National Navy of Uruguay
The National Navy of Uruguay is a branch of the Armed Forces of Uruguay under the direction of the Ministry of National Defense and the commander in chief of the Navy. Under the late Spanish Empire, Montevideo became the main naval base for the South Atlantic, with authority over the Argentine coast, Fernando Po, the Falklands; the arrival of 100 ships under Viceroy Pedro de Cevallos in 1777 was the beginning of the city's prosperity. The Uruguayan navy, dates its origin from General Artigas's letter of marque on 15 November 1817, which authorized his forces to plunder Portuguese shipping wherever they found it. Portuguese forces from Brazil had invaded Uruguay in August 1816. Under the nominal leadership of the Pedro Campbell, the Irish "Gaucho Admiral", around 50 privateer schooners and brigs were able to capture more than 200 enemy vessels as far off as Madagascar and the Antilles. Following independence, a navy was established under Colonel Pablo Zufriategui, a veteran of Artigas's campaigns and the 33 Easterners.
As Captain of Ports, he fought smuggling and in 1832 Zufriategui led the first sovereign engagement when the schooner Aguila chased off the pirate ship Exquisit from Uruguayan waters. Although the force remained too small to play a decisive role in the Great War, it is notable that command of the small fleet was assumed by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who captured Colonia del Sacramento, Isla Martín García, Gualeguaychú; the flagship during this period was the corvette Sarandí, named after an important battle in the war for independence. The first specially fitted warships were the gunboats General Rivera, General Artigas, General Suárez; the first was assembled in Uruguay by the Academy of Arts & Crafts and commissioned in April 1884. General Rivera was the first ship of the Navy to pass the Strait of Magellan. Just prior to World War One, President Williman devoted considerable effort and expense to modernizing the navy, viewing it as demanded for Uruguay's "sovereignty and honor." After false starts in 1817, 1863, 1874, the Naval Academy was established in December 1907.
New ships included the gunboat Dieciocho de Julio, the cruiser Montevideo, the transport Maldonado, the steamer Vanguardia, the courier Oriental. The torpedo gunboat Uruguay was constructed to order in Germany and commissioned August 1910. In 1910, the government acquired the Cibils-Jackson shipyard, renaming it the National Dock; these advances were sabotaged by funding cutbacks throughout the 1920s that left the navy poorly maintained. In June 1916, the tug Instituto de Pesca Nº1 - manned by Navy servicemen - led the second failed attempt to rescue the men of Shackleton's expedition from Elephant Island. In 1925, the Fleet Aeronautics Service was created under Captain Atilio Frigerio, the first Uruguayan pilot to obtain the brevet of Military Pilot; the first planes, did not arrive until 1930. In 1934, the first Naval Act created the Inspectorate of the Navy, freeing the Navy from direct subordination to the Army; the next year, three patrol boats ordered from Cantieri Navali Riuniti in Genoa arrived.
The Paysandú, Río Negro having served for about 30 years, were decommissioned, were brought back into service in the 1990s. In December 1939, the Río de la Plata saw the first major naval engagement of World War II when the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee faced the cruisers HMS Ajax and Exeter and fled into Montevideo harbor during the Battle of the River Plate. Although Uruguay was neutral, her pro-British sentiment allowed the Royal Navy to carry out a successful disinformation campaign that ended in the German scuttling of the ship. In 1940, La Paloma's Naval Base was established; the same year, Uruguay introduced conscription and the Navy established the battalions Zapicán and Honor y Patria as part of its Reserve Fleet. The next year, the Navy created the Naval War School to improve its officers' training. Although Uruguay did not join the Allies until 15 February 1945, it was involved in assisting the convoy effort; this involved the confiscation of two Italian and two Occupied Danish freighters in Montevideo, which were manned by the Navy and rechristened Montevideo, Maldonado and Colonia.
Montevideo was incidentally sunk by the Italian submarine Enrico Tazzoli in March 1942, which prompted Uruguay to seize the German freighter Tacoma. In August 1942, Maldonado was sunk after its commander was taken prisoner by the German submarine U-510. Following this incidents, Uruguay leased a number of its boats to the US Navy and received in 1944 the anti-submarine warfare -capable corvette Maldonado; the Fleet Aeronautics Service received six Kingfisher seaplanes from the United States in 1942 and established Laguna del Sauce Aeronaval Base in 1947. Following World War II, the beginning of the Cold War saw the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance signed in Rio de Janeiro, which pro
The FAL is a battle rifle designed by Belgian small arms designers Dieudonné Saive and Ernest Vervier and manufactured by FN Herstal. During the Cold War the FAL was adopted by many countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, with the notable exception of the United States, it is one of the most used rifles in history, having been used by more than 90 countries. Because of its prevalence and widespread usage among the militaries of many NATO and first world countries during the Cold War it was given the title "The right arm of the Free World", it is chambered for the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. The British Commonwealth variant of the FAL was redesigned from FN's metrical FAL into British imperial units and was produced under licence as the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle. In 1946, the first FAL prototype was completed, it was designed to fire the intermediate 7.92×33mm Kurz cartridge developed and used by the forces of Germany during World War II. After testing this prototype in 1948, the British Army urged FN to build additional prototypes, including one in bullpup configuration, chambered for their new.280 British caliber intermediate cartridge.
After evaluating the single bullpup prototype, FN decided to return instead to their original, conventional design for future production. In 1950, the United Kingdom presented the redesigned FN rifle and the British EM-2, both in.280 British calibre, to the United States for comparison testing against the favoured United States Army design of the time—Earle Harvey's T25. It was hoped that a common cartridge and rifle could be standardized for issue to the armies of all NATO member countries. After this testing was completed, U. S. Army officials suggested that FN should redesign their rifle to fire the U. S. prototype ".30 Light Rifle" cartridge. FN decided to hedge their bets with the U. S. and in 1951 made a deal that the U. S. could produce FALs royalty-free, given that the UK appeared to be favouring their own EM-2. This decision appeared to be correct when the British Army decided to adopt the EM-2 and.280 British cartridge. This decision was rescinded after the Labour Party lost the 1951 General Election and Winston Churchill returned as Prime Minister.
It is believed that there was a quid pro quo agreement between Churchill and U. S. President Harry Truman in 1952 that the British accept the.30 Light Rifle cartridge as NATO standard in return for the U. S. acceptance of the FN FAL as NATO standard. The.30 Light Rifle cartridge was in fact standardized as the 7.62 mm NATO. S. insisted on continued rifle tests. The FAL chambered for the.30 Light Rifle went up against the redesigned T25, an M1 Garand variant, the T44. The T44 won, becoming the M14. However, in the meantime, most other NATO countries were evaluating and selecting the FAL. FN created what is the classic post-war battle rifle. Formally introduced by its designers Dieudonné Saive and Ernest Vervier in 1951, produced two years it has been described as the "Right Arm of the Free World." The FAL battle rifle has its Warsaw Pact counterpart in the AKM, each being fielded by dozens of countries and produced in many of them. A few, such as Israel and South Africa and issued both designs at various times.
Unlike the Soviet AKM assault rifle, the FAL utilized a heavier full-power rifle cartridge. The FAL operates by means of a gas-operated action similar to that of the Russian SVT-40; the gas system is driven by a short-stroke, spring-loaded piston housed above the barrel, the locking mechanism is what is known as a tilting breechblock. To lock, it drops down into a solid shoulder of metal in the heavy receiver much like the bolts of the Russian SKS carbine and French MAS-49 series of semi-automatic rifles; the gas system is fitted with a gas regulator behind the front sight base, allowing adjustment of the gas system in response to environmental conditions. The piston system can be bypassed using the gas plug, to allow for the firing of rifle grenades and manual operation; the FAL's magazine capacity ranges with most magazines holding 20 rounds. In fixed stock versions of the FAL, the recoil spring is housed in the stock, while in folding-stock versions it is housed in the receiver cover, necessitating a different receiver cover, recoil spring, bolt carrier, a modified lower receiver for the stock.
FAL rifles have been manufactured in both light and heavy-barrel configurations, with the heavy barrel intended for automatic fire as a section or squad light support weapon. Most heavy barrel FALs are equipped with bipods, although some light barrel models were equipped with bipods, such as the Austrian StG58 and the German G1, a bipod was made available as an accessory. Among other 7.62×51mm NATO battle rifles at the time, the FN FAL had light recoil, due to the gas system being able to be tuned via regulator in fore-end of the rifle, which allowed for excess gas which would increase recoil to bleed off. In automatic mode, the shooter receives considerable abuse from recoil, the weapon climbs off-target making automatic fire only of marginal effectiveness. Many military forces using the FAL eliminated full-automatic firearms training in the light-barrel FAL. Depending on the variant and the country of adoption, the FAL was issued as either semi-automatic only or select-fire. Known as FALO as an abbreviation from the French Fusil Automatique Lourd.
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres; the southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst the Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, it was under brief British rule in 1807. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of Mercosur and ALADI, Latin America’s leading trade blocs, a position that entailed comparisons to the role of Brussels in Europe; the 2017 Mercer's report on quality of life, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, a rank the city has held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in the continent and 9th highest income earner among major cities. In 2019, it has a projected GDP of $47.7 billion, with a per capita of $27,542.
In 2018, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in Latin America and 84th in the world. Montevideo hosted every match during the first FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", "a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture", Montevideo ranked eighth in Latin America on the 2013 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was regarded as the fifth most gay-friendly metropolis in the world, first in Latin America, it is higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is the financial and cultural hub of a larger metropolitan area, with a population of around 2 million. There are several explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the "video" part. Monte vide eu is the most widespread belief but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of dialects.
The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo. Monte Vidi: This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes, who wrote, "Tuesday of the said we were on the straits of Cape Santa María, from where the coast runs east to west, the terrain is sandy, at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document that mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but it does not contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu." Monte-VI-D-E-O: According to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of history, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart, so that the mount/hill is the VI mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from east to west.
With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro. Monte Ovidio, a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin, stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi. Ovidio was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century. Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.
This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were known as Guanches or Canarians. There was one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues. A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo shortened to Montevideo; the census counted fifty families of Galician and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous people Guaraní, as well as Black African slaves of Bantu origin.
A few years after its foundation, Montevideo became the main city of the region north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Uruguay River, competing with Buenos Aires for dominance i
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Flag of Uruguay
The national flag of Uruguay is one of the three official flags of Uruguay alongside with the flag of Artigas and the flag of the Treinta y Tres. It has a field of nine equal horizontal stripes alternating blue; the canton is white, charged with the Sun of May, from which 16 rays extend, alternating between triangular and wavy. The flag was first adopted by law on December 16, 1828, had 19 stripes until July 11, 1830, when a new law reduced the number of stripes to nine; the flag was designed by Joaquín Suárez. The horizontal stripes on the flag represent the nine original departments of Uruguay, based on the U. S. flag. The first flag designed in 1828 had 9 light blue stripes; the Sun of May represents the May Revolution of 1810. It appears in the Flag of Argentina and the Coat of Arms of Bolivia. During Spanish rule: Independence from Spain: Flag of Cisplatina, under Brazilian occupation between 1821 and 1825: Uruguayan independence: During the Great Siege of Montevideo Uruguay had two parallel governments, with two different flags: Uruguay at Flags of the World
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre