Bronze is an alloy consisting of copper with about 12–12.5% tin and with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability; the archeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, to the early 2nd millennium BC in China; the Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BC and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BC, although bronze continued to be much more used than it is in modern times. Because historical pieces were made of brasses and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects use the more inclusive term "copper alloy" instead. There are two basic theories as to the origin of the word.
Romance theoryThe Romance theory holds that the word bronze was borrowed from French bronze, itself borrowed from Italian bronzo "bell metal, brass" from either, bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon from Brentḗsion ‘Brindisi’, reputed for its bronze. Proto-Slavic theoryThe Proto-Slavic theory reflects the philological issue that in the most of Slavonic languages word "bronza" corresponds to "war metal" while at the early stages of the Bronze working it was used exclusively for military purposes; the discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects which were harder and more durable than possible. Bronze tools, weapons and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper predecessors. Bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic, with the earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau in the 5th millennium BC, it was only that tin was used, becoming the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BC.
Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more controlled, the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic; the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to 4500 BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik. Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BC in Egypt and some ancient sites in China and Mesopotamia. Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not found together, so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean. In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools socketed axes, are found, which show no signs of wear.
With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, used by the living for ritual offerings. Though bronze is harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80, the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BC reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices. As the art of working in iron improved, iron improved in quality; as cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron, blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel holds a sharper edge longer. Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day. There are many different bronze alloys, but modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper.
Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs and blades. Historical "bronzes" are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture suggests. The Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
War on Terror
The War on Terror known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign, launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U. S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, "war on terror" a few days in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U. S.. S. operations in internal government documentation. U. S. President Barack Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror was over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.
S. On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U. S.-led mission in Afghanistan. However, the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terror group—also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria —led to a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia, Operation Inherent Resolve. Criticism of the War on Terror focused on morality, economics; the notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, infringe upon human rights. Critics assert that the term "war" is not appropriate in this context since there is no identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means; the phrase "War on Terror" has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. U. K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India.
The conflict has been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has been known as: World War III World War IV Bush's War on Terror The Long War The Forever War The Global War on Terror The War Against al-Qaeda In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U. S. and 58 French peacekeepers. In 2017, U. S. Vice President Mike Pence called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing "the opening salvo in a war that we have waged since—the global war on terror."The concept of the U. S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on."On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U. S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist's question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.
S. surveillance agencies on Americans' civil liberties: "This is a new kind of—a new kind of evil. And we understand, and the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while, and the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient." Shortly after, the White House said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as referring to the historical Crusades. On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there, it will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found and defeated."In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war.
So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."U. S. president Barack Obama used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred." In March 2009 the Defense Department changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy; the document dropped the Bush-era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a g
Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon
The Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon, is a decoration of the United States Navy, established on December 12, 2003 by order of Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England; the ribbon is retroactive to May 1, 2001. Service with the Guard or on board USS Constitution prior to this date does not qualify the member for the ribbon; as of January 17, 2012 the name of the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon was changed from the U. S. Navy Ceremonial Guard Ribbon in order to encompass those personnel who have completed a standard tour of duty on board USS Constitution. In this case the term successful is defined as completion of a tour of 24 months, completion of all required qualifications and maintaining outstanding personal appearance and a discipline free record; the ultimate award authority for the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon is the commanding officer of USS Constitution, berthed at the Charlestown Navy Yard. Multiple awards of the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon are denoted by bronze service stars, however only one award of the ribbon is authorized for each tour of duty.
The Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon is presented to those members of the U. S. Navy who, while stationed in Washington, D. C. complete a standard tour of duty with the United States Navy Ceremonial Guard. A standard tour is defined as at least two years of duty with no disciplinary action, above average evaluations, adherence to physical and military bearing standards of the Navy Ceremonial Guard. Must be in a "fallout" status for 18 months, reach at least Standard Honors within a platoon; the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon is awarded to members of the Naval Reserve who complete at least 18 months of successful drills as members of the Navy Ceremonial Guard. The term "successful drill" is defined as actual participation in ceremonies and funerals as casket bearers, firing party, color guard, ceremonial drill team, or as members of marching platoons. Reserve members of the Navy Ceremonial Guard are bound by the same physical and military requirements as the active duty members and must maintain a discipline free record for the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon to be awarded.
The ultimate award authority for the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon is the commanding officer of the U. S. Navy Ceremonial Guard, headquartered at the Washington Navy Yard in the District of Columbia. Multiple awards of the Navy Ceremonial Duty Ribbon are denoted by bronze service stars, however only one award of the ribbon is authorized for each tour of duty. Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
Bombing of Iraq (1998)
The December 1998 bombing of Iraq was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from 16 December 1998, to 19 December 1998, by the United States and the United Kingdom. The contemporaneous justification for the strikes was Iraq's failure to comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions and its interference with United Nations Special Commission inspectors; the operation was a major flare-up in the Iraq disarmament crisis. The stated goal of the cruise missile and bombing attacks was to strike military and security targets in Iraq that contributed to Iraq's ability to produce, store and deliver weapons of mass destruction; the bombing campaign had been anticipated since February 1998 and incurred wide-ranging criticism and support, at home and abroad. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates announced they would deny the U. S. military the use of local bases for the purpose of air strikes against Iraq. U. S. President Bill Clinton had been working under a regional security framework of dual containment, which involved punishing Saddam Hussein's regime with military force whenever Iraq challenged the United States or the international community.
Although there was no Authorization for Use of Military Force as there was during Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom or a declaration of war, as in World War II, Clinton signed into law H. R. 4655, the Iraq Liberation Act on 31 October 1998. The new act appropriated funds for Iraqi opposition groups in the hope of removing Saddam Hussein from power and replacing his regime with a democratic government. Despite the act's intention of support of opposition groups, Clinton justified his order for US action under the act; the act stated that: Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize or otherwise speak to the use of United States Armed Forces in carrying out this Act. Section 4 states: The President is authorized to direct the drawdown of defense articles from the stocks of the Department of Defense, defense services of the Department of Defense, military education and training for organizations. Just prior to Desert Fox, the U. S. nearly led. It was abandoned at the last minute when the Iraqi leader allowed the UN to continue weapons inspections.
Clinton administration officials said the aim of the mission was to "degrade" Iraq's ability to manufacture and use weapons of mass destruction, not to eliminate it. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright was asked about the distinction while the operation was going on: I don't think we're pretending that we can get everything, so this is – I think – we are being honest about what our ability is. We are lessening; the weapons of mass destruction are the threat of the future. I think the president explained clearly to the American people that this is the threat of the 21st century. Hat it means is that we know we can't get everything; the main targets of the bombing included weapons research and development installations, air defense systems and supply depots, the barracks and command headquarters of Saddam's elite Republican Guard. One of Saddam's lavish presidential palaces came under attack. Iraqi air defense batteries, unable to target the American and British jets, began to blanket the sky with near random bursts of flak fire.
The air strikes continued unabated however, cruise missile barrages launched by naval vessels added to the bombs dropped by the planes. By the fourth night, most of the specified targets had been damaged or destroyed and the operation was deemed a success and the air strikes ended. U. S. Navy aircraft from Carrier Air Wing Three, flying from USS Enterprise, Patrol Squadron Four, flew combat missions from the Persian Gulf in support of ODF. Of significance, the operation marked the first time that women flew combat sorties as U. S. Navy strike fighter pilots and the first combat use of the U. S. Air Force's B-1B bomber from the 28th Air Expeditionary Group stationed at RAFO Thumrait, Sultanate of Oman. Ground units included the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit, of which 2nd Battalion 4th Marines served as the ground combat element; the U. S. Air Force sent several sorties of F-16s from the 34th Fighter Squadron, 522nd Fighter Squadron into Iraq to fly night missions in support of Operation Desert Fox.
