Plymouth Hoe, referred to locally as the Hoe, is a large south facing open public space in the English coastal city of Plymouth. The Hoe is adjacent to and above the low cliffs that form the seafront and it commands views of Plymouth Sound, Drakes Island. The name derives from the Anglo-Saxon word Hoe, a sloping ridge shaped like an inverted foot, until the early 17th century large outline images of the giants Gog and Magog had for a long time been cut into the turf of the Hoe exposing the white limestone beneath. These figures were periodically re-cut and cleaned, the British Library holds a 1591 Spry map of Plimmouth from this era. Its purpose was to protect the port and probably to intimidate the townsfolk who had leaned towards Parliament during the Civil War and it remains occupied by the military. From 1880 there was a bandstand on the Hoe. It was removed for scrap metal during the Second World War, a three tier belvedere built in 1891 survives, it was built on the site of a camera obscura, probably built in the 1830s, which showed views of the harbour.
Below this site was the Bull Ring, and a pleasure pier, started in 1880, which provided a dance hall, promenading. The pier was destroyed by German bombing in World War II, a prominent landmark on the Hoe is Smeatons Tower. This is the portion of John Smeatons Eddystone Lighthouse, which was originally built on the Eddystone Rocks in 1759. It was dismantled in 1877 and moved, stone by stone, Smeatons Tower overlooks Tinside Pool, an unusual 1930s outdoor lido which sits upon the limestone shoreline at the base of the cliff. Most of the works to create the areas and Madeira Road were carried out to make work for the local unemployed during the Depression. A statue of Sir Francis Drake by Joseph Boehm was placed here in 1884 to commemorate him, there are several war memorials along the northern side of the Hoe. The Armada Memorial was opened in 1888 to celebrate the tercentenary of the Spanish Armada, below and to the east, perched on the rocky foreshore is the clubhouse of the Royal Plymouth Corinthian Yacht Club.
The Hoe is an area for Plymothians and visitors. The Fastnet yacht race ends here, the annual two-day British Firework Championships attracts tens of thousands of spectators. For forty years, there has been controversy about development on the edges of the Hoe green space. The erection of two discount hotel chain box buildings, at the end of Armada Way and the other at the Sound end of Leigham Street
Gunnislake is a large village in east Cornwall, United Kingdom. It has a ward in its own name which includes much of Calstock. The population at the 2011 census was 4,574 The village has a history of mining although this industry is no longer active in the area, during the mining boom in Victorian times more than 7000 people were employed in the mines of the Tamar Valley. During this period Gunnislake was held in equal standing amongst the richest mining areas in Europe, gunnislakes development was primarily due to the dramatic increase in mining and industrial activity in the nineteenth century. Mining provided around 7000 jobs at its peak in 1862, most mining activity ceased in the late nineteenth century which has bequeathed interest for archaeologists and students of industrial heritage. As well as mining, other such as brickworks and quarries were present. Nearby, locations such as Kit Hill, Morwellham Quay and Calstock were mined and quarried, arsenic was produced at Greenhill, Gunnislake until at least 1930.
1520, it is 182 feet long and has seven arches and it is built of large regular granite blocks and is the best of the Cornish granite bridges. The area is residential with a small handful of businesses ranging from pubs to garages. Gunnislake is located in the Tamar Valley designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, within early 2006 Hingston Down Quarry installed a new asphalt production tower which is easily noticeable as it is proud of the skyline of Gunnislake. Since 2001, the village has hosted its own festival. There is a King Georges Field in memorial to King George V located in lower Gunnislake and it is the home of Gunnislake Football Club. Gunnislake railway station is the terminus of the Tamar Valley Line. Gunnislake is now the terminus of the line but until 1966 it continued north to Callington, in 1994 the station was resited to remove a low road bridge. Gunnislake Festival Website Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Gunnislake
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be white, pink, or gray in color. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is a rock with at least 20% quartz. The term granitic means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a general, descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks, petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite, Granite is nearly always massive and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use throughout human history, and more recently as a construction stone.
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 3–6 •1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C, it is reduced in the presence of water. Granite has poor primary permeability, but strong secondary permeability, true granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite, when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite, two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age, it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin veneer of the continents.
Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs, granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as small, less than 100 km² stock masses
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner CBE FBA was a German, British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture. He is best known for his 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England, the son of a Russian-Jewish fur haulier, Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, Saxony. He attended the Thomas School and went on to art history at the Universities of Leipzig, Berlin. In 1923, he married Carola Kurlbaum, the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer Alfred Kurlbaum and he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft and he taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933. Later that year he moved to England and his first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and partly funded by the Academic Assistance Council.
He was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles, since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages. The English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design, Pevsner was more German than the Germans to the extent that he supported Goebbels in his drive for pure non-decadent German art. He was reported as saying of the Nazis I want this movement to succeed, there is no alternative but chaos. There are things worse than Hitlerism, nonetheless he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was interned as an alien in Huyton. He was released three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick, Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, Outline would eventually go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, and sell more than half a million copies.
In 1942, Pevsner finally secured two regular positions, from 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service. Under the ARs influence, Pevsners approach to modern architecture became more complex and he was closely involved with the Reviews proprietor, Hubert de Cronin Hastings, in evolving the magazines theories on Picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a lecturer at Birkbeck, University of London. He lectured at Cambridge for almost 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a six years from 1949 to 1955
The Armada finally dropped anchor off Calais. While awaiting communications from the Duke of Parmas army the Armada was scattered by an English fireship attack, in the ensuing Battle of Gravelines the Spanish fleet was damaged and forced to abandon its rendezvous with Parmas army, who were blockaded in harbour by Dutch flyboats. The Armada managed to regroup and, driven by southwest winds, the commander ordered a return to Spain, but the Armada was disrupted during severe storms in the North Atlantic and a large number of the vessels were wrecked on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland. Of the initial 130 ships over a third failed to return, the expedition was the largest engagement of the undeclared Anglo-Spanish War. The word armada is from the Spanish armada, which is a cognate with English army, originally from the Latin armāta, the past participle of armāre to arm, used in Romance languages as a noun, for armed force, navy, fleet. Armada Española is still the Spanish term for the modern Spanish Navy, Armada was the Portuguese traditional term of the Portuguese Navy.
Henry VIII began the English Reformation as a political exercise over his desire to divorce his first wife, a devout Catholic, Mary began to reassert Roman influence over church affairs. Her attempts led to over 260 people being burned at the stake, marys death in 1558 led to her half-sister, Elizabeth I, taking the throne. Unlike Mary, Elizabeth was firmly in the reformist camp, Philip, no longer co-monarch, deemed Elizabeth a heretic and illegitimate ruler of England. Under Roman law, Henry had never officially divorced Catherine, making Elizabeth illegitimate, Elizabeth retaliated against Philip by supporting the Dutch revolt against Spain, as well as funding privateers to raid Spanish ships across the Atlantic. In retaliation, Philip planned an expedition to invade England in order to overthrow Elizabeth, the King was supported by Pope Sixtus V, who treated the invasion as a crusade, with the promise of a subsidy should the Armada make land. A raid on Cadiz, led by Francis Drake in April 1587, had captured or destroyed some thirty ships and great quantities of supplies, the Duke of Parma would follow with a large army from the Low Countries crossing the English Channel.
Parma was uneasy about mounting such an invasion without any possibility of surprise and he was alarmed by the costs that would be incurred, and advised Philip to postpone or abandon it. The Armadas appointed commander was the highly experienced Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis of Santa Cruz, but he died in February 1588, and the Duke of Medina Sidonia, while a competent soldier and distinguished administrator, Medina Sidonia had no naval experience. He wrote to Philip expressing grave doubts about the planned campaign, prior to the undertaking, Pope Sixtus V allowed Philip II of Spain to collect crusade taxes and granted his men indulgences. The blessing of the Armadas banner on 25 April 1588, was similar to the ceremony used prior to the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, on 28 May 1588, the Armada set sail from Lisbon and headed for the English Channel. The fleet was composed of 130 ships,8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers, the full body of the fleet took two days to leave port. It included twenty eight purpose-built warships, of twenty were galleons, four galleys
Plymouths early history extends to the Bronze Age, when a first settlement emerged at Mount Batten. This settlement continued as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until it was surpassed by the prosperous village of Sutton founded in the ninth century. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers departed Plymouth for the New World, during the English Civil War the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646. The combined town took the name of Plymouth which, in 1928, the citys naval importance led to its targeting and partial destruction during World War II, an act known as the Plymouth Blitz. After the war the city centre was rebuilt and subsequent expansion led to the incorporation of Plympton. The city is home to 262,700 people, making it the 30th most populous area in the United Kingdom. It is governed locally by Plymouth City Council and is represented nationally by three MPs, Plymouths economy remains strongly influenced by shipbuilding and seafaring including ferry links to Brittany and Spain, but has tended toward a service-based economy since the 1990s.
It has the largest operational base in Western Europe – HMNB Devonport and is home to Plymouth University. An unidentified settlement named TAMARI OSTIA is listed in Ptolemys Geographia and is presumed to be located in the area of the modern city, at the time this village was called Sutton, meaning south town in Old English. The name Plym Mouth, meaning mouth of the River Plym was first mentioned in a Pipe Roll of 1211, the name Plymouth first officially replaced Sutton in a charter of King Henry VI in 1440. See Plympton for the derivation of the name Plym, during the Hundred Years War a French attack burned a manor house and took some prisoners, but failed to get into the town. In 1403 the town was burned by Breton raiders, on 12 November,1439, the English Parliament made Plymouth the first town incorporated. The castle served to protect Sutton Pool, which is where the fleet was based in Plymouth prior to the establishment of Plymouth Dockyard. In 1512 an Act of Parliament was passed for further fortifying Plymouth, defences on St Nicholas Island date from this time, and a string of six artillery blockhouses were built, including one on Fishers Nose at the south-eastern corner of the Hoe.
This location was further strengthened by the building of a fort in 1596, during the 16th century locally produced wool was the major export commodity. According to legend, Drake insisted on completing his game of bowls on the Hoe before engaging the Spanish Armada in 1588. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers set sail for the New World from Plymouth, during the English Civil War Plymouth sided with the Parliamentarians and was besieged for almost four years by the Royalists. The last major attack by the Royalist was by Sir Richard Grenville leading thousands of soldiers towards Plymouth, the civil war ended as a Parliamentary win, but monarchy was restored by King Charles II in 1660, who imprisoned many of the Parliamentary heroes on Drakes Island
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alfred reigned as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900. He was the son and fourth child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg. He was known as the Duke of Edinburgh from 1866 until he succeeded his paternal uncle Ernest II as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and he was second in the line of succession behind his elder brother, the Prince of Wales. He was known to his family as Affie, after a childhood mispronunciation of the name Alfred, Alfred was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley, at the Private Chapel in Windsor Castle on 6 September 1844. His godparents were his mothers first cousin, Prince George of Cambridge, his aunt, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Alfred studied violin at Holyrood, where his accompanist was Hungarian expatriate George Lichtenstein. Alfred remained second in line to the British throne from his birth until 8 January 1864, any legitimate children of his older brother took priority in the succession list.
Alfred became third in line to the throne and as Edward and Alexandra continued to have children, in 1856 it was decided that Prince Alfred, in accordance with his own wishes, should enter the Royal Navy. A separate establishment was accordingly assigned to him, with Lieutenant J. C. Cowell, RE and he passed the examination in August 1858, and was appointed as midshipman in HMS Euryalus at the age of 14. In July 1860, while on this ship, he paid a visit to the Cape Colony. He took part in a hunt at Hartebeeste-Hoek, resulting in the slaughter of large numbers of game animals and she and her late husband had made plans for him to succeed to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg. Prince Alfred, remained in the navy, and was promoted to lieutenant on 24 February 1863 and he was promoted to captain on 23 February 1866 and was appointed to the command of the frigate HMS Galatea in January 1867. In the Queens Birthday Honours on 24 May 1866, the Prince was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Ulster and he took his seat in the House of Lords on 8 June.
While still in command of the Galatea, the Duke of Edinburgh started from Plymouth on 24 January 1867 for his round the world. On 7 June 1867, he left Gibraltar, reached the Cape of Good Hope on 24 July and he landed at Glenelg, South Australia, on 31 October. Being the first member of the family to visit Australia. During his stay of five months he visited Adelaide, Sydney, Brisbane. Adelaide school Prince Alfred College was named in his honour to mark such an occasion, at the function he was wounded in the back by a revolver fired by Henry James OFarrell
Devon, known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, combined as a ceremonial county, Devons area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia, during the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936, Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, and the bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns. The inland terrain is rural, generally hilly, and has a low density in comparison to many other parts of England.
Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England at 954 km2, to the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart. As well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is linked with tourism, in the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh, Breton and Cornish, each meaning deep valleys. One erroneous theory is that the suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire. However, there are references to Defenascire in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced human remains from 30–40,000 years ago, Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC. The Romans held the area under occupation for around 350 years. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, and it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD, the arrival of William of Orange to launch the Glorious Revolution of 1688 took place at Brixham. Devon has produced tin and other metals from ancient times, Devons tin miners enjoyed a substantial degree of independence through Devons Stannary Parliament, which dates back to the 12th century. The last recorded sitting was in 1748, agriculture has been an important industry in Devon since the 19th century
He blew with His winds, and they were scattered
The phrase seems to have had its origin in an inscription on one of the many commemorative medals struck to celebrate the occasion. The conflict had clear religious dimensions, relations between Catholic Spain and Protestant England had been souring for a considerable period of time, eventually leading the outbreak of the Anglo-Spanish War in 1585. Events had been brought to a head by the English support of the Dutch Protestant United Provinces in the Eighty Years War, the Dutch were revolting against Spain, and to prevent further English support, Philip II of Spain planned an invasion of England. On 29 July 1587, he obtained Papal authority to overthrow Elizabeth, who had been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, an Armada, the Spanish word for a battle fleet, was prepared to invade England, defeat its armies and depose Queen Elizabeth. Consisting of around 130 ships,8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers,1,500 brass guns and 1,000 iron guns, it was termed the Great, the Spanish Empire at this time was one of the wealthiest and most powerful in the world.
England in comparison was considerably weaker, both economically and militarily, and since becoming Protestant on the accession of Elizabeth, lacked powerful allies on the continent. The Armada was subsequently defeated by the English fleet under the English admirals Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir John Hawkins, here, in addition to the usually rough seas, the ships ran into a heavy storm, sometimes described one of the most northern hurricanes on record. Already in poor condition after a period at sea, many ships were sunk, or driven onto the Irish coast. Over 50 ships were lost and the Armada ceased to be an effective force, the ships that returned to Spain were in poor condition and their crews weakened and diseased from the long journey. Phillips plans to invade England had been quashed, the weather having played a large part. A legend had him declared, I sent my ships to fight against the English, the Spanish-English conflict was viewed all over Europe as a contest between Catholicism and Protestantism.
One of the most famous bore the inscription Flavit Jehovah et Dissipati Sunt and this translates as Jehovah blew with His wind and they were scattered. It is a reference to Job 4, 9-11, flante Deo perisse, rugitus leonis, et vox leænæ, et dentes catulorum leonum contriti sunt. Tigris periit, eo quod non haberet prædam, et catuli leonis dissipati sunt, the inscription accompanied a scene of a fleet of ships on a stormy sea. The obverse displayed a church building, symbolizing the Protestant Church, other medals included one that showed a wrecked galleon, and on the obverse some people praying. Queen Elizabeth is supposed to have awarded a medal to her admirals, the alternative term, The Protestant Wind is sometimes used, again to emphasise the divine nature of the victory. Altered and abbreviated versions of the phrase exist, such as God blew and they were scattered or God breathed and they were scattered
An entablature refers to the superstructure of moldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are major elements of architecture, and are commonly divided into the architrave, the frieze. The Greek and Roman temples are believed to be based on wooden structures, the structure of the entablature varies with the three classical orders, Doric and Corinthian. In each, the proportions of the subdivisions are defined by the proportions of the column in the order, in Roman and Renaissance interpretations, it is usually approximately a quarter of the height of the column. Variants of entablature that do not fit these models are derived from them. Pure classical Doric entablature is simple, the architrave, the lowest band, is split, from bottom to top, into the guttae, the regulae, and the taenia. The frieze is dominated by the triglyphs, vertically channelled tablets, separated by metopes, which may or may not be decorated. The triglyphs sit on top of the taenia, a flat, horizontal protrusion, and are finished at the bottom by decoration of drops, called guttae, the top of the triglyphs meet the protrusion of the cornice from the entablature.
The underside of this protrusion is decorated with mutules, tablets that are finished with guttae. The cornice is split into the soffit, the corona, the soffit is simply the exposed underside. The corona and the cymatium are the parts of the cornice. The Ionic order of entablature adds the fascia in the architrave, which are flat horizontal protrusions, and the dentils under the cornice, which are tooth-like rectangular block moldings. The Corinthian order adds a far more ornate cornice, from bottom to top, into the cyma reversa, the dentils, the ovulo, the modillions, the fascia, and the cyma recta. The modillions are ornate brackets, similar in use to dentils, the frieze is sometimes omitted—for example, on the portico of the caryatides of the Erechtheum—and probably did not exist as a structure in the temple of Diana at Ephesus. Neither is it found in the Lycian tombs, which are reproductions in the rock of timber based on early lonian work. The entablature is essentially an evolution of the lintel, which spans two posts, supporting the ends of the roof rafters.
The entablature together with the system of columns is rarely found outside of classical architecture. It is often used to complete the upper portion of a wall where columns are not present, the use of the entablature, irrespective of columns, appeared after the Renaissance