Wayang wong known as Wayang orang', is a type of classical Javanese dance theatrical performance with themes taken from episodes of the Ramayana or Mahabharata. Performances are stylised, reflecting Javanese court culture: Wayang wong dance drama in the central Javanese Kraton of Yogyakarta represents the epitome of Javanese aesthetic unity, it is total theatre involving dance, music, visual arts and literature. A cultured sense of formality permeates every aspect of its presentation. Despite being associated with Javanese tradition, the variants of wayang wong dance drama are can be found in neighboring ethnics traditions, including Balinese and in Sundanese traditions; the bas relief panels on 9th century Prambanan temple shows the episodes of Ramayana epic. While the adaptation of Mahabharata episodes has been integrated within Javanese literature tradition, since Kahuripan and Kediri era, with notable example such as Arjunawiwaha, composed by Mpu Kanwa in 11th century; the Penataran temple in East Java describe both Mahabharata theme in its bas reliefs.
The Javanese dance drama associated with wayang epic themes of Ramayana and Mahabharata would have been existed by then. Wayang in Kawi means "shadow" and wong means "human". Wayang wang was a performance in the style of wayang kulit, the shadow theatre of Central Java wherein actors and actresses took the puppets' roles; the first written reference to the form is on the stone inscription Wimalarama from East Java dated 930 CE. The genre is done in masked and unmasked variations in Central Java and Cirebon, as well as in Sunda. Wayang wong is associated with Javanese culture, it was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta, Pakualaman and Mangkunegaran. In the course of time, it spread to become a folk form as well. Javanese wayang wong performances are stages in Trimurti Ramayana open air stage in Prambanan temple compound as Ramayana Ballet, Purawisata cultural hall in Yogyakarta, Sriwedari park in Solo, Ngesti Pandawa in Semarang. Other than Javanese dance tradition, the variants of wayang wong dance drama are can be found in other traditions, including Balinese and in Sundanese traditions.
Wayang wong Bali refer to Balinese version of wayang dance drama. Its contemporary presentation included within kecak dance. However, a Balinese wayang wong version, not including kecak dancers is existed in Ubud. Wayang wong Bali associated with Buleleng District. Wayang wong Cirebon refer to the tradition of wayang dance drama in Cirebon city, West Java. Cirebon has two styles of wayang wong; the first is a commoners or village version. The second is a Cirebon palace variant. Cirebonese wayang wong developed in the beginning of the nineteenth century, influenced the wayang wong Priangan by the end of that century. Wayang wong Priangan refer to Sundanese version of wayang dance drama, developed in Priangan region in the heartland of West Java. Wayang wong Priangan developed in the late nineteenth century, peaked in the regencies of Bandung, Sumedang and Sukabumi in the period before World War II, receded by the late l960s as audiences waned. In Sundanese tradition, the most prevalent wayang tradition is wayang golek wooden rod puppet performance.
The wayang-themed dance drama performance is exist performed in Sundanese sandiwara traditional drama form. Wayang gedog, another form of wayang wong performance, is considered to be a cross between wayang wong and the Topeng dance; these performances take themes from the Panji cycles stories about the kingdom of Janggala. Players wear masks known as wayang wayang gedog; the word "gedog" comes from "kedok", like "topeng" means "mask". The main theme is the story of Candra Kirana; this is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya. Candra Kirana's story was given the title "Smaradahana". At the end of the complicated story they marry and produce a son. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names of "Sri Kameswara", "Prabu Suryowiseso", "Hino Kertapati". Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume: For male performers: Alus: slow and smooth movement.
For example, the dance of Arjuna and all other refined and slimly built Kshatriyas. There are two types of movement and luruh. Gagah: a more masculine and powerful dance movement, used for the roles of built kshatriyas and generals. Kambeng: a more powerful and athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima and Ghatotkacha. Bapang: gagah and kasar for the warriors of antagonist roles such as Kaurawa. Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja. Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying evil characters such as Rakshasa and demons. Gecul: a funny court jester and commoners, portraying ponokawan and cantrik Kambeng dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Hanuman. Kalang kinantang dengklik: such as Sugriwa and Subali. For female performers: Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, monks, The movements known as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical high style of danc
Kandy is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province. It was the last capital of the ancient kings' era of Sri Lanka; the city lies in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, which crosses an area of tropical plantations tea. Kandy is both an administrative and religious city and is the capital of the Central Province. Kandy is the home of The Temple of the Tooth Relic, one of the most sacred places of worship in the Buddhist world, it was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1988. The city and the region has been known by many different versions of those names; some scholars suggest that the original name of Kandy was Katubulu Nuwara located near present Watapuluwa. However, the more popular historical name is Senkadagala or Senkadagalapura Senkadagala Siriwardhana Maha Nuwara shortened to'Maha Nuwara'. According to folklore, this name originated from one of the several possible sources. One being the city was named after a brahmin with the name Senkanda who lived in a cave near by, another being a queen of Vikramabahu III was named Senkanda, after a coloured stone named Senkadagala.
The Kingdom of Kandy has been known by various names. The English name Kandy, which originated during the colonial era, is derived from an anglicised version of the Sinhala Kanda Uda Rata or Kanda Uda Pas Rata; the Portuguese shortened this to "Candea", using the name for its capital. In Sinhala, Kandy is called Maha nuwara, meaning "Great City" or "Capital", although this is most shortened to Nuwara. Historical records suggest that Kandy was first established by the Vikramabahu III, the monarch of the Kingdom of Gampola, north of the present city, named Senkadagalapura at the time. Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu was the first king of the Kingdom of Kandy, he was a royal from the Kotte Royal Blood line and ruled Kandy as a semi-independent kingdom under the Kingdom of Kotte, making it the new capital of the Kandyan Kingdom. Sena Sammatha Wickramabahu was followed by his son Jayaweera Astana and by Karaliyadde Bandara, succeeded by his daughter Dona Catherina of Kandy. Dona Catherina was succeeded by Rajasinha I.
Rajasinha I however, preferred to rule the hill country from the Kingdom of Sitawaka on the west of the island. A period of turmoil for power ended with the ascent to the throne by Konappu Bandara who came to be known as Vimaladharmasuriya I. Having embraced Buddhism, he consolidated his authority further by bringing the tooth relic of the Lord Buddha to Kandy from a place called Delgamuwa. In 1592 Kandy became the capital city of the last remaining independent kingdom in the island after the coastal regions had been conquered by the Portuguese. Several invasions by the Portuguese were repelled, most notably in the campaign of Danture. After the Sinhalese–Portuguese War and the establishment of Dutch Ceylon, attempts by the Dutch to conquer the kingdom were repelled; the kingdom tolerated a Dutch presence on the coast of Sri Lanka, although attacks were launched. The most ambitious offensive was undertaken in 1761, when King Kirti Sri Rajasinha attacked and overran most of the coast, leaving only the fortified Negombo intact.
When a Dutch retaliatory force returned to the island in 1763, Kirti Sri Rajasinha abandoned the coastline and withdrew into the interior. When the Dutch continued to the jungles the next year, they were harassed by disease, lack of provisions, Kandyan sharpshooters, who hid in the jungle and inflicted heavy losses on the Dutch; the Dutch launched a better adapted force in January 1765, replacing their troops' bayonets with machetes and using more practical uniforms and tactics suited to jungle warfare. The Dutch were successful in capturing the capital, deserted, the Kandyans withdrew to the jungles once more, refusing to engage in open battle. However, the Dutch were again worn down by constant attrition. A peace treaty was signed in 1766; the Dutch remained in control of the coastal areas until 1796, when Great Britain took them over due to the Kew letters during the Napoleonic wars. British possession of these areas was formalized with the treaty of Amiens in 1802; the next year the British invaded Kandy in what became known as the First Kandyan War, but were repulsed.
As the capital, Kandy had become home to the relic of the tooth of the Buddha which symbolizes a 4th-century tradition that used to be linked to the Sinhalese monarchy, since the protector of the relic was the ruler of the land. Thus the Royal Palace and the Temple of the Tooth were placed in close proximity to each other; the last ruling dynasty of Kandy were the Nayaks. Kandy stayed independent until the early 19th century. In the Second Kandyan War, the British launched an invasion that met no resistance and reached the city on February 10, 1815. On March 2, 1815, a treaty known as the Kandyan Convention was signed between the British and the Radalas. With this treaty, Kandy became a British protectorate; the last king of the kingdom Sri Vikrama Rajasinha was captured and taken as a royal prisoner by the British to Vellore Fort in southern India along with all claimants to the throne. Some of the family members were exiled to Tanjore, their erstwhile living place is still referred to as "Kandy Raja Aranmanai" on the eastern part of Thanjavur town
Bangles are traditionally rigid bracelets, originating from the Indian subcontinent, which are made of metal, glass or plastic. They are traditional ornaments worn by women from the Indian subcontinent, it is common to see a new bride wearing glass bangles at her wedding, the traditional view is that the honeymoon will end when the last bangle breaks. Bangles have a traditional value in Hinduism as it is considered inauspicious for a married woman to be bare armed. Bangles may be worn by young girls and bangles made of gold or silver are preferred for toddlers. Bangles are known as Kannada: ಬಳೆ Bale, Nepali: चुरा Chura, Bengali: চুড়ি churi, Assamese: খাৰু kharu, Tamil: வளையல், Hindi: चूड़ी Choodi, Marathi: बांगडी Bangadi, Telugu: గాజు, Urdu: چوڑیاں, Pashto: بنګړې and Balochi: بنگڑي Bangří; some men and women wear a single bangle on the wrist called kada or kara. In Sikhism, the father of a Sikh bride will give the groom a gold ring, a kara, a mohra. Chooda is a kind of bangle, worn by Punjabi women on her wedding day.
It is a set of red bangles with stonework. According to tradition, a woman is not supposed to buy the bangles. Firozabad, Uttar Pradesh is India's largest producer of bangles. Bangles made from sea shell, bronze, agate, etc. have been excavated from multiple archaeological sites throughout the Indian subcontinent. A figurine of a dancing girl wearing bangles on her left arm has been excavated from Mohenjo-daro. Other early examples of bangles in ancient India include copper samples from the excavations at Mahurjhari, followed by the decorated bangles belonging to the Mauryan Empire and the gold bangle samples from the historic site of Taxila. Decorated shell bangles have been excavated from multiple Mauryan sites. Other features include gold-leaf inlay in some cases. Bangles are circular in shape, unlike bracelets, are not flexible; the word is derived from Hindi bungri. They are made of numerous precious as well as non-precious materials such as gold, platinum, wood, ferrous metals, etc. Bangles made from sea shell, which are white colour, are worn by married Bengali and Oriya Hindu women.
A special type of bangle is worn by women and girls in the Bengal area known as a "Bengali bangle", used as a substitute for a costly gold bangle, is produced by fixing a thin gold strip is thermo-mechanically fused onto a bronze bangle, followed by manual crafting on that fused gold strip. Bangles are part of traditional Indian jewellery, they are sometimes worn in pairs by one or more on each arm. It is common for women to wear a single bangle or several bangles on just one wrist. Most Indian women prefer wearing a combination of both. Inexpensive bangles made from plastic are replacing those made by glass, but the ones made of glass are still preferred at traditional occasions such as marriages and on festivals. Bangles are the signs for traditional girls. Bangles play a important role in various India dance forms; some of dance forms include bangles striking to each other a tone of the music. The designs range from simple to intricate handmade designs studded with precious and semi-precious stones such as diamonds and pearls.
Sets of expensive bangles made of gold and silver make a jingling sound. The imitation jewellery tends to make a tinny sound. There are two basic types of bangles: a solid cylinder type; the primary distinguishing factor between these is the material used to make the bangles. This may vary from anything from glass to jade to metal to lac and rubber or plastic. One factor that adds to the price of the bangles is the artifacts or the work done further on the metal; this includes embroidery or small glass pieces or paintings or small hangings that are attached to the bangles. The rareness of a color and its unique value increase the value. Bangles made from lac are one among the most brittle. Lac is a resinous material, secreted by insects, collected and molded in hot kilns to make these bangles. Among the recent kinds are rubber bangles, worn more like a wristband by youngsters, plastic ones which add a trendy look. A bangle worn by people around the world is an inflexible piece of jewelry worn around the wrist.
However, in many cultures those from Indian cultures and the broader Indian subcontinent, bangles have evolved into various types in which different ones are used on different occasions. Hyderabad, has a historic world-famous market for bangles named Laad Bazaar. Glass bangles are produced in the old Indian city of Firozabad in North India. Pakistan glass bangles are produced in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Choora Ghosh, Amalananda. An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09264-1
The Balinese people are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million live on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population. There are significant populations on the island of Lombok and in the easternmost regions of Java; the Balinese originated from three periods of migration. The first waves of immigrants came from Java and Kalimantan in prehistoric times and were of proto-Malay stock; the second wave of Balinese came over the years from Java during the Hindu period. The third and final wave came from Java, between the 15th and 16th centuries, about the same time as the conversion to Islam in Java, causing aristocrats and peasants to flee to Bali after the collapse of the Javanese Hindu Majapahit Empire in order to escape Mataram's Islamic conversion; this in turn reshaped the Balinese culture into a syncretic form of classical Javanese culture mixed with many Balinese elements. A DNA study in 2005 by Karafet et al. found that 12% of Balinese Y-chromosomes are of Indian origin, while 84% are of Austronesian origin, 2% of Melanesian origin.
Balinese culture is a mix of Balinese Hindu-Buddhist Balinese customs. It is most known for its dance and sculpture; the island is known for its Wayang kulit or Shadow play theatre. In rural and neglected villages, beautiful temples are a common sight. Layered pieces of palm leaf and neat fruit arrangements made as offerings by Balinese women have an artistic side to them. According to Mexican art historian José Miguel Covarrubias, works of art made by amateur Balinese artists are regarded as a form of spiritual offering, therefore these artists do not care about recognition of their works. Balinese artists are skilled in duplicating art works such as carvings that resemble Chinese deities or decorating vehicles based on what is seen in foreign magazines; the culture is noted for its use of the gamelan in music and in various traditional events of Balinese society. Each type of music is designated for a specific type of event. For example, music for a piodalan is different from music used for a metatah ceremony, just as it is for weddings, Melasti and so forth.
The diverse types of gamelan are specified according to the different types of dance in Bali. According to Walter Spies, the art of dancing is an integral part of Balinese life as well as an endless critical element in a series of ceremonies or for personal interests. Traditionally, displaying of female breasts is not regarded as immodest. Balinese women can be seen with bared chests. In modern Bali these customs are not observed, but visitors visiting Balinese temples are advised to cover their legs. In the Balinese naming system, a person's rank of birth or caste is reflected in the name. A puputan is an act of mass suicide through frontal assaults in battle, was first noted by the Dutch during the colonization of Bali; the latest act of puputan was during the Indonesian war of Independence, with Lt. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai as the leader in the battle of Margarana; the airport in Bali is named after him in commemoration. The vast majority of the Balinese believe in Agama Tirta, "holy-water religion".
It is a Shivaite sect of Hinduism. Traveling Indian priests are said to have introduced the people to the sacred literature of Hinduism and Buddhism centuries ago; the people combined it with their own pre-Hindu mythologies. The Balinese from before the third wave of immigration, known as the Bali Aga, are not followers of Agama Tirta, but retain their own animist traditions. Balinese people celebrate multiple festivals, including the Kuta Carnival, the Sanur Village Festival, the Bali Kite Festival, where participants fly fish-, bird-, leaf-shaped kites while an orchestra plays traditional music. Balinese Hinduism Balinese architecture Balinese caste system Bali Kingdom Balinese Kshatriya Galungan Nyepi Saraswati Ngaben Legong Sanghyang Kecak Canang sari
Bharatanatyam known as Sathiraattam, is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu. Traditionally, Bharatanatyam has been a solo dance performed by women, it expressed South Indian religious themes and spiritual ideas of Shaivism and Shaktism. Bharatanatyam's theoretical foundations trace to the ancient Sanskrit text by Bharata Muni, Natya Shastra, its existence by 2nd century CE is noted in the ancient Tamil epic Silappatikaram, while temple sculptures of 6th to 9th century CE suggest it was a well refined performance art by the mid 1st millennium CE. Bharatanatyam may be the oldest classical dance tradition of India. Bharatanatyam style is noted for its fixed upper torso, legs bent or knees flexed out combined with spectacular footwork, a sophisticated vocabulary of sign language based on gestures of hands and face muscles; the dance is accompanied by music and a singer, her guru is present as the director and conductor of the performance and art. The dance has traditionally been a form of an interpretive narration of mythical legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu texts.
The performance repertoire of Bharatanatyam, like other classical dances, includes nrita and natya. Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, it was banned by the colonial British government in 1910, but the Indian community protested against the ban and expanded it outside the temples in the 20th century. Modern stage productions of Bharatanatyam have incorporated technical performances, pure dance based on non-religious ideas and fusion themes; the term Bharatanatyam is a compound of two words and Natyam. The term Bharata is believed to be named after the famous performance art sage to whom the ancient Natya Shastra is attributed. There is an alternative belief that the word Bharata is a mnemonic, consisting of "bha"–"ra"–"ta". According to this belief, bha stands for bhava, ra stands for raga, ta stands for tala; the term Natya is a Sanskrit word for "dance". The compound word Bharatanatyam thus connotes a dance that harmoniously expresses bhava and tala. Bharatanatyam was once called Sadir.
The theoretical foundations of Bharatanatyam are found in Natya Shastra, the ancient Hindu text of performance arts. Natya Shastra is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni, its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE; the most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance, the theory of rasa, of bhāva, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures—all of which are part of Indian classical dances. Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas and the essence of scriptures. More direct historical references to Bharatnatyam is found in the Tamil epics Silappatikaram and Manimegalai; the ancient text Silappatikaram, includes a story of a dancing girl named Madhavi. The carvings in Kanchipuram's Shiva temple that have been dated to 6th to 9th century CE suggest Bharatanatyam was a well developed performance art by about the mid 1st millennium CE.
A famous example of illustrative sculpture is in the southern gateway of the Chidambaram temple dedicated to Hindu god Shiva, where 108 poses of the Bharatnatyam, that are described as karanas in the Natya Shastra, are carved in stone. Many of the ancient Shiva sculptures in Hindu temples are same. For example, the Cave 1 of Badami cave temples, dated to 7th-century, portrays the Tandava-dancing Shiva as Nataraja; the image, 5 feet tall, has 18 arms in a form that expresses the dance positions arranged in a geometric pattern. The arms of Shiva express mudras; some colonial Indologists and modern authors have argued that Bharatanatyam is a descendant of an ancient Devadasi culture, suggesting a historical origin back to between 300 BCE and 300 CE. Modern scholarship has questioned this theory for lack of any direct textual or archeological evidence. Historic sculpture and texts do describe and project dancing girls, as well as temple quarters dedicated to women, but they do not state them to be courtesans and prostitutes as alleged by early colonial Indologists.
According to Davesh Soneji, a critical examination of evidence suggests that courtesan dancing is a phenomenon of the modern era, beginning in the late 16th or the 17th century of the Nayaka period of Tamil Nadu. According to James Lochtefeld, Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, only in the 20th century appearing on stage outside the temples. Further, the Maratha rulers of Tanjore contributed towards Bharatanatyam. With the arrival of the East India Company in the 18th century, British colonial rule in the 19th, many classical Indian dance forms were ridiculed and discouraged, these performance arts declined. Christian missionaries and British officials presented "nautch girls" of north India and "devadasis" of south India as evidence of "harlots, debased erotic culture, slavery to idols and priests" tradition, Christian missionaries demanded that this must be stopped, launching the "anti-dance movement" in 1892; the anti-dance
The biceps biceps brachii, is a large muscle that lies on the front of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow. Both heads of the muscle arise on the scapula and join to form a single muscle belly, attached to the upper forearm. While the biceps crosses both the shoulder and elbow joints, its main function is at the elbow where it flexes the forearm and supinates the forearm. Both these movements are used when opening a bottle with a corkscrew: first biceps unscrews the cork it pulls the cork out; the biceps is one of three muscles in the anterior compartment of the upper arm, along with the brachialis muscle and the coracobrachialis muscle, with which the biceps shares a nerve supply. The biceps muscle has two heads, the short head and the long head, distinguished according to their origin at the coracoid process and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula, respectively. From its origin on the glenoid, the long head remains tendinous as it passes through the shoulder joint and through the intertubercular groove of the humerus.
Extending from its origin on the coracoid, the tendon of the short head runs adjacent to the tendon of the coracobrachialis as the conjoint tendon. Unlike the other muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm, the biceps muscle crosses two joints, the shoulder joint and the elbow joint. Both heads of the biceps join in the middle upper arm to form a single muscle mass near the insertion of the deltoid to form a common muscle belly, although several anatomic studies have demonstrated that the muscle bellies remain distinct structures without confluent fibers; as the muscle extends distally, the two heads rotate 90 degrees externally before inserting onto the radial tuberosity. The short head inserts distally on the tuberosity while the long head inserts proximally closer to the apex of the tuberosity; the bicipital aponeurosis called the lacertus fibrosus, is a thick fascial band that organizes close to the musculotendinous junction of the biceps and radiates over and inserts onto the ulnar part of the antebrachial fascia.
The tendon that attaches to the radial tuberosity is or surrounded by a bursa, the bicipitoradial bursa, which ensures frictionless motion between the biceps tendon and the proximal radius during pronation and supination of the forearm. Two muscles lie underneath the biceps brachii; these are the coracobrachialis muscle, which like the biceps attaches to the coracoid process of the scapula, the brachialis muscle which connects to the ulna and along the mid-shaft of the humerus. Besides those, the brachioradialis muscle is adjacent to the biceps and inserts on the radius bone, though more distally. Traditionally described as a two-headed muscle, biceps brachii is one of the most variable muscles of the human body and has a third head arising from the humerus in 10% of cases —most originating near the insertion of the coracobrachialis and joining the short head—but four and seven supernumerary heads have been reported in rare cases. One study found a higher than expected number of female cadavers with a third head of biceps brachii, equal incidence between sides of the body, uniform innervation by musculocutaneous nerve.
The distal biceps tendons are separated in 40% and bifurcated in 25% of cases. The biceps shares its nerve supply with the other two muscles of the anterior compartment; the muscles are supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve. Fibers of the fifth and seventh cervical nerves make up the components of the musculocutaneous nerve which supply the biceps; the biceps works across three joints. The most important of these functions is to flex the elbow. Besides, the long head of biceps prevents the upward displacement of the head of the humerus. In more detail, the actions are, by joint: Proximal radioulnar joint – Contrary to popular belief, the biceps brachii is not the most powerful flexor of the forearm, a role which belongs to the deeper brachialis muscle; the biceps brachii functions as a powerful supinator of the forearm. This action, aided by the supinator muscle, requires the elbow to be at least flexed. If the elbow, or humeroulnar joint, is extended, supination is primarily carried out by the supinator muscle.
The biceps is a powerful supinator of the forearm due to the distal attachment of the muscle at the radial tuberosity, on the opposite side of the bone from the supinator muscle. When flexed, the biceps pulls the radius back into its neutral supinated position in concert with the supinator muscle. Elbow – The biceps brachii functions as an important flexor of the forearm when the forearm is supinated. Functionally, this action is performed when lifting an object, such as a bag of groceries or when performing a biceps curl; when the forearm is in pronation, the brachialis and supinator function to flex the forearm, with minimal contribution from the biceps brachii. It is important to note that regardless of forearm position, the force exerted by the biceps brachii remains the same; that is, the biceps can only exert so much force, as forearm position changes, other muscles must compensate. Shoulder – Several weaker functions occur at the glenohumeral, or shoulder, joint; the biceps brachii weakly assists in forward flexion of the shoulder joint.
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