On the second night of Operation Desert Fox, aircrews flying 12 B-52s took off from the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and launched 74 conventional air-launched cruise missiles. The missiles found their mark striking multiple Iraqi targets including six of President Saddam Hussein's palaces, several Republican Guard barracks, the Ministries of Defense and Military Industry; the following evening, two more B-52 crews launched 16 more CALCMs. Over a two-night period aircrews from the 2nd and 5th Bomb Wings launched a total of 90 CALCMs; the B-1 bomber made its combat debut by striking at Republican Guard targets. On 17 Dec, USAF aircraft based in Kuwait participated, as did British Royal Air Force Tornado aircraft; the British contribution totaled 15 percent of the sorties flown in Desert Fox. By 19 December, U. S. and British aircraft had struck 97 targets, Secretary of Defense William Cohen claimed the operation was a success. Supported by Secretary Cohen, as well as United States Central Command commander General Anthony C.
Zinni and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Henry H. S
The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. NATO was responsible to the United Nations for carrying out the Dayton Peace Accords; the Dayton Peace Accords were started on 22 November 1995 by the presidents of Bosnia and Serbia, on behalf of Serbia and the Bosnian Serb Republic. The actual signing happened in Paris on 14 December 1995; the peace accords contained eleven supporting annexes with maps. The accords had three major goals: ending of hostilities, authorization of military and civilian program going into effect, the establishment of a central Bosnian government while excluding individuals that serve sentences or under indictment by the International War Crimes Tribunals from taking part in the running of the government. IFOR's specific role was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
IFOR relieved the UN peacekeeping force UNPROFOR, which had arrived in 1992, the transfer of authority was discussed in Security Council Resolution 1031. 60,000 NATO soldiers in addition to forces from non-NATO nations were deployed to Bosnia. Operation Decisive Endeavor, beginning 6 December 1995, was a subcomponent of Joint Endeavor; the Dayton Agreement resulted from a long series of events. Notably, the failures of EU-led peace plans, the August 1995 Croat Operation Storm and expelling 200.000 Serb civilians, the Bosnian Serb war crimes, in particular the Srebrenica massacre, the seizure of UNPROFOR peace-keepers as human shields against NATO's Operation Deliberate Force. Admiral Leighton W. Smith, Jr. acted as the Joint Force Commander for the operation. He commanded the operation from HQs in Zagreb and from March 1996 from the Residency in Sarajevo. Lt Gen Michael Walker, Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps acted as the Land Component Commander for the Operation, commanding from HQ ARRC based in Kiseljak and from late January 1996 from HQ ARRC Ilidža.
This was NATO's first out-of-area land deployment. The Land Component's part of the operation was known as Operation Firm Endeavour. At its height, IFOR involved troops from 32 countries and numbered some 54,000 soldiers in-country and around 80,000 involved soldiers in total. In the initial phases of the operation, much of the initial composition of IFOR consisted of units, part of UNPROFOR but remained in place and replaced their United Nations insignia with IFOR insignia. NATO nations that contributed forces included Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Turkey, the United States, the United Kingdom. Non-NATO nations that contributed forces included; the tasks of the Land Component were carried out by three Multi National Divisions: Multi-National Division, Mostar - French led. Known as the'Division salamandre.' MND-SE included two French brigades, one Spanish brigade, one Italian brigade, a Portuguese Parachute Battalion of 700 plus a services and support detachement of 200, Egyptian and Ukrainian units, as well as a Moroccan task force.
The divisional headquarters was provided in rotation by divisions including the 7th Armoured Division and the 6th Light Armored Division. Multi-National Division, Banja Luka – British led; the British codename for their armed forces' involvement in IFOR was Operation Resolute. MND-SW included a Canadian Brigade and Dutch units. Division headquarters was provided by 3 Division 1st Armoured Division. Multi-National Division, Tuzla – American led. Task Force Eagle; the US Army 1st Armored Division under the command of Major General William L. Nash, constituted the bulk of the ground forces for Task Force Eagle, they began to deploy on 18 December 1995. MND-N was composed of two U. S. Brigades, a Russian brigade, a Turkish brigade, the Nordic-Polish Brigade. A Russian brigade under the command of Colonel Aleksandr Ivanovich Lentsov, was part of the Task Force Eagle effort; the 1st Brigade of 1st Armored Division was commanded by Colonel Gregory Fontenot and covered the northwest. The 2nd Brigade of 1st Armored Division, led by Col John Batiste, constituted the southern flank of the US sector, based in Camp Lisa, about 20 km east of Kladanj.
Task Force 2–68 Armor, based in Baumholder, was based in Camp Linda, outside of Olovo. This was the Southern boundary of the US Sector; the 1AD returned in late 1996 to Germany. One of MND-N's components was the Nordic-Polish Brigade, a multinational brigade of Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and USA, it was formed in 1996, till its disestablishment in 2000 it was stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of both IFOR and SFOR. The Nordic Support Group at Pécs in Hungary handled the relay of supply and other logistical tasks between the NORDPOL participating countries and their deployed forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina, it comprised several National Support Eleme
Operation Noble Eagle
Operation Noble Eagle is the United States and Canadian military operation related to homeland security and support to federal and local agencies. The operation began 14 September 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks. Operation Noble Eagle began with the mobilization of thousands of National Guard and reserve personnel to perform security missions on military installations and other potential targets such as bridges, power plants, port facilities; these reservists were called to active duty under a mobilization authority known as a partial mobilization. In a time of national emergency declared by the President, partial mobilization authorizes the President to order members of the ready reserve to active duty for a period not to exceed 24 consecutive months. Additionally, in 2001 and 2002, thousands of members of the national guard were activated at the order of their respective governors to provide additional security at airports, they were called up under Title 32 of the U. S. Code, which means they were with federal pay and benefits.
The Royal Canadian Air Force assisted in providing defense of the northern border of the United States. The United States Army's 759th Military Police Battalion, 144th Military Police Company and the 177th Military Police Brigade were assigned the task of protecting the White House, the Pentagon and the Capitol, along with other Army National Guard units that were tasked with augmenting the Air Force's air defense perimeter around the National Capital Region. United States civilian and military leaders are beginning to regard the costly air defense operation above North American cities as a permanent defense requirement demanding significant attention from NORAD; the current focus is on improving control of the homeland air defense mission. The United States Department of Defense provided F-15 Eagles and F-16 Fighting Falcons to this operation, the Canadian Forces provided CF-18s; the US Army National Guard provided short range air defense systems to provide close range air defense protection under the control of the US Air Force JADOC and CONR.
The Joint Air Defense Operations Center Suite Suite is an integrated USAF connectivity center used in point defense of the National Capital Region. The Suite provides capability for tactical C2 execution for the Joint Task Force/Joint Forces Air Component Commander under the Operation Noble Eagle mission as part of the National Capital Region-Integrated Air Defense System, it is fielded and operational. It was developed in response to an urgent need request for enhanced air defense of the NCR per SECDEF direction through a joint rapid acquisition cell; the architecture consists of an air surveillance fusion system and the C2 connectivity center, which includes a Link 16 capable terminal and Situational Awareness Data Link capability. The NCR-IAD's warning equipment include visual warning lasers, flare cannons, FAA radars, military radar systems, advanced electro-optical sensors, regular cameras, its "engagement assets" include the Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System for long-range air defense.
Stinger missiles situated around D. C. require humans to confirm targeting. As the Canadian geographical component of NORAD, CANR provides airspace surveillance and control, directs all air sovereignty activities for the Canadian NORAD Region. CANR and its assigned Air Force assets throughout the country ensure air safety and security against potential air threats and have supported special events such as the G-8 Summit and the visits of foreign dignitaries; the Canadian NORAD Region flew Operation Noble Eagle air defense protection missions in the Windsor, Ontario/Detroit, Michigan area on 5 February 2006, in support of Super Bowl XL at Ford Field. These types of missions had become more common at organized entertainment such as the Super Bowl. Operation Eagle Assist Operation Enduring Freedom Falcon Virgo JLENS OSD news re military police, August 2012