Molland is a small village, civil parish, dual ecclesiastical parish with Knowstone, located in the foothills of Exmoor in Devon, England. It lies within the North Devon local government district. At the time of the 2001 Census, the village had 203 inhabitants. Molland was first referenced as the Manor of Molland in the Domesday Book; the village contains a church dating back to the 1400s. The northern boundary of the parish rises to 1,239 feet at Round Hill on Molland Common; the parish is surrounded, clockwise from the east, by the Devon parishes of West Anstey, a small part of East Anstey, Bishop's Nympton and Twitchen. The population of the parish was 203 in 2001, down from 397 in 1901; the village lies on minor roads about 4 miles north of the A361 road between Bampton and South Molton. A scatter of tumuli near Round Hill on Molland Common provide the earliest evidence of humans in the parish. A pollen analysis published in 2004 suggests that during the Romano-British period Molland Common was dominated by a pastoral economy with woodland managed, restricted to the steep-sided valleys.
The evidence shows that the land continued in use for pasture until the 10th century when there was a marked increase in the cultivation of cereals. The researchers concluded that this change indicates an increase in population, they pointed out that the evidence is consistent with the introduction of convertible husbandry, a type of land-use management not otherwise documented until the 1500s; the first documentary evidence for Molland appears in the Domesday Book of 1086. The Manor of Molland was a medieval manor co-terminous with the existing parish of Molland. More it consisted from the earliest times of two separate manors, held from separate overlords known as Molland-Bottreaux and Molland-Champson. Molland-Bottreaux was held from the 15th to the 18th centuries by the Courtenay family, while Molland-Champson was held by the Culme family for about 200 years until it was sold to the Courtenays in 1703; the unified manor passed to the Throckmorton family and continues in existence as a large private estate under the ownership of Clare McLaren-Throckmorton.
In 2009 the estate comprised 6,250 acres, 1,700 of which are accounted for by Molland Moor, includes 40 residential properties forming most of Molland village, 13 farms, the London Inn public house and additional land lettings. In 1267 the men of Molland fell foul of royal forest laws as the following record relates concerning Thomas le Shetere of "Gourt" and William Wyme of "Bremley" who entered the forest with bows and arrows with intent to do evil to the venison of the Lord King, shot one hind and afterwards chased her into the wood at Langcombe outside the metes of the forest and there took her and carried her away to their houses in Molaunde...they were given refuge in the house of John the chaplain of Hauekrigge, who consented to their evil deeds. The same chaplain is detained in prison, and the others have not come... Mining for iron and copper took place near Bremley and Gourt from the 17th century until 1894, when the last iron was mined. Records of a mine named Brimley show that over 10,000 tons of iron ore were mined between 1881–3 and 1887–9.
The surviving records of Molland Mine show that over 1,700 tons of copper ore, valued at more than £9,300 were mined between 1845 and 1867. In comparison, the total UK output of iron ore in the late 1880s was around 14 million tons per annum. Both mines were owned by the Molland Mining Co; the maximum number of employees at Brimley was recorded as 26 in 1891, at Molland Mine, 30 in 1889–90. Around 1800 the farmer Francis Quartley of Great Champson did much to save and improve the breed of red Devon cattle; the church is of the 15th century. The Georgian interior is rare in having escaped any Victorian restoration whatsoever. There is a three-decker pulpit, box pews and the roofs are ceiled; the chancel is divided from the nave by an 18th-century screen, there are many mural monuments at the east end of the north aisle to the Courtenays of West Molland, lords of the manor. The font is Norman and the altar rails are c. 1700. On the tympanum above the chancel screen is affixed a large triptych of decorated wooden panels, the central one dated 1808 displaying the Royal Arms of King George III with a panel on either side listing the Ten Commandments.
The arcade forming the southern boundary of the north aisle is in a precarious state, leaning into the north aisle, is supported by oak buttresses resting on the outside wall. An elaborate mural monument survives on the north wall of the chancel of the church to Rev. Daniel Berry, vicar of Molland and Knowstone, erected in 1684 by his son Admiral Sir John Berry, born at Knowstone. After her husband's death Margaret Giffard, the widow of John V Courtenay, the last of the Courtenays of Molland, instituted a lectureship at Molland-cum-Knowstone parish and endowed it with the great tithes of the manor. Recorded holders of the office include: Rev. John Coleridge was ordained a deacon in 1749 and in 1750 was ordained a priest and was appointed Master of Hugh Squier's School in South Molton and Lecturer of Molland. In 1760 he moved to Ottery St Mary, where he served as Master of the King's School. By his wife Anne Bowden (probable daughter of John Bowden, Mayor of So
Chertsey Abbey, dedicated to St Peter, was a Benedictine monastery located at Chertsey in the English county of Surrey. It was founded in 666 AD by Saint Erkenwald, the first abbot, from 675 AD the Bishop of London. At the same time he founded the abbey at Chertsey, Erkenwald founded Barking Abbey, on the Thames east of London, where his sister Saint Ethelburga was the first abbess. Most of north-west Surrey was granted to the abbey by King Frithuwald of Surrey. Dark Age saints buried here include Saint Beocca, a Dark Ages Catholic Saint from Anglo-Saxon England buried here around 870 AD, ninth century Saint Edor of Chertsey. In the 9th century it was sacked by the Danes and refounded from Abingdon Abbey by King Edgar of England in 964. In the eleventh century the monks engineered the Abbey River as an offshoot of the River Thames to supply power to the abbey's watermill. In late medieval times, the Abbey became famous as the burial place of King Henry VI; the abbey was dissolved by the commissioners of King Henry VIII in 1537, but the community moved to Bisham.
The site was given to Sir William Fitzwilliam and now only slight traces remain amongst buildings, although the abbey is remembered in many local names. Some fine medieval tiles from the abbey, some depicting the legend of Tristan and Iseult, may be seen in the British Museum. From the ruins of the abbey, individual letter tiles dating to the second half of the 13th century were recovered, they were assembled to form religious inscription texts on the floor and can be considered a forerunner of movable type printing. One of the Abbey's bells, cast by a Wokingham foundry circa 1380 and weighing just over half a ton is still in use as the 5th of the ring of eight at St Peter's church, is one of the oldest bells in current use in Surrey. A medieval stained glass panel with the abbey's coat of arms is displayed in the Burrell Collection near Glasgow, the two crossed keys from the arms are in the official Banner of Arms of Surrey County Council; some illuminated manuscripts from the abbey survive in various collections.
The Chertsey Breviary, c. 1300, is in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Chertsey Abbey is mentioned in William Shakespeare's Richard III, Act I, Scene 2, Line 27, where Lady Anne says, "Come now towards Chertsey with your holy load", referring to the body of Henry VI; the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers holds the advowson of Chertsey nowadays. After Sir William Fitzwilliam, Chertsey Abbey was owned Dr John Hammond, physician to the royal household under James I, who purchased the site of Chertsey Abbey in Surrey in 1602. Dr Hammond's son, Lt. Col. Thomas Hammond of Cromwell's New Model Army, was named as a Commissioner at the High Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I, despite attending no fewer than fourteen of its sittings, he did not sign the death warrant. In the mid-19th century the site of the abbey was excavated under the supervision of the architect and archaeologist Samuel Angell, who published an account of the investigations, accompanied by a ground plan of the abbey church, in 1862.
Erkenwald founder and first Abbot of Chertsey Abbey. Abbot Beocca, monastery sacked 875 by Vikings Ordbert of Chertsey 964. Wulfwold, Abbot of Chertsey, died 1084. John de Rutherwyk, 1307-46. John Corderoy, 1537. John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners Corner, Geo. R.. "On the Anglo-Saxon Charters of Frizwald, Ælfred, Edward the Confessor, to Chertsey Abbey". Surrey Archaeological Collections. London: Surrey Archaeological Society. 1: 77–96. Pocock, W. W.. "Some Account of the Encaustic Tiles and Stone Coffins excavated on the Site of Chertsey Abbey in 1855". Surrey Archaeological Collections. London: Surrey Archaeological Society. 1: 115–121
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Arlington Court is a neoclassical style country house built 1820-23, situated in the parish of Arlington, next to the parish church of St James, 5 1/4 miles NE of Barnstaple, north Devon, England. It is a Grade II* listed building; the park and gardens are Grade II* listed in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. The house was commissioned by Colonel John Palmer Chichester to the design of the North Devon architect Thomas Lee, replacing the earlier Georgian house of about 1790, built on a different site and demolished, designed by John Meadows. Arlington Court was expanded in 1865 by John Palmer Chichester's grandson, Sir Alexander Palmer Bruce Chichester, 2nd Baronet, son of Sir John Palmer Bruce Chichester, 1st Baronet. In 1873 according to the Return of Owners of Land, 1873 the Arlington estate comprised about 5,300 acres. Sir Bruce's unmarried daughter and heiress, Rosalie Chichester, donated the mansion to the National Trust together with 3,500 acres two years before her death in 1949.
Today, the house, together with the Chichester family's collection of antique furniture and an eclectic collection of family memorabilia, is open to the public. The architecture of the house, a severe neoclassical style, which in many ways resembles the architecture made popular in the early 19th century by Sir John Soane, under whom Arlington's architect Thomas Lee trained. Mistakenly likened to the more flamboyant Greek Revival architecture, the style confines most ornament to the interior of the house, leaving the symmetrical exterior unadorned and chaste, relying only on window and door apertures and shallow recesses and apses and the occasional pilaster to relieve the austerity of the facade; the simplicity of the design is further accentuated by a low, unpierced parapet concealing the roof-line from view. From completion, the house remained unaltered until the 1860s, when the house was doubled in size by Sir Alexander Bruce Chichester, who added the large domestic wing in which to house the servants and provide the extended domestic offices which were considered necessary during the Victorian era.
Following the invention of the bell pull, a convenient device which negated the need for servants to be within calling distance of the main house, servants began to be housed in a designated wing. Sir Alexander created the large, central staircase hall; the style of the hall, that of a Renaissance courtyard, overlooked by a gallery reached from an imposing staircase was a fashionable country house feature of the time – providing a common assembly area for house-guests and a convenient space to display works of art and curiosities. Known as lounge halls, they were furnished as with comfortable chairs and sofas and a grand piano. Contemporary pictures show; the hall is dominated by an enormous imperial staircase rising to the gallery above. The stairs are lit by an internal window displaying the various Chichester arms from 1505 to 1865; the principal reception rooms of the house are arranged as an enfilade. Conceived as a drawing room, ante room and dining room, the dining room was transformed into a morning room during the alterations of the 1860s.
Architecturally, the most interesting of the rooms is the ante room. A cube room, it has a saucer dome, segmental arches and inset pier glasses, all in the style of Soane, whose pupil, was responsible for the house. Of note is the boudoir. Additions include the marble fireplace, mirrored alcoves and pilasters to the corners, creating an elongated hexagonal shape in the style of Soane. Other rooms are now much altered, the dining room was created from the former library in the 1860s, while the music room’s once ornate and painted papier mache ceiling is now lost due to the building deprivations following World War II. At the time, the National Trust, permitted to carry out only limited work, prioritised the creation of staff flats on the upper floor, over the conservation of the house. In Britain, by the beginning of the 19th century, the Baroque convention of placing the grandest reception rooms on the upper floor or piano nobile had been discontinued. Many of these have now been transformed into accommodation for National Trust staff.
Among the few upper rooms open to the public are Miss Chichester’s Bedroom, the former day nursery, the Blue Bedroom and the Portico Bedroom. The latter, sited over the Entrance hall, was traditionally the bedroom of the master of the house; the Chichester family, which in 2012 still exists in several branches and survives in North Devon at Hall, two miles SE of Bi
Heraldic visitations were tours of inspection undertaken by Kings of Arms throughout England and Ireland. Their purpose was to regulate and register the coats of arms of nobility and gentry and boroughs, to record pedigrees, they took place from 1530 to 1688, their records provide important source material for historians and genealogists. By the fifteenth century, the use and abuse of coats of arms was becoming widespread in England. One of the duties conferred on William Bruges, the first Garter Principal King of Arms was to survey and record the armorial bearings and pedigrees of those using coats of arms and correct irregularities. Officers of arms had made occasional tours of various parts of the kingdom to enquire about armorial matters during the fifteenth century, however, it was not until the sixteenth century that the process began in earnest; the first provincial visitations were carried out under warrant granted by Henry VIII to Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms dated 6 April 1530.
He was commissioned to travel throughout his province with authority to enter all homes and churches. Upon entering these premises, he was authorized to "put down or otherwise deface at his discretion... those arms unlawfully used". He was required to enquire into all those using the titles of knight, esquire, or gentleman and decided if they were being lawfully used. By this writ, Henry VIII compelled the sheriffs and mayors of each county or city visited by the officers of arms to give aid and assistance in gathering the needed information; when a King of Arms, or Herald, visited a county, his presence was proclaimed by presenting the King's royal commission to the local gentry and nobility, which required them to provide evidence of their right to use a coat of arms. The Sheriff would collect from the bailiff of each hundred within his county a list of all people using titles or arms. In the early days, the visiting herald would tour the homes of the gentry and nobility, but from the late 1560s these persons were summoned to attend a central "place of sitting" – an inn – at a particular time.
They were to bring their arms, proof of their right to use them, most by way of detailing their ancestral right to them, which would be recorded. Where an official grant of arms had been made, this was recorded. Other ancient arms, many of which predated the establishment of the College of Arms, were confirmed; the officer would record the information and make detailed notes that could be entered into the records of the College of Arms when the party returned to London. These volumes now make up the collection of Visitation Books at the College, which contain a wealth of information about all armigerous people from the period. If the officers of arms were not presented with sufficient proof of the right to use a coat of arms, they were empowered to deface monuments which bore these arms and to force persons bearing such arms to sign a disclaimer that they would cease using them; the visitations were not always popular with members of the landed gentry, who were required to present proof of their gentility.
Following the accession of William III in 1689, no further commissions to carry out visitations were commanded. The reasons behind this cessation of the programme have been a matter of debate among historians. Philip Styles, for example, related it to a declining willingness of members of the gentry to attend visitations, which he traced to a growing proportion of "newly risen" families, who lacked long pedigrees and were therefore apathetic about registering them. However, Janet Verasano has challenged this interpretation, finding that gentry enthusiasm for coats of arms as an enhancement to social standing persisted to the end of the 17th century; the end of the visitations did not have much effect on those counties far removed from London, some of which had only been visited over the entire period of the visitations. There was never a systematic visitation of Wales. There were four visitations in the principality, on 9 June 1551, Fulk ap Hywel, Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary was given a commission to visit all of Wales.
This was not carried out, however, as he was degraded and executed for counterfeiting the seal of Clarenceux King of Arms. This is regrettable, since no visitation of all Wales was made by the officers of arms; the principal records to emerge from the visitations were pedigrees recorded on loose sheets of paper, afterwards bound together as notebooks. In some cases, the sheets would include blank shields, drawn in advance, to simplify the process of recording coats of arms; the persons whose pedigrees were recorded were required to certify them by signature, where these original draft pedigrees have survived they are known as "originals with signatures". The signed copies were taken back to the College of Arms, where fair copies were made to a higher standard and preserved as the "office copies". Sometimes the signed copies were retained at the College, but in other cases, no longer considered of official interest, they might pass into private hands: once in general circulation, further copies were made, which might in turn be revised or augmented.
