Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Tor (anonymity network)
Tor is free and open-source software for enabling anonymous communication. The name is derived from an acronym for the original software project name "The Onion Router". Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, volunteer overlay network consisting of more than seven thousand relays to conceal a user's location and usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet activity to the user: this includes "visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages, other communication forms". Tor's intended use is to protect the personal privacy of its users, as well as their freedom and ability to conduct confidential communication by keeping their Internet activities from being monitored. If someone is attempting to maintain their anatomy online using tor, than it is crucial that everything be done within that browser. For example, if an action is done in chrome, safari, or other types of browsers. So stick to the Tor browser for complete autonomy from any overly intrusive government.
Tor does not prevent an online service from determining. Tor does not hide the fact that someone is using Tor; some websites restrict allowances through Tor. For example, the MediaWiki TorBlock extension automatically restricts edits made through Tor, although Wikipedia allows some limited editing in exceptional circumstances. Onion routing is implemented by encryption in the application layer of a communication protocol stack, nested like the layers of an onion. Tor encrypts the data, including the next node destination IP address, multiple times and sends it through a virtual circuit comprising successive, random-selection Tor relays; each relay decrypts a layer of encryption to reveal the next relay in the circuit to pass the remaining encrypted data on to it. The final relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption and sends the original data to its destination without revealing or knowing the source IP address; because the routing of the communication was concealed at every hop in the Tor circuit, this method eliminates any single point at which the communicating peers can be determined through network surveillance that relies upon knowing its source and destination.
An adversary may try to de-anonymize the user by some means. One way this may be achieved is by exploiting vulnerable software on the user's computer; the NSA had a technique that targets a vulnerability – which they codenamed "EgotisticalGiraffe" – in an outdated Firefox browser version at one time bundled with the Tor package and, in general, targets Tor users for close monitoring under its XKeyscore program. Attacks against Tor are an active area of academic research, welcomed by the Tor Project itself; the bulk of the funding for Tor's development has come from the federal government of the United States through the Office of Naval Research and DARPA. The core principle of Tor, "onion routing", was developed in the mid-1990s by United States Naval Research Laboratory employees, mathematician Paul Syverson, computer scientists Michael G. Reed and David Goldschlag, with the purpose of protecting U. S. intelligence communications online. Onion routing was further developed by DARPA in 1997; the alpha version of Tor, developed by Syverson and computer scientists Roger Dingledine and Nick Mathewson and called The Onion Routing project, or Tor project, launched on 20 September 2002.
The first public release occurred a year later. On 13 August 2004, Syverson and Mathewson presented "Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router" at the 13th USENIX Security Symposium. In 2004, the Naval Research Laboratory released the code for Tor under a free license, the Electronic Frontier Foundation began funding Dingledine and Mathewson to continue its development. In December 2006, Dingledine and five others founded The Tor Project, a Massachusetts-based 501 research-education nonprofit organization responsible for maintaining Tor; the EFF acted as The Tor Project's fiscal sponsor in its early years, early financial supporters of The Tor Project included the U. S. International Broadcasting Bureau, Human Rights Watch, the University of Cambridge and Netherlands-based Stichting NLnet. From this period onward, the majority of funding sources came from the U. S. government. In November 2014 there was speculation in the aftermath of Operation Onymous that a Tor weakness had been exploited. A BBC source cited a "technical breakthrough" that allowed the tracking of the physical locations of servers.
In November 2015 court documents on the matter, besides generating serious concerns about security research ethics and the right of not being unreasonably searched guaranteed by the US Fourth Amendment, may link the law enforcement operation with an attack on Tor earlier in the year. In December 2015, The Tor Project announced that it had hired Shari Steele as its new executive director. Steele had led the Electronic Frontier Foundation for 15 years, in 2004 spearheaded EFF's decision to fund Tor's early development. One of her key stated aims is to make Tor more user-friendly in order to bring wider access to anonymous web browsing. In July 2016 the complete board of the Tor Project resigned, announced a new board, made up of Matt Blaze, Cindy Cohn, Gabriella Coleman, Linus Nordberg, Megan Price, Bruce Schneier. Tor enables its users to surf the Internet and send instant messages anonymously, is used by a wide variety of people for both licit and illicit purposes. Tor has, for example, been used by criminal enterprises, hacktivism groups, law enforcement agencies at cross purposes, sometimes simultaneously.
A firearm is a portable gun that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by expanding high-pressure gas produced chemically by exothermic combustion of propellant within an ammunition cartridge. If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm; the first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon considered the true ancestor of all firearms; the technology spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Europe. Older firearms used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants. Most modern firearms have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Modern firearms can be described in the case of shotguns by their gauge. Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used and to the barrel length, to the firing mechanism, to the design's primary intended use, or to the accepted name for a particular variation. Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights; the accurate range of pistols does not exceed 110 yards, while most rifles are accurate to 550 yards using iron sights, or to longer ranges using optical sights. Purpose-built sniper rifles and anti-materiel rifles are accurate to ranges of more than 2,200 yards. Firearms include a variety of ranged weapons and there is no agreed upon definition. Many soldiers consider a firearm to be any ranged weapon that uses gunpowder or a derivative as a propellant. Small arms include handguns and long guns, such as rifles, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, light machine guns; the world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Mossberg, Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther, ČZUB, Steyr-Mannlicher, FN Herstal, Norinco, Tula Arms and Kalashnikov, while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, Rock Island Armory under Armscor.
In 2018, Small Arms Survey reported that there are over one billion small arms distributed globally, of which 857 million are in civilian hands. U. S. civilians alone account for 393 million of the worldwide total of civilian held firearms. This amounts to "120.5 firearms for every 100 residents." The world's armed forces control about 133 million of the global total of small arms, of which over 43 percent belong to two countries: the Russian Federation and China. Law enforcement agencies control about 23 million of the global total of small arms; the smallest of all firearms is the handgun. There are two common types of handguns: semi-automatic pistols. Revolvers have "charge holes" in a revolving cylinder. Semi-automatic pistols have a single fixed firing chamber machined into the rear of the barrel, a magazine so they can be used to fire more than one round; each press of the trigger fires a cartridge, using the energy of the cartridge to activate the mechanism so that the next cartridge may be fired immediately.
This is opposed to "double-action" revolvers which accomplish the same end using a mechanical action linked to the trigger pull. Prior to the 19th century all handguns were single-shot muzzleloaders. With the invention of the revolver in 1818, handguns capable of holding multiple rounds became popular. Certain designs of auto-loading pistol appeared beginning in the 1870s and had supplanted revolvers in military applications by the end of World War I. By the end of the 20th century, most handguns carried by military and civilians were semi-automatic, although revolvers were still used. Speaking and police forces use semi-automatic pistols due to their high magazine capacities and ability to reload by removing the empty magazine and inserting a loaded one. Revolvers are common among handgun hunters because revolver cartridges are more powerful than similar caliber semi-automatic pistol cartridges and the strength and durability of the revolver design is well-suited to outdoor use. Revolvers in.22 LR and 38 Special/357 Magnum, are common concealed weapons in j
Argentine peso moneda nacional
The peso moneda nacional was the currency of Argentina from November 5, 1881 to January 1, 1970, the date in which the Argentine peso ley was issued to the Argentine public. It was subdivided with the argentino worth 5 pesos, its symbol was m$n or $m/n. The peso moneda nacional replaced the Argentine real at a rate of one to eight, it replaced the peso fuerte at par and the peso moneda corriente at a rate of 25 pesos moneda corriente = 1 peso moneda nacional. The peso moneda nacional was itself replaced by the peso ley at a rate of one hundred to one; the peso was pegged to the French franc at a rate of 1 peso = 5 francs. In 1883, when silver coins ceased production, the paper peso was set at a value of 2.2 francs or 638.7 mg gold. After a suspension in the gold standard from 1914, in 1927, a peg to the U. S. dollar was established of 2.36 pesos = 1 dollar. The rate changed to 1.71 pesos = 1 dollar in 1931 to 3 pesos = 1 dollar in 1933. Between 1934 and 1939, the peso was pegged to the British pound at a rate of 15 pesos.
High inflation in the post-war period lead to the introduction of the peso ley in 1970 at the rate of 100 pesos moneda nacional = 1 peso ley. In 1881, silver 10, 20 and 50 centavos and 1 peso and gold 1 argentino coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1 and 2 centavos the next year. Silver coins ceased production in 1883, with gold coins ending in 1896. Base metal 5, 10 and 20 centavos were introduced in 1896, with base 50 centavos following in 1941; the 1 peso was reintroduced in 1957, with 5, 10 and 25 pesos introduced in 1961, 1962 and 1964. The first nationally issued banknotes were introduced by the Banco Nacional in 1884; these were in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 centavos. In 1891 and 1892, the same denominations were produced by the Banco de la Nación Argentina. In 1894, the Banco de la Nación Argentina introduced larger denomination notes for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 pesos. Paper money production was taken over by the Caja de Conversion in 1899; that year, 50 centavos, 1 and 100 pesos were introduced, followed in 1900 by notes for 5, 10, 50, 500 and 1000 pesos.
These notes were issued until 1935. Law 3505, of 20 September, 1897, authorized the Caja de Conversión to renovate all paper money in existence at the time, they decided to make new design called "Progress's Effigy". These bank notes were created in a bigger size and printed by the mint, using French-made paper. Due to their size, the paper not being of good enough quality, they began to deteriorate, they decided to suspend the printing and look for another provider. The new notes, of smaller size, started to be issued in 1903, using typography as the printing method; the Banco Central issued the following banknotes: Pesos moneda nacional coin photos
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility is a United States Department of Energy scientific user facility for the study of global climate change by the national and international research community. The ARM Climate Research Facility consists of global observation sites and research aircraft that measure radiative properties of the atmosphere cloud and aerosol formation processes. Continuous data from these sites, as well as supplemental data obtained through intensive field research campaigns, are available to scientists online through the ARM Data Archive. ARM is collaboratively managed by nine DOE national laboratories. ARM seeks to provide the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. ARM focuses on obtaining continuous measurements—supplemented by field campaigns—and providing data products that promote the advancement of climate models.
ARM was established in 1989 by the U. S. Department of Energy to develop several instrumented ground stations. During the early years of the program, ARM focused on establishing field research sites and procuring instruments, developing techniques for both atmospheric retrievals and model evaluation. To obtain the most useful climate data, three main sites were chosen that represented a broad range of weather conditions; the Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma, established in 1992, provides a wide variability of climate cloud type and surface flux properties, large seasonal variation in temperature and specific humidity. The SGP site is the workhorse for the ARM Facility, is the world's largest "laboratory without walls" for studying atmospheric processes; the North Slope of Alaska sites, established in 1997, provide data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes, which have been identified as one of the most sensitive regions to climate change. High latitude data from the NSA site are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic and are receiving increasing attention as the interactions of the atmosphere-ocean climate system become better understood.
The Tropical Western Pacific sites, where data was collected from 1996 to 2014, obtained data from the "warm pool" where the warmest sea surface temperatures on the planet and widespread convective clouds play a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. This site was discontinued in August 2014. Since 1993, airborne measurements have been an integral part of the program. A variety of aerial platforms and instruments are available for intensive field campaigns or long-term, regularly-scheduled flights through the ARM Aerial Facility. In 2005, ARM Mobile Facilities, containing most of the same instruments as the fixed sites, began supporting experiments in different climate regions for about year at a time; the latest site to join the ARM Climate Research Facility suite of observations began operations in September 2013. Identified broadly as the Eastern North Atlantic, this facility is located on Graciosa Island in the Azores; the Azores are an island group located in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, a region characterized by marine stratocumulus clouds.
Response of these low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty in global climate models. U. S. Department of Energy
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México; the Secretaría de Marina includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer; the Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, to help with internal order". The Navy consists of about 75,124 men and women plus reserves, over 189 ships, about 130 aircraft; the Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program in order to upgrade its response capability. Given Mexico's large area of water and extensive coastline, the Navy's duties are of great importance, its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.
The Mexican Navy has its origins in the creation of the Ministry of War in 1821. From that year until 1939 it existed jointly with the Mexican Army in the organic ministry. Since its declaration of independence from Spain in September 1810, through the mid decades of the 19th century, Mexico found itself in a constant state of war against Spain which had not recognized its independence. Therefore, its priority was to purchase its first fleet from the U. S. in order to displace the last remaining Spanish forces from its coasts. The Mexican Navy has participated in many naval battles to defend Mexico's interests; some of the most important battles were: Attempts by Spain to reconquer Mexico Takeover of the San Juan de Ulúa fort The invasion of Cabo Rojo Battle of MarielThe first French intervention in Mexico An entire Armada was captured at VeracruzTexan Independence Texas NavyYucatán Independence Naval Battle of CampecheThe Mexican–American War The Second French Intervention The Mexican Revolution First Battle of Topolobampo Second Battle of Topolobampo Third Battle of Topolobampo Action of 9 April 1914 Fourth Battle of TopolobampoSecond invasion by the United States United States occupation of Veracruz The President of Mexico is commander in chief of all military forces.
Day-to-day control of the Navy lies with Vidal Francisco Soberón Sanz. In Mexico there is no joint force command structure with the army, so the Secretary reports directly to the President; the Navy has three naval forces. There are furthermore eight regions, thirteen zones, fourteen naval sectors; the Navy is divided into three main services designated as "forces": Gulf and Caribbean Sea Naval Force Pacific Naval Force Naval Infantry ForceOther notable services include: Naval Aviation Search and RescueOfficers are trained at the Mexican Naval Academy, called the "Heroica Escuela Naval Militar", located in Antón Lizardo, Veracruz. The Mexican Naval Infantry Corps was reorganized in 2007–2009 into 30 Naval Infantry Battalions, a paratroop battalion, a battalion attached to the Presidential Guard Brigade, two Fast Reaction Forces with six battalions each, three Special Forces groups; the Naval Infantry are responsible for port security, protection of the ten-kilometer coastal fringe, patrolling major waterways.
The Naval Infantry is responsible for 23 National Service Training Units under the responsibility of the Navy Secretary, enforcing the National Service obligation for Mexicans of teenage and young adult age. In 2008, the Mexican Navy created its new search and rescue system, allocated in strategic ports at Pacific and Gulf of Mexico ports, to provide assistance to any ships which are in jeopardy or at risk due to mechanical failure, weather conditions or life risk to the crew. To provide such support, the Navy has ordered Coast Guard Defender class ships. Other stations will be provided only with Defender-class boats. On April 1, 2014 SEMAR announced the creation of Port Protection Naval Units which will include a marine section; the main task of UNAPROPs is to ensure maritime inspection. The Navy offers several options for graduate studies in their educational institutions: Heroica Escuela Naval MilitarIt is the school where future officers are trained for the General Corps of the Navy. Candidates can enter upon completing high school.
Upon completion of studies, graduates obtain the degree of Corbeta Lieutenant and the title of Naval Science Engineer. Naval Medical SchoolThis school Located in Mexico City, offers a career in medicine. Officers are trained with skills for the health care of naval personnel. By adopting a professional examination, graduates can obtain the degree of Naval Military Lieutenant Corvette. Naval Engineering SchoolIn the Naval Engineering School, officers are responsible for the preventive and corrective maintenance of systems and electronic equipment installed on ships and installations of the Mexican Navy; this school offers career of Electronic Naval Communications. It is located between the town of Mata Grap
Asteroid Redirect Mission
The Asteroid Redirect Mission known as the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization mission and the Asteroid Initiative, was a space mission proposed by NASA in 2013. The Asteroid Retrieval Robotic Mission spacecraft would rendezvous with a large near-Earth asteroid and use robotic arms with anchoring grippers to retrieve a 4-meter boulder from the asteroid; the spacecraft would characterize the asteroid and demonstrate at least one planetary defense technique before transporting the boulder to a stable lunar orbit, where it could be further analyzed both by robotic probes and by a future human mission, ARCM. If funded, the mission would have launched in December 2021, with the additional objectives to test a number of new capabilities needed for future human expeditions to deep space, including advanced ion thrusters; the proposed 2018 NASA budget called for its cancellation, the mission was given its notice of defunding in April 2017, NASA announced the "close out" in June 13, 2017. Key technologies being developed for ARM will continue the ion thruster propulsion system that would have been flown on the robotic mission.
The main objective of the Asteroid Redirect Mission was to develop deep space exploration capabilities needed in preparation for a human mission to Mars and other Solar System destinations per NASA's Journey to Mars flexible pathways. Space tug missions, to disaggregate non-time-critical Mars logistics from crew, can reduce the costs by as much as 60% and reduces overall mission risk by enabling on-site check-out of critical systems before the crew departs. Not only would the solar electric propulsion technologies and designs be applied to future missions, but the ARRM spacecraft would be left in a stable orbit for reuse; the project has baselined any of multiple refueling capabilities. The robotic and crewed missions would demonstrate capabilities past Earth orbit, yet within a few days' return contingency. Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit, encompassing Earth-Moon L1 and L2, is a node for Earth system escape and capture; this is more so if an Exploration Augmentation Module is brought for extended human stays by an ARRM-like SEP module.
On its return leg from Mars, a human mission may save tons of mass by capturing into DRO, transferring to a parked Orion for Earth return and reentry. A secondary objective was to develop the required technology to bring a small near-Earth asteroid into lunar orbit – "the asteroid was a bonus." There, it could be analyzed by the crew of the Orion EM-5 or EM-6 ARCM mission in 2026. Additional mission aims included demonstrating planetary defense techniques able to protect the Earth in the future – such as using robotic spacecraft to deflect hazardous asteroids. Under consideration for deflecting an asteroid are: grabbing the asteroid and directly moving it, as well as employing gravity tractor techniques after collecting a boulder from its surface to increase mass; the mission would test the performance of advanced solar electric propulsion and broad-band laser communication in space. These new technologies would help send the large amounts of cargo and propellant to Mars in advance of a human mission to Mars and/or Phobos.
The vehicle would land on a large asteroid and grippers on the end of the robotic arms would grasp and secure a boulder from the surface of a large asteroid. The grippers would create a strong grip. An integrated drill would be used to provide final anchoring of the boulder to the capture mechanism. Once the boulder is secured, the legs would push off and provide an initial ascent without the use of thrusters; the spacecraft would be propelled by advanced solar electric propulsion. Electricity would be provided by high efficiency UltraFlex-style solar panels; the advanced ion engine uses 10% of the propellant required by equivalent chemical rockets, it can process three times the power of previous designs, increase efficiency by 50%. It would use the Hall-effect, which provides low acceleration but can fire continuously for many years to thrust a large mass to high speed. Hall effect thrusters trap electrons in a magnetic field and use them to ionize the onboard xenon gas propellant; the magnetic field generates an electric field that accelerates the charged ions creating an exhaust plume of plasma that pushes the spacecraft forward.
The spacecraft concept would have a dry mass of 5.5 tons, could store up to 13 tons of xenon propellant. Each thruster would have a 30- to 50-kilowatt power level, several thrusters can be combined to increase the power of an SEP spacecraft; this engine, scalable to 300 kilowatts and beyond, is being researched and developed by Northrop Grumman with Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Michigan. NASA Glenn Research Center is managing the project. At a destination, the SEP system can be configured to provide power to maintain the systems or prevent propellant boil-off before the crew arrives. However, existing flight-qualified solar-electric propulsion is at levels of 1–5 kW. A Mars cargo mission would require ~100 kW, a crewed flight ~150–300 kW. Planned for 2017 2020, for December 2021; the mission was given its notice of defunding in April 2017. The launch vehicle would have been either a Delta IV SLS or Falcon Heavy; the boulder would have arrived in lunar orbit by late 2025. As of Oc