David Marks (psychologist)
David Francis Marks is a psychologist and editor of twenty-five books concerned with four areas of psychological research – health psychology, consciousness and intelligence. He has published books about artists and their works. Marks was born 12 February 1945 in Liphook, England to Victor W. F. Marks and Mary Dorothy Marks. Marks earned a BSc at University of Reading in 1966 and a PhD at University of Sheffield in 1970. From there, he moved to New Zealand where he taught at the University of Otago as senior lecturer in psychology, he returned to the UK as Head of the School of Psychology at Middlesex University before working at City University London from 2000–10. He founded and edits the Journal of Health Psychology and Health Psychology Open, an open access journal, his late brother Jon Marks was a jazz musician. He has two children, his daughter, Jessica Marks, is a chef working internationally. His son, Michael Marks, is a teacher in East London. British Psychological Society Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Paranormal In his work on health psychology Marks advocates a greater understanding of the socio-political context affecting individual behaviour.
With Michael Murray and colleagues he has promoted a critical-theoretical approach, including the foundation of the International Society of Critical Health Psychology. This organisation has included the consideration of social justice, community approaches, arts projects for the reduction of health inequalities. Marks has been interested in new research methods for clinical psychology and health psychology. Marks has promoted the use of cognitive behaviour therapy as an effective clinical approach to smoking cessation; this research began in New Zealand with Paul Sulzberger where they developed the Isis Smoking Cessation Programme. After returning to England in 1986 Marks developed a UK version of the programme, published by the British Psychological Society in 1993 as The QUIT FOR LIFE Programme; the approach was developed further and re-published in the Overcoming series by Robinson as "Overcoming Your Smoking Habit". Conceptualizing methods for the design and evaluation of interventions has been a complex challenge for the discipline of Psychology.
Marks published a Taxonomic system for psychological interventions. In 2015, Marks published a new theoretical explanation of obesity based on the concept of homeostasis, a property of all living things. Physiological homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Long-term imbalances in homeostasis arise though genetic, environmental or biopsychosocial mechanisms causing illness and/or loss of well-being. Psychological homeostasis works in a similar fashion to maintain stability in behaviour. However, rapid environmental and economic changes generate challenging conditions for the human organism. Over-consumption of high-caloric, low-nutrient foods, combined with stressful living and working conditions, have caused imbalances in homeostasis and obesity in more than two billion people; the Homeostasis Theory of Obesity was further elaborated in his 2016 book, "Obesity. Comfort vs. Discontent"; the book's dedication states: "To the two-point-one billion people who are overweight or living with obesity.
Please take note. It is not your fault. You are not to blame. You are the victims. Be informed, be empowered, above all else, resist; this book is for you.". According to this new theory, homeostatic imbalance includes the'Circle of Discontent', a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption; the theory is consistent with an extensive evidence-base of prospective studies. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of: Putting a stop to victim-blaming and discrimination. If implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis would halt the obesity epidemic. Marks' research into consciousness and mental imagery led to the development of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, a tool for the assessment of individual differences in visual imagery. Marks reported that high vividness scores correlate with the accuracy of recall of coloured photographs. In 1995 he published a new version of the VVIQ, the VVIQ2; this questionnaire consists of twice the number of items and reverses the rating scale so that higher scores reflect higher vividness.
The VVIQ and VVIQ2 are available on the Internet: http://www.art-n-stuff.com/news/ The VVIQ has been validated in about 1000 studies using perceptual and cognitive tasks. Rodway and Schepman found that high vividness participants were more accurate at detecting salient changes to pictures compared to low vividness participants, replicating an earlier study by Gur and Hilgard. Cui et al. found that reported image vividness correlates with increased activity in the visual cortex. This study shows that the subjective experience of forming a mental image is reflected by increased visual cortical activity. Logie, Pernet and Della Sala used behavioural and fMRI data for mental rotation from individuals reporting vivid and poor imagery on the VVIQ. Groups differed in brain activation patterns suggesting that the groups performed the same tasks in different way
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
United States Military Entrance Processing Command
The United States Military Entrance Processing Command is a Major Command of the U. S. Department of Defense, which screens and processes applicants into the United States Armed Forces. USMEPCOM is headquartered in North Chicago and operates 65 Military Entrance Processing Stations located throughout the United States; the command's motto is Freedom's Front Door, signifying that a service member's career starts when they walk through the doors of the MEPS. USMEPCOM is a joint service command under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Personnel Policy, who in turn reports to the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness; these stations process applicants for military service, putting them through a battery of tests and examinations to ensure that they meet the standards required to serve in the United States Armed Forces. These tests include vision, hearing and blood pressure tests, a pregnancy test, an examination by a doctor, a height and weight check, urinalysis, a breathalyzer test, a moral/background examination, as well as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery.