As a result, a number of variant manuscript copies of any one visitation record may now survive, possessing varying degrees of accuracy and authority. The Harleian Collection of the British Library is rich in such records. Many visitation records have been published over the years, by the Harleian Society, by county record societies, a few privately. Ho
Torquay is a seaside town in Devon, part of the unitary authority area of Torbay. It lies 18 miles south of the county town of Exeter and 28 miles east-north-east of Plymouth, on the north of Tor Bay, adjoining the neighbouring town of Paignton on the west of the bay and across from the fishing port of Brixham; the town's economy, like Brixham's, was based upon fishing and agriculture, but in the early 19th century it began to develop into a fashionable seaside resort frequented by members of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars while the Royal Navy anchored in the bay. As the town's fame spread, it was popular with Victorian society. Renowned for its mild climate, the town earned the nickname the English Riviera; the writer Agatha Christie was born in the town and lived there during her early years and there is an "Agatha Christie Mile", a tour with plaques dedicated to her life and work. Torquay's name originates in its being the quay of the ancient village of Torre. In turn, Torre takes its name from the tor, the extensively quarried remains of which can be seen by the town's Lymington Road thus giving this the original name of Torrequay Torkay and Tor Quay before joining the words together to Torquay.
The area comprising modern Torquay has been inhabited since Paleolithic times. Hand axes found in Kents Cavern have been dated as 40,000 years old, a maxilla fragment, known as Kents Cavern 4, may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago. Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kents Cavern, known as "The Face". No evidence has been found of Roman settlement in the town; the first major building in Torquay was Torre Abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery founded in 1196. Torquay remained a minor settlement until the Napoleonic wars, when Torbay was used as a sheltered anchorage by the Channel Fleet, relatives of officers visited Torquay; the mild climate attracted many visitors who considered the town a convalescence retreat where they could recover from illness away from the cold and cloudy winters of more northerly or easterly locations.
The population of Torquay grew from 838 in 1801, to 11,474 in 1851. The second phase in the expansion of Torquay began when Torre railway station was opened on 18 December 1848; the improved transport connections resulted in rapid growth at the expense of nearby towns not on Isambard Kingdom Brunel's railways. The more central Torquay railway station was opened on 2 August 1859 with views of the sea from the platforms. After the growth of the preceding decades, Torquay was granted borough status in 1872. Regarded as a convalescence retreat, Torquay began to encourage summer visitors, 1902 saw the first advertising campaign to market Torquay to summer tourists. Torquay Tramways operated electric street trams from 1907, they were powered by the unusual Dolter stud-contact electrification so as not to disfigure the town with overhead wires, but in 1911 was converted to more conventional overhead-line supply. The line was extended into Paignton in 1911 but the network was closed in 1934; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution's Torquay Lifeboat Station was at the Ladies Bathing Cove from 1876 until 1923.
A second lifeboat was kept at the harbour from 1917 until 1928. Torquay was regarded as a "Spa Town". Called the "Bath Saloons complex", it had an open air tide-filled swimming bath; the complex was opened in 1853. Charles Dickens was said to have made readings there. In the 1900s a ballroom and a new sea water-filled swimming pool were built; the Marine Spa provided various therapies such as seaweed baths, douche showers and cold water baths and electric shock treatment. Bands such as Ivy Benson and Ted Heath played at Marine Spa ballroom. Four stone arches that were part of the Marine Spa are still visible on the outside of the harbour wall. During World War I, military hospitals were sited in Torquay – many survivors from the Battle of Gallipoli recuperated in the town – and it was used as a troop staging area. In September 1915 King George V and Queen Mary visited. After the war the Great Western Railway launched an advertising campaign to attract tourists, this helped the town grow to a major south coast resort.
During World War II Torquay was regarded as safer than the towns of South East England, played host to evacuees from the London area, the town did however suffer minor bomb damage during the war from planes dumping excess loads after participating in the Plymouth Blitz. The last air raid on Torquay took place on 29 May 1944 shortly before the D-Day landings in June and, in the months leading up to D-Day, thousands of US Army personnel arrived with the 3204th Quartermaster Service Company billeted in Chelston and Cockington. During Operation Overlord more than 23,000 men of the American 4th Infantry Division departed Torquay for Utah Beach; the water sport events of the 1948 Summer Olympic Games were held in Torquay, the Olympic flame brought from London to Torre Abbey Gardens. Although it did not host any Olympic events for the 2012 Summer Olympics, with the sailing taking place in Weymouth, Torbay looked to host teams as a preparation camp and the flame passed through once more on its route around the UK.
After World War II several private high-rise blocks of flats were constructed above the Rock Walk cliffs and harbour, giving the area a Monte Carlo feel. In 1971, after a tragedy, the Marine Spa was demolished to make way for the ill-fated Coral Island l
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In the British tradition, it refers to the judicial execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial and execution of Charles I of England. More broadly, it can refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Before the Tudor period, English kings had been murdered while imprisoned or killed in battle by their subjects, but none of these deaths are referred to as regicide; the word regicide seems to have come into popular use among foreign Catholics when Pope Sixtus V renewed the papal bull of excommunication against the "crowned regicide" Queen Elizabeth I, for—among other things—executing Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1587. Elizabeth had been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, in Regnans in Excelsis, for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England; the defeat of the Spanish Armada and the "Protestant Wind" convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeth's action.
After the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. They tried to negotiate a compromise with him, but he stuck steadfastly to his view that he was King by Divine Right and attempted in secret to raise an army to fight against them, it became obvious to the leaders of the Parliamentarians that they could not negotiate a settlement with him and they could not trust him to refrain from raising an army against them. On 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King. Two days the Council of Officers of the New Model Army voted that the King be moved from the Isle of Wight, where he was prisoner, to Windsor "in order to the bringing of him speedily to justice". In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London; the House of Commons of the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. From a Royalist and post-restoration perspective this Bill was not lawful, since the House of Lords refused to pass it and it failed to receive Royal Assent.
However, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. At his trial in front of The High Court of Justice on Saturday 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, Charles asked "I would know by what power I am called hither. I would know by what authority, I mean lawful". In view of the historic issues involved, both sides based themselves on technical legal grounds. Charles did not dispute that Parliament as a whole did have some judicial powers, but he maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody, so he refused to plead. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead this was treated as a plea of guilty, he was found guilty on Saturday 27 January 1649, his death warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet. On the day of his execution, 30 January 1649, Charles dressed in two shirts so that he would not shiver from the cold, lest it be said that he was shivering from fear.
His execution was delayed by several hours so that the House of Commons could pass an emergency bill to make it an offence to proclaim a new King, to declare the representatives of the people, the House of Commons, as the source of all just power. Charles was escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded, he forgave those who had passed sentence on him and gave instructions to his enemies that they should learn to "know their duty to God, the King - that is, my successors - and the people". He gave a brief speech outlining his unchanged views of the relationship between the monarchy and the monarch's subjects, ending with the words "I am the martyr of the people", his head was severed from his body with one blow. One week the Rump, sitting in the House of Commons, passed a bill abolishing the monarchy. Ardent Royalists refused to accept it on the basis. Others refused because, as the bill had not passed the House of Lords and did not have Royal Assent, it could not become an Act of Parliament.
The Declaration of Breda 11 years paved the way for the restoration of the monarchy in 1660. At the restoration, thirty-one of the fifty-nine Commissioners who had signed the death warrant were living. A general pardon was given by Charles II and Parliament to his opponents, but the regicides were excluded. A number fled the country. Some, such as Daniel Blagrave, fled to continental Europe, while others like John Dixwell, Edward Whalley, William Goffe fled to New Haven, Connecticut; those who were still available were put on trial. Six regicides were found guilty and suffered the fate of being hanged and quartered: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scrope, John Carew, Thomas Scot, Gregory Clement; the captain of the guard at the trial, Daniel Axtell who encouraged his men to barrack the King when he tried to speak in his own defence, an influential preacher Hugh Peters, the leading prosecutor at the trial John Cook were executed in a similar manner. Colonel Francis Hacker who signed the order to the executioner of the king and commanded the guard around the scaffold and at the trial was hanged.
Concern amongst the royal ministers over the negative impact on popular sen