum is home to the largest library in Scandinavia dedicated to decorative arts, open to the general public, the library is at once a museum library, research library, and Danish central library within its field.
Opening hours are Tuesday–Friday from 11–17, the library contains more than 1,000 journals. The latest issues of the 75 journals and magazines which the museum subscribes to can be read in the reading room. The reading room of the library hosts public lectures on design-related topics which draw upon the collections in both the museum and the library, the Danish Design Archive and the Poster Collection are located on the museums first floor. The museum has an auditorium on the first floor seating 120 people. It is rented out for lectures, concerts and other events, among the events which take place in the auditorium are chamber music concerts with musicians from Copenhagen Philharmonic. Marketed under the name ½12 Concerts, they place on Sundays at 11.30 am