Liberia the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest, it has a population of around 4,700,000 people. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population; the country's capital and largest city is Monrovia. Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society, who believed black people would face better chances for freedom and prosperity in Africa than in the United States; the country declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The U. S. did not recognize Liberia's independence until February 1862, during the American Civil War. Between January 7, 1822, the American Civil War, more than 15,000 freed and free-born black people who faced legislated limits in the U. S. and 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans, relocated to the settlement.
The black settlers carried their tradition with them to Liberia. The Liberian constitution and flag were modeled after those of the U. S. On January 3, 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a wealthy, free-born African American from Virginia who settled in Liberia, was elected as Liberia's first president after the people proclaimed independence. Liberia was the first African republic to proclaim its independence, is Africa's first and oldest modern republic. Liberia retained its independence during the Scramble for Africa. During World War II, Liberia supported the United States war efforts against Germany and in turn, the U. S. invested in considerable infrastructure in Liberia to help its war effort, which aided the country in modernizing and improving its major air transportation facilities. In addition, President William Tubman encouraged economic changes. Internationally, Liberia was a founding member of the League of Nations, United Nations, the Organisation of African Unity; the Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered those in communities of the more isolated "bush".
The colonial settlements were raided by the Grebo from their inland chiefdoms. Americo-Liberians developed as a small elite that held on to political power, the indigenous tribesmen were excluded from birthright citizenship in their own lands until 1904, in a repetition of the United States' treatment of Native Americans; the Americo-Liberians promoted religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples. Political tensions from the rule of William R. Tolbert resulted in a military coup in 1980 during which Tolbert was killed, marking the beginning of years-long political instability. Five years of military rule by the People's Redemption Council and five years of civilian rule by the National Democratic Party of Liberia were followed by the First and Second Liberian Civil Wars; these resulted in the deaths of 250,000 people, the displacement of many more, shrunk Liberia's economy by 90%. A peace agreement in 2003 led to democratic elections in 2005, in which Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected President.
National infrastructure and basic social services have been impacted by previous conflict, with 83% of the population living below the international poverty line. The Pepper Coast known as the Grain Coast, has been inhabited by indigenous peoples of Africa at least as far back as the 12th century. Mende-speaking people expanded westward from the Sudan, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward toward the Atlantic Ocean; the Dei, Kru and Kissi were some of the earliest documented peoples in the area. This influx of these groups was compounded by the decline of the Western Sudanic Mali Empire in 1375 and the Songhai Empire in 1591; the area now called Liberia was a part of the Kingdom of Koya from 1450 to 1898. As inland regions underwent desertification, inhabitants moved to the wetter coast; these new inhabitants brought skills such as cotton spinning, cloth weaving, iron smelting and sorghum cultivation, social and political institutions from the Mali and Songhai empires. Shortly after the Mane conquered the region, the Vai people of the former Mali Empire immigrated into the Grand Cape Mount County region.
The ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai, forming an alliance with the Mane to stop further influx of Vai. People along the coast built canoes and traded with other West Africans from Cap-Vert to the Gold Coast. Arab traders entered the region from the north, a long-established slave trade took captives to north and east Africa. Between 1461 and the late 17th century, Portuguese and British traders had contacts and trading posts in the region; the Portuguese named the area Costa da Pimenta but it came to be known as the Grain Coast, due to the abundance of melegueta pepper grains. European traders would barter goods with local people. In the United States there was a movement to resettle free-born blacks and freed slaves who faced racial discrimination in the form of political disenfranchisement and the denial of civil and social privileges in the United States. Most whites and a small cadre of black nationalists believed that blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the U.
S. The American Colonization Society was founded in 1816 in Washington, DC for this purpose by a group of prominent politicians and slaveholders, but its membership grew to include people who supported the abolition of slavery. Slaveholders wanted to get free people of color out of the South, where they were thought to threaten the stability of the slave societie
Gbehzohngar Milton Findley
Gbehzohngar Milton Findley is a Liberian Cabinet-Level government official, former President Pro Tempore of the Liberian Senate and a business executive. Findley is the current Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Liberia in the administration of President George Weah, he is the owner of a coffee and cocoa bean farm and produce packing company in Liberia which exports to Europe. Findley received primary education in Liberia and advanced degrees at Lund University in Sweden and Franklin University in the United States. On August 4, 2017, Gbehzohngar Milton Findley resigned from the ruling Unity Party, declaring he and the party no longer shared the same political ideology. On August 16, 2017, Findley announced his intention to join the Coalition for Democratic Change political party to support then-Standard Bearer, George Manneh Weah. Findley was welcomed to the CDC by ceremony and Weah posted the message on his social media, “Honorable Findley is an astute leader with an impeccable record of service to our noble Country.
He has contributed immensely to the governance process of our country and I believe he will be a great asset to our movement”. Findley and Weah joined forces to campaign for the 2017 presidential election in Grand Bassa County, where Findley served as Senator for nine years, were received by massive crowds; the alliance proved successful for both, for Findley in thwarting the 2017 presidential bids of both his political adversaries, Charles Brumskine of the Liberty Party and Joseph Boakai of the Unity Party, for Weah who edged Brumskine out of contention in the first round national election before defeating Boakai in the final election run-off. Gbehzohngar Milton Findley is the son of the late attorney, Joseph Henry Findley, Gertrude Findley. Counsellor Joseph Henry Findley was a respected member of Liberian legal and political society as a circuit court judge and Senator of Grand Bassa County. Findley attended primary school at Buchanan Demonstration Elementary School in Buchanan City and St. Peter Lutheran School in Monrovia.
He graduated from William V. S. Tubman High School in Monrovia. Educated abroad, Findley has a Master of Science Degree from Lund University in Lund, Sweden and a Bachelor of Science Degree from Franklin University in Ohio, USA; as a student in the USA he served as President of the Association of Liberians in Columbus. On January 22, 2018, Gbehzohngar Milton Findley was nominated as Minister of Foreign Affairs, one day after President George Manneh Weah was sworn-in as the 25th President of the Republic of Liberia. Findley received confirmation by the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs on January 26, 2018 with a release of the report to plenary stating, “In consonant with the findings of the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs of the 54th Legislature, after scrupulous consultations with key stakeholders and current diplomats and administrative experts, the committee is pleased to herein recommend to the full plenary of the Senate to unanimously confirm nominee Findley, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Liberia".
Following his confirmation, Findley joined President Weah on the administration’s first official delegation to the 30th African Union Summit held in Addis Abba, Ethiopia. Gbehzohngar Milton Findley began his political career running as an Independent candidate and joined the ruling Unity Party. Findley was a Legislator in the Senate of Liberia for nine years beginning with the successful 2005 campaign; as a Senior Senator, Findley was elected President Pro-Tempore on January 9, 2012, defeating Senator Jewel Howard Taylor. Senate Legislative Committees: Chairman: Senate Subcommittee on Revenue Chairman: Senate Subcommittee on Procurement Chairman: Post & Telecommunications Co-Chairman: Lands, Mines & Energy Co-Chairman: Public Autonomous Commissions Member: Education and Public Administration Member: Ways, Finance & Budget Member: Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry, Labor Member: Rules, Order & Administration Member: Statutory Committee on Executive Member: Joint Legislative Modernization CommitteeAs a Senior Senator, Findley was elected to the International Board of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, an organization which promotes a global standard for management of oil and mineral resources.
Findley was a featured speaker at the EITI Global Conferences held in Paris, France in 2011, Australia in 2013, Lima, Peru in 2016. President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf appointed Findley to Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Liberia Airport Authority on May 2, 2015; the LAA is responsible for the managerial and operational control of all airports within the Republic of Liberia. The largest airport, Roberts International Airport, is presently served by seven airlines, including Brussels Airlines, Air Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya Airways, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and Royal Air Maroc. On July 4, 2016, Findley lauded Chinese Ambassador Zhang Yue at the ground-breaking ceremony for the new US$50 million passenger terminal building at RIA, he congratulated President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf for her tireless efforts in championing the China-Liberia bilateral project. Construction was slated to commence after the official groundbreaking on November 21, 2016 and scheduled to be completed in 22 months. Findley oversaw a joint-venture financed by the Saudi Fund for Development, Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa and the Government of Liberia for a US$30 million Runway Rehabilitation project at RIA.
Ibrahim Al Sahi of the Saudi Development Fund and the Arab Bank has stated that modernization of the airport infrastructure in Liberia would attract more tourists and enhance the economic potential of the country. The contract was signed on September 5, 2016 and estimated to be completed within 10 months
Bopolu District is one of five districts located in Gbarpolu County, Liberia
2005 Liberian general election
The 2005 Liberian general election was held on 11 October 2005, with a runoff election for the presidency held on 8 November of that year. The presidency, as well as all seats in the House of Representatives and Senate were up for election; the election marked the end of the political transition following Liberia's second civil war and had been stipulated in the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2003. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, former World Bank employee and Liberian finance minister, won the presidential contest and became the first democratically elected female African head of state in January 2006; the election was the first held since the 1997 general election and the election of Charles Taylor and the National Patriotic Party. Frances Johnson-Morris, the chairwoman of the National Elections Commission, announced the October 11 date on February 7, 2005. Elections were scheduled for all 64 seats in the House of Representatives, with each of Liberia's 15 counties having at least two seats and the remaining seats allotted proportionally based on voter registration.
The Senate had 30 seats up for elections, with two from each county. Prior to the election, former football star George Weah was considered by many to be the favorite, due at least to widespread dissatisfaction with Liberia's politicians. Weah, the subject of a petition published in September 2004 urging him to run, announced his candidacy in mid-November 2004 and received a hero's welcome when he arrived in Monrovia in the month. Weah lost in the November 8, 2005 run-off, he filed formal fraud charges, but subsequently dropped his allegations, citing the interests of peace. The chairman of the transitional government, Gyude Bryant, other members of the transitional government did not run, according to the terms of the peace deal. On August 13, the election commission published a list of 22 presidential candidates who were cleared to run; the Senate seats were contested by 206 candidates and the seats in the lower house were contested by 503 candidates. Campaigning for the elections began on August 15.
In late September, the Supreme Court ruled that two excluded presidential candidates, Marcus Jones and Cornelius Hunter, an excluded legislative candidate could register to run. However, these candidates withdrew their bids, so the elections went ahead on schedule on October 11. Voting took place in 8 November. Twenty-two people contested the presidential race in the first round. George Weah, former soccer star and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, former World Bank employee and finance minister finished first and second and advanced to the second round run-off, which Johnson-Sirleaf won 59%-41%, according to the National Electoral Commission. Weah claimed election fraud, stating elections officials were stuffing ballot boxes in Johnson-Sirleaf's favor. Most elections observers, including those from the United Nations, the European Union and the Economic Community of West African States, say that the election was clean and transparent; the Carter Center observed "minor irregularities" but no major problems.
Johnson-Sirleaf reminded the press that Weah has 72 hours to bring evidence of wrongdoing to her campaign according to Liberian law, calling the accusations "lies" and stating that Weah's supporters "just don't want a woman to be President in Africa." On December 22, 2005, Weah withdrew his protests, in January Ellen Johnson Sirleaf became the first democratically elected female Head of State in the history of the African Continent, the first native female African Head of State since Empress Zauditu, who ruled Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930 and not including Queen Elizabeth II who reigned over many Commonwealth countries upon their independence and still reigns as Queen of the United Kingdom over the Atlantic African Islands and British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. As no Senate existed prior to the elections, each voter was eligible to cast two ballots for different candidates; the two candidates with the highest number of votes in each county were elected. The candidate with the highest share of votes became the senior senator for the county, elected to a nine-year term.
The candidate with the second-highest share became the junior senator, elected to a six-year term. This method was chosen in order to reintroduce a staggered electoral system. Http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/news/world/13132018.htm http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,3-1866394,00.html National Elections Commission Liberia 2005: The Road to Democracy United Nations Mission in Liberia Electoral Division United Liberia - Latest News Press Freedom Conditions in Liberia - IFEX All Africa, Liberia news Nat Barnes for President Charles Brumskine Campaign Site Samuel Raymond Divine Campaign Site John Morlu for President Varney Sherman for President Dr. Togba-Nah Tipoteh for President Winston Tubman Campaign Site George Weah Campaign Site Congress for Democratic Change Unity Party I am woman, hear my roar Katharine Houreld on the participation of women in the 2005 Liberian election
Senate of Liberia
The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislative branch of Liberia, together with the House of Representatives comprises the Legislature of Liberia. Each of the fifteen counties are represented by two senators, elected to serve staggered nine-year terms; the Senate meets at the Capitol Building in Monrovia. The Senate is modeled on the United States Senate; the Constitution vests the legislative power of Liberia in both the Senate and the House, which must both concur on a bill prior to it being sent to the president. In addition, the Senate possesses several exclusive powers under the Constitution, including the power to advise and consent to the president's appointments to both the executive and judicial branches and the duty to try all public officials impeached by the House of Representatives; the Senate of Liberia, along with the House of Representatives, inherited the legislative powers of the Council of the Commonwealth of Liberia upon the country's Declaration of Independence in 1847.
Modeled on the United States Senate, the Liberian Senate contained two senators from each of the country's three counties, giving it a total membership of only six senators until the formation of Grand Cape Mount County in 1856 and the annexation of the Republic of Maryland in 1857. The Senate again grew with the incorporation of four counties in 1964, an additional four in 1984-1985. With the addition of the fifteenth county, Gbarpolu County, in 2000, the Senate reached its current membership of thirty senators; as a result of political turmoil in Liberia during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the Senate has been disbanded and reconstituted multiple times. Following the military coup d'état in 1980, the Senate was disbanded and several of its members executed, while its powers were vested in the People's Redemption Council. Upon the promulgation of the 1985 Constitution and subsequent 1985 general elections, the Senate was reconstituted, only to dissolve again upon the outbreak of the First Liberian Civil War in 1990.
Following a peace deal that ended the war, the Senate once again sat upon the successful holding of the 1997 general elections and remained constituted throughout the Second Liberian Civil War from 1999 to 2003. The Accra Peace Accords that ended the civil war transferred the powers of the Senate to the unicameral National Transitional Legislative Assembly of Liberia for two years, after which voters elected a new Senate in the 2005 general election; the Senate was dominated by the president's political party. From 1877 until the 1980 coup, the True Whig Party of the Americo-Liberian minority held a virtual monopoly on the national government, including all of the seats in the Senate. Samuel Doe's National Democratic Party of Liberia and Charles Taylor's National Patriotic Party held large majorities in the Senate during their respective presidencies. Following the 2005 general elections, which were considered to be the most free and fair in Liberian history, a total of nine parties won seats in the Senate.
No single party won a majority of a first in Liberian political history. Article 30 of the Constitution sets four requirements for members of the Senate: 1) they must possess Liberian citizenship, 2) must be at least thirty years old, 3) must have been domiciled in the county which they represent for at least one year prior to their election, 4) must be a taxpayer. Under the 1847 Constitution, senators were required to own a certain value of real estate within their county, which in effect limited the ability of indigenous citizens to be elected to the Senate. Property ownership as a requirement for election was eliminated in the current Constitution. Article 83 of the 1985 Constitution established a two-round system for Senate elections, whereby if no candidate received a majority of the vote, a second election contested by the two candidates with the highest number of votes was held one month later; the Accra Peace Accord temporarily suspended this provision for the 2005 legislative elections, which utilized the First-past-the-post voting system.
In 2011, Article 83 was amended by referendum to require FTPT voting in all future legislative elections. The Constitution requires all senators to take an affirmation upon assuming their office; the Secretary of the Senate administers the oath to all senators on their first day of sitting in the Senate. The following oath is specified by the Constitution: Under the original 1847 Constitution, senators served a term of four years without term limits; the term length was increased to six-year by constitutional amendment in 1904. The draft 1985 Constitution set the terms of senators at eight years, though the length was changed to nine years by the military government prior to its ratification. Senatorial terms have been staggered under both constitutions, with two classes of senators being elected in alternating election years; the 2005 Senate elections reinstated this method, with each voter able to cast two ballots for separate candidates. The candidate with the highest number of votes was elected as a First Category senator, serving a nine-year term, followed by elections in 2014.
The candidate with the second-highest number of votes became a Second Category senator, serving an exceptional six-year term, followed by elections in 2011 for a normal nine-year term. Since 2011 elections are staggered whereby each county elects one senator another senator three years followed by a six-year period in which no senators are elected. In the event of a senator's death, ascension to a disqualifying office, incapacity or expulsion prior to the completion of his or her term, the Senate is required to notify the National Elections Commission within 30
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation; the relevant institutions include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equal opportunity. Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use.
Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, the environment, the physically and developmentally disabled. While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is credited with coining the term, it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved; the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. 7: "We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound.
From the early 20th century it was embedded in international law and institutions. In the 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education; some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard. The different concepts of justice, as discussed in ancient Western philosophy, were centered upon the community. Plato wrote in The Republic that it would be an ideal state that "every member of the community must be assigned to the class for which he finds himself best fitted." In an article for J. N. V University, author D. R. Bhandari says, "Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society, it is the identical quality that makes social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul.
Plato says that justice is not mere strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social". Plato believed rights existed only between free people, the law should take "account in the first instance of relations of inequality in which individuals are treated in proportion to their worth and only secondarily of relations of equality." Reflecting this time when slavery and subjugation of women was typical, ancient views of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for the privileged groups, strong concepts of fairness and the community existed. Distributive justice was said by Aristotle to require that people were distributed goods and assets according to their merit. Socrates is attributed with developing the idea of a social contract, whereby people ought to follow the rules of a society, accept its burdens because they have accepted its benefits.
During the Middle Ages, religious scholars such as Thomas Aquinas continued discussion of justice in various ways, but connected being a good citizen to the purpose of serving God. After the Renaissance and Reformation, the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than own", to achieve this "pitch of perfection... The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possessio
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe