The Paisley Caves complex is a system of four caves in an arid, desolate region of south-central Oregon, United States north of the present-day city of Paisley, Oregon. The caves are located in the Summer Lake basin at 4,520 feet elevation and face to the west in a ridge of Miocene and Pliocene era basalts mixed with soft volcanic tuffs and breccias, from which the caves were carved by Pleistocene-era waves from Summer Lake. One of the caves may contain archaeological evidence of the oldest definitively-dated human presence in North America; the site was first studied by Luther Cressman in the 1930s. Scientific excavations and analysis since 2002 have uncovered substantial new discoveries; these include materials with the oldest DNA evidence of human habitation in North America. The DNA, radiocarbon dated to 14,300 years ago, was found in subfossil human coprolites uncovered in the Paisley Five Mile Point Caves in south-central Oregon; the caves were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2014.
A field school from the University of Oregon has been examining the site since 2002 and analyzing its pre-Clovis artifacts. In the summer of 2007, they identified the oldest human DNA yet discovered in the American continents; this assertion is based on analysis of several samples of coprolite found in the Paisley Caves complex. Since other authors have questioned the authenticity of these findings by arguing about the relevance of the evidence gathered from ancient DNA and stratigraphy on the one hand, from the morphological assignment of the coprolites to humans on the other; the coprolites were found in Paisley Five Mile Point Cave at the same level as a small rock-lined hearth some 7 feet below the modern surface. At that level was discovered a large number of bones from waterfowl and large mammals, including extinct camel and horse. Radiocarbon dating places these coprolites between 12,750 and 14,290 calendar years before the present representing a pre-Clovis occupation. DNA analysis provides apparent genetic ties to Asia.
Evidence at other archaeological sites — as well as 1930s work at Paisley Caves — had been thought to provide such evidence, but questionable excavation techniques clouded the issue. Knowing this, the U of O team worked to avoid the mistakes of the past; the theory that pre-Clovis immigrants traveled to North America down the Pacific Coast suggests that the travelers would have passed through the hinterlands of what is Oregon today. DNA from coyote and dog were found. Hunting tools were found in the caves. Special projectile points known as'Western Stemmed points' were recovered. No evidence of diagnostic Clovis technology was found at the site. In 2002, a team of researchers from Oregon State University found evidence of human presence on the southern Oregon coast, dating from more than 10,000 years ago — more than 2,000 years older than known archaeological sites on Oregon's coast. Carbon dating of artifacts suggested an origin of 12,000 years ago. Laser Scanning History: Paisley Caves
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
Founded in 1916, the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History reconnects more than 150,000 people each year to nature indoors and outdoors. Uniquely nestled in nature, the museum is located along Mission Creek in the Mission Canyon area; the museum has ten indoor exhibit halls focusing on regional natural history including astronomy, insects, mammals, marine life, plant life, the Chumash Indians. The museum is home to the only full-dome planetarium on the Central Coast, a research library, the John & Peggy Maximus Art Gallery; the early roots of the museum date back to the 1880s, when a group of professional and amateur scientists, including botanist Caroline Bingham, started the Santa Barbara Natural History Society and an accompanying museum at 1226 State Street. Though the effort waned at the end of the century, the arrival of ornithologist William Leon Dawson from Ohio re-ignited the effort. Dawson and a group of prominent Santa Barbarans founded the Museum of Comparative Oology, first located in two outbuildings on his property on Puesta del Sol Road in Mission Canyon.
The initial holdings were assembled from his own extensive collection of bird eggs as well as collections of other community members. According to the museum's website, Dawson believed oology—the study of bird eggs—“would throw a flood of light upon the trend of life itself,” yielding “the secrets of life’s origins and its destiny.”Though it began from a collection of bird eggs, the holdings of the museum were soon expanded into other realms by its board of directors. The successor to William Dawson as director was Ralph Hoffmann, a Harvard-trained educator and ornithologist; the next director was Paul Marshall Rhea, president of the American Association of Museums, director of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, director of the Carnegie Foundation in Washington, D. C.. Some of the notable benefactors of the museum included Dr. Caroline Hazard, president of Wellesley College at the time: she donated part of her estate in Mission Canyon for a new museum building; this building was built with funds donated by Mrs. Rowland G. Hazard in memory of her late husband and opened in 1923.
The architect was Carleton Winslow. In 1937, Arthur Sterry Coggeshall came to Santa Barbara, took the position of director of the museum, a title he held for 21 years, he had worked at various prestigious museums, such as the American Museum of Natural History in New York City and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh. Upon coming, he convinced Max Fleischmann, heir to the Fleischmann Yeast fortune, to build Fleischmann Auditorium as a condition of his employment. Coggeshall was a key player in the foundation of the California Association of Museums and the Western Museum Association. Following Coggeshall, Dr. Vertress L. VanderHoof, a research geologist from the University of California, was hired as director. In 1965, Dr. Frederick H. Pough became director. In between the tenure of these last two directors, interim directors were recruited from staff and an outsider who lasted only a short time. In 1972, the museum hired Dr. Dennis Power, an evolutionary biologist specializing in birds on islands.
Power was a native Californian who at the time was an Associate Curator at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. He stayed until 1994 when he was recruited to be the executive director of the Oakland Museum of California, 22 years being the longest tenure of any of the museum's leaders. From the 1960s through the 1990s, the museum had a large role in the field of environmental action. Museum scientists helped establish the whale stranding network and participated in the California Condor Project. Museum staff undertook contracted biological and anthropological surveys, among the most significant being the initial studies for the National Park Service that led to the creation of Channel Islands National Park. Albert Einstein, visiting the museum with his wife in 1931, remarked "I can see that this museum has been built by the work of love." The museum is renowned for fine dioramas of birds and southern California habitats. These were illustrated in the 1930s and 1960s by famous artists of the California school of plein-aire painters.
Among the most notable of these is the Bird Habitat Hall featuring mounted specimens by staff members Egmont Rett and Waldo Abbott and background paintings by Ray Strong. The museum is known for its halls of marine life and Chumash Indian life, as well as an art gallery dedicated to antique natural history prints, it has collections of over 3 million specimens and an active research program with a focus on marine biology, terrestrial vertebrates, anthropology, geological mapping, natural history art. Greeting visitors near the front entrance is what has become an iconic display for the museum and Santa Barbara: a rearticulated skeleton of 72-foot Blue Whale Temporary exhibits cover the whole range of natural history topics such as dinosaurs, antique natural history art, "Butterflies Alive" and “Bringing the Condors Home” telling the story of the decline and beginning of recovery of the California condor; the museum’s Gladwin Planetarium was renovated in early 2005 and equipped with technology to display distant planets and galaxies.
The museum will launch a $30 million remodel starting with the butterfly pavilion. During the renovation the museum will stay open and the square footage will remain unchanged; the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Sea Center known as the "Ty Warner Sea Center", is an off-site facility owned and operated by the Museum of Natural Histor
Calf Creek culture
Calf Creek Culture was a nomadic hunter-gatherer people who lived in the southcentral region of North America in the area of what is today Oklahoma and surrounding states, artifacts having been found in such places as Beard's Bluff and Sand Springs, Oklahoma. The Calf Creek culture was active during the early to middle Archaic period in the Americas 7,500 to 4,000 years ago; the Calf Creek people were noted for their use of heat-treated flint spearheads. The Calf Creek point was first named and described in an Arkansas amateur archaeological journal by Don Dickson in 1968, for examples found at Calf Creek cave in Searcy County Arkansas; the cave was named for a perennial stream that runs nearby. In 2003, a 5,120±25-year-old bison skull was found on the banks of the Arkansas River by Kim Holt; this find was featured on History Detectives. The skull had a Calf Creek culture spearhead embedded just over the orbital of the right eye socket; the size of the spearhead, the wound it inflicted further suggest that the Calf Creek used atlatls
Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that comprises California's southernmost counties, is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, Ventura; the more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. The Colorado Desert and the Colorado River are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, the Mojave Desert is located north on California's Nevada border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico–United States border. Southern California includes the built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through Greater Los Angeles down to Greater San Diego, inland to the Inland Empire and Coachella Valley, it encompasses eight metropolitan areas, three of which together form the Greater Los Angeles Combined Statistical Area with over 18 million people, the second-biggest CSA after the New York CSA.
These three MSAs are: the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the Inland Empire (, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area. In addition, Southern California contains the San Diego metropolitan area with 3.3 million people, Bakersfield metro area with 0.9 million, the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, El Centro metropolitan areas. The Southern California Megaregion is larger still, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana. Within southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas. With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation; the counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside are the five most populous in the state, are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.
The motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal Pictures, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Universal, Warner Bros. and Sony run major record companies. Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California as well, including Trestles, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, the U. S. Open of Surfing, are held in southern California; the region is important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii.
The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California in 1974. Since southern California, San Diego in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing and culture. Southern California is home to many sports sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California coast for its beaches; the inland desert city of Palm Springs is popular. Southern California is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose. When the state is divided into two areas, the term southern California refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state; this definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo and San Bernardino counties.
Another definition for southern California uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains as the northern boundary. Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico ruled California and political disputes raged between the Californios of Monterey in the upper part and Los Angeles in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850 enabled California to be a
Santa Barbara Channel
The Santa Barbara Channel is a portion of the Pacific Ocean which separates the mainland of California from the northern Channel Islands. It is south of the city of Santa Barbara, west of the city of Ventura, it trends east-west, is 130 kilometres long and averages about 45 kilometres across, becoming narrowest at its easternmost extremity where Anacapa Island is about 30 kilometres from the mainland. During the last ice age, the four northern Channel Islands, including Santa Rosa Island, were conjoined into Santa Rosae, a single island, only five miles off the coast; the Santa Barbara Channel is considered a scenic location, with the islands visible from the mainland on clear days. Excursion boats cross the channel, taking visitors to visit the islands. In the perpendicular direction, huge cargo ships and tankers occupy a major shipping lane on their way to or from the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach; the Channel is the location of numerous oil fields. These include the Ellwood, Carpinteria offshore and Dos Cuadras fields.
In 1969, the Dos Cuadras was the point of origin of a major oil spill, which came about when oil spurted at high pressure through faults and cracks around a zone, drilled for the first time. Public outrage over the massive environmental damage inflicted by this spill, which covered hundreds of square miles of the channel and fouled beaches from Ventura to Goleta, was a major spur to the budding environmental movement; some oil exploration and production activities continue in the area, in spite of vigorous opposition from local organizations, such as Santa Barbara-based Get Oil Out. The Santa Barbara Channel contains the world's largest natural oil seepage - Coal Oil Point. Goleta Point is a nearby extension into the channel. At one point on the channel is Point Arguello, a headland near the city of Lompoc, the site of the Honda Point disaster in 1923, in which seven US Navy destroyers run aground, in the largest peacetime loss of US Navy ships. Prior to the Holocene era sea levels were lower, such that the water width separating the islands from the mainland was much less, making biological colonization as well as human transport across the channel easier.
In recent times the Native American Chumash peoples navigated these waters with ease in small watercraft, allowing communication and trade between island and mainland villages. C. Michael Hogan reviews some of the theories of colonization of the rare species Torrey Pine, Pinus torreyana to the islands, suggesting that it is that Chumash peoples carried the initial cones in their Tomols; the most famous endemic species, though now extinct, was the pygmy mammoth, cited as a case study in insular dwarfism. As of at least 2011, a few endangered species of whale have begun to feed in a new area north of the Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands of the Santa Barbara Channel; these whales are at risk to be struck by ships passing through a shipping lane used to move goods south to Los Angeles and Long Beach ports. About 100 collisions have been documented off of the coast of California since 1982, which includes a rate of about 6 per year today more due to the difficulty of observing the incidents. Offshore oil and gas in California Oil companies continue efforts for permission to drill in the channel
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given by scholars to the first peoples who entered, subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios, meaning "old" or "ancient"; the term "Paleo-Indians" applies to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic". Traditional theories suggest that big-animal hunters crossed the Bering Strait from North Asia into the Americas over a land-and-ice bridge; this bridge existed from 45,000–12,000 BCE. Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. From c. 16,500 – c. 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America. This allowed animals, followed by humans; the people used primitive boats along the coastline. The precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World remain subjects of ongoing debate.
Stone tools projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Archaeologists and anthropologists use surviving crafted lithic flaked tools to classify cultural periods. Scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to Siberian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. There is evidence for at least two separate migrations. From 8000–7000 BCE the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in more sedentary lifestyle; the specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into Beringia between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska 17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indians migrated out of Beringia, ranging from c. 40,000 – c. 16,500 years ago. This time range promises to continue as such for years to come; the few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present. However, alternative theories about the origins of Paleoindians exist, including migration from Europe. Sites in Alaska are where some of the earliest evidence has been found of Paleo-Indians, followed by archaeological sites in northern British Columbia, western Alberta and the Old Crow Flats region in the Yukon.
The Paleo-Indian would flourish all over the Americas. These peoples were spread over a wide geographical area. However, all the individual groups shared a common style of stone tool production, making knapping styles and progress identifiable; this early Paleo-Indian period lithic reduction tool adaptations have been found across the Americas, utilized by mobile bands consisting of 20 to 60 members of an extended family. Food would have been plentiful during the few warm months of the year. Lakes and rivers were teeming with many species of fish and aquatic mammals. Nuts and edible roots could be found in the forests and marshes; the fall would have been a busy time because foodstuffs would have to be stored and clothing made ready for the winter. During the winter, coastal fishing groups trap fresh food and furs. Late ice age climatic changes caused plant communities and animal populations to change. Groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought.
Small bands utilized hunting and gathering during the spring and summer months broke into smaller direct family groups for the fall and winter. Family groups moved every 3–6 days traveling up to 360 km a year. Diets were sustaining and rich in protein due to successful hunting. Clothing was made from a variety of animal hides that were used for shelter construction. During much of the Early and Middle Paleo-Indian periods, inland bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct megafauna. Large Pleistocene mammals were the giant beaver, steppe wisent, musk ox, woolly mammoths and ancient reindeer; the Clovis culture, appearing around 11,500 BCE, undoubtedly did not rely on megafauna for subsistence. Instead, they employed a mixed foraging strategy that included smaller terrestrial game, aquatic animals, a variety of flora. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included efficient fluted style spear points, as well as microblades used for butchering and hide processing.
Projectile points and hammerstones made from many sources are found traded or moved to new locations. Stone tools were traded and/or left behind fro
Archaeology of the Americas
The archaeology of the Americas is the study of the archaeology of North America, Central America, South America and the Caribbean. This includes the study of pre-historic/Pre-Columbian and historic indigenous American peoples, as well as historical archaeology of more recent eras; the Pre-Columbian era is the term used to encompass all period subdivisions in the history of the Americas spanning the time from the original settlement of the Americas in the Upper Paleolithic up until to the European colonization of the Americas during the early modern period. While technically referring to the era before the voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1504, in practice the term includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or influenced by Europeans if this happened decades or centuries after Columbus' initial landing; the pre-Columbian archaeological record in the Americas is conventionally divided into five large phases according to an enduring system established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips's 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology.
This differs from old world prehistory where the three-age system, with the Stone Age divided into Paleolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remain in general use. Numerous regional and sub-regional divisions have since been defined to distinguish various cultures through time and space, as archaeologists recognized that these generalised stages did not adequately correspond to the cultural variation that existed in different locations in the Americas. Lithic stageDefined by the ostensible prevalence of big-game hunting. In most places, this can be dated to before 8000 BCE, starting most around 16,500 BCE. Examples include the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition groups; the Archaic stageDefined by the intensive gathering of wild resources with the decline of the big-game hunting lifestyle. Archaic cultures can be dated from 8000 to 1000 BCE. Examples include the Archaic Southwest, the Arctic small tool tradition, the Poverty Point culture, the Chan-Chan culture in southern Chile.
The Formative stageDefined as "village agriculture" based. Most of these can be dated from 1000 BCE to 500 CE. Examples include the Dorset culture, Zapotec civilization, Mimbres culture, Olmec and Mississippian cultures; the Classic stageDefined as "early civilizations", dating from 500 to 1200 CE. Willey and Phillips considered only cultures from Mesoamerica and Peru to have achieved this level of complexity. Examples include the Toltec; the Post-Classic stageDefined as "later prehispanic civilizations" and dated from 1200 CE until the advent of European colonisation. The late Maya and the Aztec cultures were Post-Classic. Today, for Meso- and Andean South America, the periods are more classified using the "Horizon" terminology, with "Early Horizon" broadly equating to the Late Formative stage. "Horizons" are periods of cultural stability and political unity, with "Intermediate periods" covering the politically fragmented transition between them. In the Andes, there are three Horizon periods, with two Intermediate periods between them.
The Horizons, their dominant cultures are: Early Horizon, Chavin. Since 1990, in the United States, physical anthropology and archaeological investigations based on the study of human remains are complicated by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, which provides for the bodies of Native Americans and associated grave goods to be turned over to the recognized tribal body most affiliated with the remains. In some cases, that of Kennewick Man, these laws have been subject to close judicial scrutiny and great intellectual conflict. Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. Prehistoric groups in this area are characterized by agricultural villages and large ceremonial and politico-religious capitals This culture area included some of the most complex and advanced cultures of the Americas, including the Olmec, the Maya, the Aztec.
Molecular genetics study suggests that surviving Amerindian populations derived from a theoretical single founding population from only 50 to 70 genetic contributors Preliminary research, restricted to only 9 genomic regions have shown a genetic link between original Americas and Asia populations. The study does not address the question of separate migrations for these groups, excludes other DNA data-sets; the American Journal of Human Genetics released an article in 2007 stating "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Indigenous American haplogroups, including Haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population." Amerindian groups in the Bering Strait region exhibit the strongest DNA or mitochondrial DNA relations to Siberian peoples. The genetic diversity of Amerindian indigenous groups increase with distance from the assumed entry point into the Americas. Certain genetic diversity patterns from West to East suggest at least some coastal migration events. Geneticists have variously estimated that peoples of Asia and the Americas were part of the same population from 42,000 to 21,000 years ago