If applicants are deemed qualified for military service, they will meet with a service counselor and sign enlistment contracts, swear or affirm an entrance oath. USMEPCOM has been awarded the Joint Meritorious Unit Award twice; the first award was for the period of 1 July 1982 until 30 April 1985. USMEPCOM Website MEPS Map A Day At The MEPS Video DoD Instruction 6130.03, "Medical Standards for Appointment, Enlistment, or Induction in the Military Services," 28 April 2010
United States Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security
The Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Homeland Security, with responsibility for managing day-to-day operations. The department has an annual budget of more than $48.5 billion. If the Secretary of Homeland Security dies, resigns, or is otherwise unable to perform the functions and duties of the office, the Deputy Secretary is to serve as an Acting Secretary; the Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. The position of Deputy Secretary was created along with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2002; the Deputy Secretary is paid $168,000 annually. Official website
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
The Deputy Secretary of Defense is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The deputy secretary is the principal civilian deputy to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate; the deputy secretary, by statute, is designated as the DoD Chief Management Officer and must be a civilian, at least seven years removed from service as a commissioned officer on active-duty at the date of appointment. The Deputy Secretary of Defense position is held by Patrick M. Shanahan. Effective January 1, 2019, Shanahan became the Acting Secretary of Defense upon Jim Mattis's resignation from that office. While Shanahan serves in that role, he has selected David Norquist to perform the duties of Deputy Secretary of Defense, effective January 1, 2019. Public Law 81-36, April 2, 1949 established this position as the Under Secretary of Defense, however Public Law 81-2 16, August 10, 1949, a.k.a. the 1949 Amendments to the National Security Act of 1947, changed the title to Deputy Secretary of Defense.
Former assistant to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Stephen Early, became the first officer holder when he was sworn-in on May 2, 1949. Public Law 92-596, October 27, 1972, established a Second Deputy Secretary of Defense position, with both deputies performing duties as prescribed by the Secretary of Defense; the second deputy position was not filled until December 1975. Robert F. Ellsworth, serving from December 23, 1975, until January 10, 1977, was the only one to hold that office. Public Law 95-140, October 21, 1977, established two Under Secretaries of Defense and abolished the second deputy position. By delegation, the Deputy Secretary of Defense has full power and authority to act for the Secretary of Defense and to exercise the powers of the Secretary of Defense on any and all matters for which the Secretary is authorized to act pursuant to statute or executive order; the deputy secretary is first in the line of succession to the office of Secretary of Defense. The typical role of the Deputy Secretary of Defense is to oversee the day-to-day business and lead the internal management processes of the $500-billion-plus Department of Defense budget, as its chief operating officer.
Prior to February 1, 2018, the Deputy Secretary of Defense served as the department's chief management officer, to whom the deputy chief management officer reported, but those responsibilities were split into a new Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense position. The deputy secretary, among the office's many responsibilities, chairs the Senior Level Review Group, before 2005 known as Defense Resources Board, which provides department-wide budgetary allocation recommendations to the Secretary and the President. Traditionally, the deputy secretary has been the civilian official guiding the process of the Quadrennial Defense Review; the Deputy Secretary of Defense chairs the Special Access Program Oversight Committee, which has oversight responsibilities and provides recommendations with respect to changes in status of the Department's Special Access Programs, for either the Deputy Secretary Defense or the Secretary of Defense to make. Defense Acquisition Board Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee Deputy's Advisory Working Group, a panel chaired by the Deputy Secretary of Defense Packard Commission Department of Defense Directive 5100.1: Functions of the Department of Defense and Its Major Components.
Department of Defense Directive. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of Defense. December 21, 2010. Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015. Deputy Secretary of Defense position profile at Prunes Online defense.gov
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh