Charles Perrault was a French author and member of the Académie Française. He laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from earlier folk tales; the best known of his tales include Le Petit Chaperon Rouge, Cendrillon, Le Chat Botté, La Belle au bois Dormant and Barbe Bleue. Some of Perrault's versions of old stories have influenced the German versions published by the Brothers Grimm more than 100 years later; the stories continue to be printed and have been adapted to opera, ballet and film. Perrault was an influential figure in the 17th-century French literary scene, was the leader of the Modern faction during the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns. Perrault was born in Paris to a wealthy bourgeois family, the seventh child of Pierre Perrault and Paquette Le Clerc, he attended good schools and studied law before embarking on a career in government service, following in the footsteps of his father and elder brother Jean. He took part in the creation of the Academy of Sciences as well as the restoration of the Academy of Painting.
In 1654, he moved in with his brother Pierre, who had purchased the position of chief tax collector of the city of Paris. When the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres was founded in 1663, Perrault was appointed its secretary and served under Jean Baptiste Colbert, finance minister to King Louis XIV. Jean Chapelain, Amable de Bourzeys, Jacques Cassagne were appointed. Using his influence as Colbert's administrative aide, he was able to get his brother, Claude Perrault, employed as designer of the new section of the Louvre, built between 1665 and 1680, to be overseen by Colbert, his design was chosen over designs by Gian Lorenzo François Mansart. One of the factors leading to this choice included the fear of high costs, for which other architects were infamous, second was the personal antagonism between Bernini and leading members of Louis's court, including Colbert and Perrault; as Perrault further describes in his Memoirs, the king harbored private resentment at Bernini's displays of arrogance.
The king was so displeased with Bernini's equestrian statue of him that he ordered it to be destroyed. In 1668, Perrault wrote La Peinture to honor Charles Le Brun, he wrote Courses de tetes et de bague, written to commemorate the 1662 celebrations staged by Louis for his mistress, Louise-Françoise de La Baume le Blanc, duchesse de La Vallière. Perrault was elected to the Académie française in 1671, he married Marie Guichon, age 19, in 1672. In 1669 Perrault advised Louis XIV to include thirty-nine fountains each representing one of the fables of Aesop in the labyrinth of Versailles in the gardens of Versailles; the work was carried out between 1672 and 1677. Water jets spurting from the animals' mouths were conceived to give the impression of speech between the creatures. There was a plaque with a caption and a quatrain written by the poet Isaac de Benserade next to each fountain. Perrault produced the guidebook for the labyrinth, Labyrinte de Versailles, printed at the royal press, Paris, in 1677, illustrated by Sebastien le Clerc.
Philippe Quinault, a longtime family friend of the Perraults gained a reputation as the librettist for the new musical genre known as opera, collaborating with composer Jean-Baptiste Lully. After Alceste was denounced by traditionalists who rejected it for deviating from classical theater, Perrault wrote in response Critique de l'Opéra in which he praised the merits of Alceste over the tragedy of the same name by Euripides; this treatise on Alceste initiated the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, which pitted supporters of the literature of Antiquity against supporters of the literature from the century of Louis XIV. He was on the side of the Moderns and wrote Le Siècle de Louis le Grand and Parallèle des Anciens et des Modernes where he attempted to prove the superiority of the literature of his century. Le Siècle de Louis le Grand was written in celebration of Louis XIV's recovery from a life-threatening operation. Perrault argued that because of Louis's enlightened rule, the present age was superior in every respect to ancient times.
He claimed that modern French literature was superior to the works of antiquity, that, after all Homer nods. In 1682, Colbert forced Perrault into retirement at the age of 56, assigning his tasks to his own son, Jules-Armand, marquis d'Ormoy. Colbert would die the next year, Perrault stopped receiving the pension given to him as a writer. Colbert's bitter rival succeeded him, François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, removed Perrault from his other appointments. After this, in 1686, Perrault decided to write epic poetry and show his genuine devotion to Christianity, writing Saint Paulin, évêque de Nôle. Just like Jean Chapelain's La Pucelle, ou la France délivrée, an epic poem about Joan of Arc, Perrault became a t
Louis-Gui de Guérapin de Vauréal
Louis-Guy de Guérapin de Vauréal was a French ecclesiastic and diplomat. Vauréal was master of bishop of Rennes. A major opponent of the Jansenists, he presided at five assemblies of the clergy of Brittany between 1732 and 1740, he was entrusted with many embassies, notably to Madrid between 1740 and 1749, was elected to the Académie française in 1749, though the only writings he has left are some church documents. Académie Française
Anne de Rohan-Chabot
Anne de Rohan-Chabot was a French noble. A member of the House of Rohan, she was wife of the Prince of Soubise, it was she. She was for some time the mistress of Louis XIV, she was sometimes called Madame de Frontenay due to being the Dame of Frontenay. Born to Henri Chabot and his wife Marguerite de Rohan, she was the third of five children, her parents' marriage had caused a scandal as Marguerite was a Foreign Princess as a member of the House of Rohan. This had obliged Louis XIV to issue a decree that she was able to marry Henri and still hold her high rank at court, her family were allowed to bear the name of Rohan-Chabot. Her younger sister Jeanne Pelagie de Rohan-Chabot married the Prince of Epinoy, the paternal grandfather of Louis de Melun Duke of Joyeuse, Anne Julie de Melun - a future Princess of Soubise. On 17 April 1663, at not more than fifteen years old, Anne married Lieutenant-General François de Rohan. François was a widower and the younger son of Hercule de Rohan Duke of Montbazon, his wife Marie de Bretagne d'Avaugour.
His older half sister was Marie de Rohan, Duchess of Chevreuse, a key figure in the Fronde an event which had a profound influence on the spirit of the era. She was presented at court in 1665. Anne was the Dame of Soubise in her own right; as such, at the time of her marriage she passed the title onto her husband. The couple styled themselves as the Prince and Princess of Soubise after March 1667 based on letters patent which raised the title of Soubise to a principality. Anne was the Dame of Frontenay in her own right, she received an excellent education for the time. Although only a teenager, she was devoted to her husband, she was a great beauty of the era with her red hair, fresh pale skin and almond eyes. Known as la Belle Florice, she maintained her beauty by keeping to a strict diet of chicken and salad, dairy products, water with wine sometimes added. Anne became Louis XIV's mistress in 1669 when he was staying at the Château of Chambord where Anne was present. At the time, Louis' affections were split between Louise de La Vallière and her future successor Madame de Montespan.
Some time Anne gave birth to her second son, Hercule Mériadec de Rohan. In January 1674 Anne became a Lady-in-waiting to Queen Marie Thérèse and five months she gave birth to another son Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan, it was by common knowledge that the King and Anne were lovers and it was said that her son was from Louis XIV and not Monsieur de Soubise although he acknowledged the baby as his son. Although nothing was proved, Louis XIV did allot a large sum of money to the compliant husband, "in consideration of his services." In the portraits of the time, the similarity between the king and Armand is obvious. Her husband became wealthy; the couple's affair ended in 1675 having been off for some six years. At the same time the relationship between Madame de Montespan and the King came to an end, she persuaded her husband to purchase the Hôtel de Guise from the trustees of the late Duchess of Guise. He renamed it the Hôtel de Soubise, she died there of a cold on 4 February 1709. Anne Marguerite de Rohan, Abbess of Jouarre no issue.
Hercule, Duke of Montbazon
Hercule de Rohan was a member of the princely House of Rohan. The second Duke of Montbazon, he is an ancestor of the present Princes of Guéméné, his daughter was the famous Frondeur the duchesse de Chevreuse. He was a Peer of France. Born the seventh of fourteen children of Louis de Rohan, prince de Guéméné and his wife Eléanore de Rohan, he was given the title of Count of Rochefort-en-Yvelines prior to becoming the Duke of Montbazon in 1589 at the death of his brother, he married twice. Madeleine was the widow of his elder brother, Louis VII de Rohan-Guéméné; the couple had two children. His first son Louis, was the Prince of Guéméné and thus the head of the surviving main line of the House of Rohan, she married Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, a favourite of King Louis XIII, had issue. Hercule's first wife Madeleine died in 1602. In 1628, he married Marie de Bretagne d'Avaugour, daughter of Claude de Bretagne, Count of Vertus and Catherine Fouquet de La Varenne, his second wife was hailed as one of the most notorious women of her time.
Hercule and Marie had three children, of whom François and Anne, would have progeny. François founded the Soubise line of the Rohan's and married his cousin Anne de Rohan-Chabot and Anne, his youngest child married Louis Charles d'Albert de Luynes, her nephew by her older sister Marie. Hercule served his successor Henri IV against the Catholic League, he was lieutenant-general of Brittany and later, the governor of Nantes. Henri IV made him governor of the Ile-de-France, he was the master of the hounds. Hercule was riding in the carriage with Henri IV when the king was assassinated by François Ravaillac on 14 May 1610. Hercule himself was wounded in the attack. Hercule commanded the funeral procession for Henri's heart He died at the Château de Couziers eighty-six years old, he was buried at Rochefort-en-Yvelines in local church's chapel called Chapel of princes. Issue with first wife: Louis VIII, Prince of Guéméné, Prince de Guéméné married Anne de Rohan, heiress of Guéméné.
Marguerite, Duchess of Rohan
Marguerite de Rohan was a French noblewoman and suo jure Duchess of Rohan. She married Henri Chabot for the couple produced four children. A great heiress, she inherited the Duchy of Soubise, given to her daughter Anne, she was the only child of Henri de Rohan, Duke of Rohan and Marguerite de Béthune, a daughter of Maximilien de Béthune. Her family claimed ancestry from the reigning Dukes of Brittany and at the French court, were allowed the rank of Foreign Princes; this entitled them to the style of other privileges at court. Appealing to the Queen Regent Anne of Austria, in 1645 Louis XIV issued a certificate that willed Marguerite the right to keep her status, her dignity of a princess, should she marry Henri Chabot; when the Marquis of Seneterre interrogated her on these matters, she replied: I do not know if I shall be able to decide to marry him, but I do feel that I could not bear it if he married someone else. Her hand had been asked by Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons and cousin of the King Henri IV.
Other candidates included Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the Duke of Nemours, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. She married Henri in Paris on 6 June 1645; the couple were the parents of six children. By her marriage, she brought her dowry to her husband as well as all her possessions and titles, with the condition that the children bear the name and coat-of-arms of Rohan only; the children decided to call themselves Rohan-Chabot and thereby did not honour the clauses of the marriage-contract. The marriage of a Rohan to a mere nobleman of no fortune was seen as a mésalliance for the powerful Rohans, one of the oldest families in France, her husband was created Duke of Rohan in 1648. Titles she held in her own right were; the ducal peerage of Rohan was re-established for Chabot in 1648. Marguerite, Duchess of Rohan in her own right, as a widow was named guardian of her children by royal letters of 10 June 1655, she died in Paris on 9 April 1684 at the age of 67. Marguerite has various descendants throughout Europe.
Through her daughter Anne, she is an ancestor of the Dukes of Montbazon, another line of the House of Rohan, as well as the present Prince of Monaco. X de Rohan-Chabot Marguerite Gabrielle Charlotte de Rohan-Chabot married Malo de Coëtquen, Marquis de Coëtquen and had issue. 1617 – 13 April 1639 Mademoiselle de Rohan 13 April 1639 – 27 February 1655 Her Highness, Duchess de Rohan, Princess de Léon 27 February 1655 – 9 April 1684 Her Highness Dowager Duchess de Rohan
Charles Marie de La Condamine
Charles Marie de La Condamine was a French explorer and mathematician. He spent ten years in present-day Ecuador measuring the length of a degree latitude at the equator and preparing the first map of the Amazon region based on astronomical observations. Furthermore he was a contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers. Charles Marie de La Condamine was born in Paris as a son of well-to-do parents, Charles de La Condamine and Louise Marguerite Chourses, he studied at the Collège Louis-le-Grand where he was trained in humanities as well as in mathematics. After finishing his studies, he fought in the war against Spain. After returning from the war, he became acquainted with scientific circles in Paris. On 12 December 1730 he became a member of the Académie des Sciences and was appointed Assistant Chemist at the Academy; the next year he sailed with the Levant Company to Constantinople. After returning to Paris, La Condamine submitted in November 1732 a paper to the Academy entitled Mathematical and Physical Observations made during a Visit of the Levant in 1731 and 1732.
Three years he joined the French Geodesic Mission to present-day Ecuador which had the aim of testing a hypothesis of Isaac Newton. Newton had posited that the Earth is not a perfect sphere, but bulges around the equator and is flattened at the poles. Newton's opinion had raised a huge controversy among French scientists. Pierre Louis Maupertuis, Alexis Claude Clairaut, Pierre Charles Le Monnier traveled to Lapland, where they were to measure the length of several degrees of latitude orthogonal to the arctic circle, while Louis Godin, Pierre Bouguer, La Condamine were sent to South America to perform similar measurements around the equator. On 16 May 1735, La Condamine sailed from La Rochelle accompanied by Godin, a botanist, Joseph de Jussieu. After stopovers in Martinique, Saint-Domingue, Cartagena, they came to Panama where they crossed the continent; the expedition arrived at the Pacific port of Manta. La Condamine's associations with his colleagues were unhappy; the expedition was beset by many difficulties, La Condamine split from the rest and made his way to Quito, Ecuador separately following the Esmeraldas River, becoming the first European to encounter rubber in the process.
He joined the group again on 4 June 1736 in the city of Quito. La Condamine is credited with introducing samples of rubber to the Académie Royale des Sciences of France in 1736. In 1751, he presented a paper by François Fresneau to the Académie which described many of the properties of rubber; this has been referred to as the first scientific paper on rubber. The meridian arc which La Condamine and his colleagues chose to measure the length of passed through a high valley perpendicular to the equator, stretching from Quito in the north to Cuenca in the south; the scientists spent a month performing triangulation measurements in the Yaruqui plains — from 3 October to 3 November 1736 — and returned to Quito. After they had come back to Quito, they found. La Condamine, who had taken precautions and had made a deposit on a bank in Lima, traveled in early 1737 to Lima to collect money, he prolonged this journey somewhat to study the cinchona tree with its medicinally active bark, the tree being hardly known in Europe.
After returning to Quito on 20 June 1737, he found that Godin refused to disclose his results, whereupon La Condamine joined forces with Bouguer. The two men continued with their length measurements in the mountainous and inaccessible region close to Quito; when in December 1741 Bouguer detected an error in a calculation of La Condamine's, the two explorers got into a quarrel and stopped speaking to each other. However, working separately, the two completed their project in May 1743. Insufficient funds prevented La Condamine from returning to France directly, thus La Condamine chose to return by way of the Amazon River, a route, longer and more dangerous. His was the first scientific exploration of the Amazon, he reached the Atlantic Ocean on 19 September 1743, having made observations of astronomic and topographic interest on the way. He made some botanical studies, notably of cinchona and rubber trees. In February 1744 he arrived in the capital of French Guiana, he did not dare to travel back to France on a French merchant ship because France was at war, he had to wait for five months for a Dutch ship, but made good use of his waiting time by observing and recording physical and ethnological phenomena.
Leaving Cayenne in August 1744, he arrived in Amsterdam on 30 November 1744, where he stayed for a while, arrived in Paris in February 1745. He brought with him many notes, natural history specimens, art objects that he donated to the naturalist Buffon. La Condamine published the results of his measurements and travels with a map of the Amazon in Mém. de l'Académie des Sciences, 1745. This included the first descriptions by a European of the Casiquiare canal and the curare arrow poison prepared by the Amerindians, he noted the correct use of quinine to fight malaria. The journal of his ten-year-long voyage to South America was published in Paris in 1751; the scientific results of the expedition were unambiguous: the Earth is indeed a spheroid flattened at the poles as was believed by Newton. Not La Condamine and Bouguer failed to
Henri, Duke of Rohan
Henri de Rohan, Duke of Rohan and Prince of Léon, was a French soldier and leader of the Huguenots. Rohan was born in Brittany, his father was René II, viscount of Rohan, head of one of the oldest and most distinguished families in France, connected with many of the reigning houses of Europe. He was educated by his mother, Catherine de Parthenay, a woman of exceptional learning and force of character. Henri was by birth the second son, but when his elder brother René died young he became the heir of the name, he appeared at court and in the army at the age of sixteen, was a special favourite with Henry IV, after whom, failing the House of Condé, he might be said to be the natural chief of the French Protestants. Having served till the Peace of Vervins, he travelled for a considerable time over Europe, including England and Scotland, in the first of which countries he received the not unique honour of being called by Elizabeth I her knight, while in the second he was godfather at Charles I's christening.
On his return to France Henri was made peer at the age of twenty-four. From 1593 onward, there had been negotiations of marriage between him and the Swedish princess Catherine, but in 1603, however, he married Marguerite de Béthune, the duc de Sully's daughter, transferred the Rohan family seat from Josselin Castle to Pontivy, he served in high command at the celebrated siege of Jülich in 1610, but soon afterwards he fell into active or passive opposition to the government over the religious disputes. For a time, however, he abstained from actual insurrection, he endeavoured to keep on terms with Marie de Medici, it was not till the decree for the restitution of church property in the south threw the Bearnese and Gascons into open revolt that Henri appeared as a rebel. His authority and military skill were formidable to the royalists, but Henri did not escape the results of the incurable factiousness which showed itself more perhaps among the French Huguenots than among any other of the numerous armed oppositions of the 17th century.
He was accused of luke-warmness and treachery, though he did not hesitate to renew the war when the compact of Montpellier was broken. During this time in the 1620s, Henri was responsible for considerable damage to the ancient Roman aqueduct bridge Pont du Gard while using it to transport his army across. To make space for his artillery, he had one side of the second row of arches of the ancient structure cut away to only two thirds of their original width weakening the aqueduct bridge. Again a hollow peace was patched up, but it lasted but a short time, Henri undertook a third war, the first events of which are recounted in his celebrated Memoirs; this last war was one of considerable danger for Henri. In spite of all efforts he had in the end to sign a peace, after this he made his way to Venice. Here he is said to have received from the Porte the offer of the sovereignty of Cyprus, it is more certain that his hosts of Venice wished to make him their general-in-chief, a design not executed owing to the Treaty of Cherasco.
At Venice he wrote his Memoirs. However, when France began to play a more conspicuous part in the Thirty Years' War, Henri was again called to serve his lawful sovereign, entrusted with the war in the Valtellina; the campaign of 1633 was successful, but Henri was still considered dangerous to France, was soon again in retirement. At this time he wrote his Traité du gouvernement des treize cantons. Henri fought another Valtelline campaign, but without the success of the first, for the motives of France were now held in suspicion; the unfortunate commander thence went to the army of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar. He received a mortal wound at the Battle of Rheinfelden on 28 February 1638, died at the abbey of Konigsfeld, canton Bern, on 13 April, his body was buried at Geneva, his arms were solemnly handed over to the Venetian government. With his daughter Marguerite the honours of the family of Rohan-Gié passed to the house of Chabot, his grand daughter Anne de Rohan-Chabot married into the Rohans and was princesse de Soubise in her own right.
Henri's Mémoires sur les choses qui se sont passées en France, etc. rank amongst the best products of the singular talent for memoir writing which the French noblesse of the 16th and 17th centuries possessed. Alike in style, in clearness of matter and in shrewdness, they deserve high praise; the first three books, dealing with the civil wars, appeared in 1644. Some suspicions were thrown on the genuineness of the latter, but, it would seem, groundlessly, his famous book on the history and art of war, Le Parfait Capitaine, appeared in 1631 and subsequently in 1637 and 1693.. It treats of the history and lessons of Caesar's campaigns and their application to modern warfare, contains appendices dealing with phalangite and legionary methods of fighting and the art of war in general, he wrote an account of his travels, the book on Switzerland mentioned above, De l'intérêt des princes et États de la chrétienté, etc. The Memoirs may be conveniently found in the collection of Michaud and Poujoulat, vol