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Armed forces of the Netherlands

The Armed forces of the Netherlands consist of the Army and Air Force. The service branches consist of: Koninklijke Royal Netherlands Army. Koninklijke Marine, Royal Netherlands Navy and Korps Mariniers, Marine Corps. Koninklijke Luchtmacht, Royal Netherlands Air Force. Koninklijke Marechaussee, Royal Military Constabulary. In addition, within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, there are small local conscript forces on the islands of Aruba and Curaçao; these operate under the auspices of the Royal Netherlands Navy and Marines. The military ranks of the Dutch armed forces have similarities with British and U. S. military ranks. The highest-ranking officer in the Dutch military is the Chief of Defence, a four-star officer; the Dutch armed forces exist by declaration in the constitution of the Netherlands. Article 97 of this constitution determines that the armed forces exist to defend the Kingdom of the Netherlands and its interests in the world; this means that the role and responsibility of the Dutch military in international stability and peacekeeping is constitutionally determined.

The same article of the constitution determines that supreme command of the Dutch military resides with the Government of the Netherlands. This has been the case since the constitution was changed in 1983. In addition, a second major change in military affairs was made in 2003. Before all citizens of the Netherlands were tasked with the defense of the kingdom. In keeping with the move to a professional military, this article was dropped; the Netherlands' military is a professional military. Conscription in the Netherlands was suspended in 1996 with the exception of Curaçao. All military branches and specialties are open to female recruits. In October 2018 the Dutch Ministry of Defence announced that the submarine service will accept female recruits for positions as officer, NCO and sailor; the Dutch Ministry of Defence employs over 61,000 personnel, including both civilian and military personnel. The Dutch military is part of the NATO militaries and therefore conforms to the structure of a NATO military.

It uses conforming rank structures. All Dutch military personnel and enlisted personnel, are required to take an oath of allegiance; this oath is recorded in the law on General Military Personnel Regulations in Article 126a. Unlike many military organizations, Dutch military members are allowed to join unions. There are four of these unions: Algemene Federatie van Militair Personeel, recognized by the Dutch government in 1966; the AFMP is a member of the Dutch Federation of Trade Unions. Algemeen Christelijke Organisatie van Militairen; the ACOM is a member of the Dutch Christian National Trade Union. Gezamenlijke Officieren Verenigingen en Middelbaar en Hoger Burgerpersoneel bij Defensie, recognized by the Dutch government in 2004; the GOV/MHB is a member of the Dutch confederation of groups of senior staffmembers. Vakbond voor Defensiepersoneel VBM. All unions retired military personnel and/or civilian personnel. Since the 1990s, the Dutch military has been involved in four major military campaigns: Bosnian War Kosovo War International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan leading the effort in Uruzgan Province.

Multinational force in Iraq As part of Operation Enduring Freedom as a response to those attacks, the Netherlands deployed aircraft as part of the European Participating Air Force in support of ground operations in Afghanistan as well as Dutch naval frigates to police the waters of the Middle East/Indian Ocean. The Netherlands deployed further troops and helicopters to Afghanistan in 2006 as part of a new security operation in the south of the country. Dutch ground and air forces totalled 2,000 personnel during 2006, taking part in combat operations alongside British and Canadian forces as part of NATO's ISAF force in the south; the Netherlands announced in December 2007 that it would begin withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, which were in Uruzgan Province, in July 2010. "I do not have assurances that other countries will be ready to replace Netherlands troops, but I am certain that Dutch troops will leave in 2010," Foreign Minister Maxime Verhagen said. "I indicated that in writing... to the NATO secretary general, who has confirmed it."

In January 2009, Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende reiterated that the 1,600 Dutch troops in Afghanistan would end their mission in 2010, saying "We will stop in Uruzgan in 2010." He ruled out the possibility of the Netherlands keeping its troops in Afghanistan past 2010 with any force comparable to its former deployment. In December 2009, reacting to three requests received from the side of the U. S. by Vice President Biden, the special American representative to Afghanistan Holbrooke and Secretary of State Clinton and a request by Secretary General of NATO Rasmussen as well, the Dutch government announced that the final decision on the continuation of the mission in Uruzgan would be on its agenda in March 2010. Two ministers from the Labour Party and Bos in the meantime pleaded termination, the opinion of the majority of the Dutch parliament. On 10 December 2009, the Dutch daily newspaper De Telegraaf reported that the

Nicola Marschall

Nicola Marschall was a German-American artist who supported the Confederate cause during the American Civil War. He designed the original Confederate flag, the Stars and Bars, as well as the official grey uniform of the Confederate army. On 16 March 1829, Marschall was born in St. Wendel, Germany, to a wealthy Prussian family of tobacco merchants. In 1849, Marschall emigrated to the United States through New Orleans, headed for the home of a relative in Mobile, Alabama. In 1851, Marschall relocated to Marion, where he began teaching art first at his portrait studio, at the Marion Female Seminary. During this time he returned to Germany to further his art technique. Mary Clay Lockett, wife of prominent Marion attorney Napoleon Lockett, requested of Marschall to take part in the competition to create a new flag to represent the Confederate States of America. Marschall's design became the first Confederate flag, first raised in Montgomery, Alabama, on 4 March 1861. During the Civil War Marschall served in the Second Regiment of Confederate Engineer Troops, under Samuel Lockett.

After the war he returned to married Martha Eliza Marshall. During his career, Marschall painted portraits of Jefferson Davis, Abraham Lincoln, Otto von Bismarck, various Southern families, Confederate and Union soldiers, he was one of the few, able to have Nathan Bedford Forrest pose for him. Additionally, he did religious paintings, he was known to sign and date his portraits using a steel pen while the paint was still wet, at the bottom-right of the portrait. Due to the economic depression in the South following the war, Marschall returned to Mobile in 1872. In 1873, he and his family moved to Louisville, Kentucky, as his friends told him it would be an easier place to gain commissions to do portraits. At the Centennial International Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, he won a medal for his portraits. In 1908, Marschall gave up working on portraits. On 24 February 1917, Marschall died in Kentucky, his remains were interred at Cave Hill Cemetery. Sarah Rebecca Robins at the Birmingham Museum of Art

Vermont Route 106

Vermont Route 106 is a 25.963-mile long state highway in Windsor County, United States. The route begins at an intersection with VT 11 in the town of Springfield and runs along the Black River for several miles, crossing through Weathersfield and Woodstock before reaching the village of Woodstock, where it ends at a junction with US 4. VT 106 begins at a forked intersection with VT 11 in the town of Springfield. VT 106 proceeds northwest as River Street, running along the shores of the Black River, past St. Mary's Oakland Cemetery as a two-lane commercial road. Crossing through an industrial section of Springfield, the route crosses over the Black River, which turns to the northeast near Main Street NS. After crossing the Black River, the River Street moniker is dropped, the route turns west just south of Hartness State Airport. At the end of the western turn, VT 106 turns north while its former right-of-way becomes VT 10, which begins at the intersection. VT 106 continues north through Springfield, passing multiple residences on both sides and reaching a junction with Airport Road, which connects back to Hartness State.

VT 106 crosses into Weathersfield, continuing north past multiple residences and soon reaching the village of Perkinsville. In Perkinsville, VT 106 becomes the main north–south thoroughfare, passing multiple residences before crossing over the Black River once again. Paralleling the river, VT 106 makes a gradual bend north out of downtown Perkinsville, running north into the village of Downers, where it intersects with VT 131. Continuing north, VT 106 parallels the North Branch of the Black River, bending to the northwest through Weathersfield into the village of Greenbush, which consists of a junction with Ascutney Basin Road. Continuing along the branch, the route crosses into the town of Cavendish and soon into Reading. Now in Reading, VT 106 bends north into the village of Felchville, where it runs as the main north–south road, passing homes in both directions and an intersection with Tyson Road. Leaving Felchville, VT 106 bends northeast, reaching a junction with the western terminus of VT 44.

After VT 44, VT 106 bends northwest again, crossing through dense woods through the town of Reading, reaching the village of Hammondsville, which consists of a few homes at a junction with Baileys Mills Road. VT 106 winds northward out of Hammondsville and passes through multiple woods on its way climbing through some hills. Soon gaining the moniker of South Road, the route reaches the town of Woodstock. VT 106 turns northeast through Woodstock. At Morgan Hill Road, VT 106 enters the village of South Woodstock. South Woodstock consists of homes on both sides of the road, while VT 106 turns eastward again, leaving the village and turning northeast near Bryant Road. VT 106 begins turning northward once again, remaining a residential road through Woodstock, passing the western border of Woodstock Country Club, which marks the entrance into downtown Woodstock. At the north end of the country club, VT 106 turns northwest, passing multiple businesses and homes before reaching a junction with US 4 in the center of Woodstock.

This junction marks the northern terminus of VT 106. The entire route is in Windsor County. Termini of VT 106 at

Émile Pierre Ratez

Émile Pierre Ratez was a French composer and violist. Ratez was born in Besançon on 5 November 1851 and became a pupil of Pierre De Mol at the music school there and a pupil of Bazin and of Jules Massenet at the Conservatoire de Paris in the 1870's. In 1891, he became the director of the Lille branch of the Paris Conservatory. Ratez died in Lille on 19 May 1934, his compositions include some chamber music, a suite for violin and piano, two operas Lydéric and Paula and many songs and other choral and piano works His six Characteristic Pieces have been republished by Billaudot. 2016: Acte Préalable AP0358 – Émile Pierre Ratez - Exhibition 1 2016: Acte Préalable AP0366 – Émile Pierre Ratez - Exhibition 2 Works by or about Émile Pierre Ratez at Internet Archive Free scores by Émile Pierre Ratez at the International Music Score Library Project

Downtown Yonge

Downtown Yonge is a retail and entertainment district centred on Yonge Street in Downtown Toronto, Canada. The Downtown Yonge district is bounded by Richmond Street to the south. All property owners and commercial tenants within these boundaries are members of the Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area association, founded in 2001; the district has been a busy shopping district for over 100 years. While the original shopping street of Toronto was King Street east of Yonge, the noteworthy development of the area into a shopping district was the opening and expansion of the T. Eaton store at Queen Street; the store grew to encompass over three city blocks on the west side of Yonge, used for ancillary stores and factories of the Eaton company. Across Queen Street from the Eaton store, the Robert Simpson department store grew to encompass the entire south-east corner block of Yonge and Queen; the Simpson store exists today as the Hudson's Bay Company store. North of Dundas Street, a landmark store was opened by Sam Sniderman called Sam the Record Man, which offered three floors of records.

As the retail usage developed, so did entertainment uses. Massey Hall was built just to the east of Yonge Street on Shuter, along with the Pantages and Wintergarden theatres on Yonge between Dundas and Queen Street. Massey Hall remains in the state that it was when it opened, while the two theatres were both converted into movie houses reconverted back into live theatre venues. Starting in the 1960s, the T. Eaton Company made plans to redevelop its lands on the west side of Yonge Street; this became the genesis of today's Toronto Eaton Centre. The Eaton store was moved to Yonge and Dundas, is today the Sears store. All of the west side of Yonge Street from Queen to Dundas was demolished and the mall built. Only the Holy Trinity Church and the Old City Hall remain of the pre-Eaton Centre buildings from Dundas to Queen, from Yonge to Bay remain; the Downtown Yonge area is best known as the home of the Toronto Eaton Centre indoor mall, Toronto’s largest and most visited tourist attraction. Adjacent to the mall, at the corner of Yonge and Dundas Street is Yonge-Dundas Square, a large public square.

The area is well known for shopping, including music retailers, mid-priced fashion stores, jewelers. The district is home to a number of performance venues including the Canon Theatre, the Carlu, the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres, Massey Hall and the Zanzibar Tavern; the area’s heritage properties include such notable sites as the Arts & Letters Club, Mackenzie House, Maple Leaf Gardens, Old City Hall and the demolished Sam the Record Man store. The Downtown Yonge district is a registered business improvement area, known as the Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area; the 2,000 businesses and property owners of the area are members of the Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area Association. There is a volunteer Board; the Board has fourteen seats, which includes twelve members of the association and two City of Toronto representatives the local City Councillor. There is a committee structure that reports to the Board and a small number of staff and service providers who implement the association’s initiatives.

The focus of the BIA association is on key areas that include clean streets, safe streets, social improvement, streetscape improvements, marketing. Some of the most notable initiatives include: -Clean Streets Team – A full-time street cleaning team, hired by the Downtown Yonge is responsible for graffiti removal, poster removal, litter sweeping, sidewalk pressure washing; the crew supplements the work of the City and has been operating since January 2002. -Police Foot Patrols – A dedicated presence of police foot patrol officers add to the safety of Downtown Yonge streets. Improvements have been made in such areas as street crime and illegal vending; the Downtown Yonge B. I. A. hires the officers to supplement the existing levels of policing in the area. The program has been operating since April 2002. -Social Improvement – Businesses, social service agencies, the City of Toronto, other community interests are working together to expand outreach support to the homeless in the Downtown Yonge area, equip businesses with tools to deal with situations, advocating for long term solutions.

-Holiday Openings – The Downtown Yonge area is the first district in Toronto to be designated a tourist area. This allows retailers the option of opening on statutory holidays; the area realized this status in June 2002. -Streetscape Improvements – The identity and sense of place in Downtown Yonge is being enhanced through traffic poles that are branded with the association’s logo at major Yonge Street intersections. Holiday decorations suspended above Yonge Street add to the festive atmosphere of the district annually in November and December. -Discovery Team – A mobile ambassador program during the summer months was launched in May 2005. A multi-lingual group of trained visitors services personnel help the public meet their business and entertainment needs in the Downtown Yonge area; the area is served by the Toronto Transit Commission’s Queen and College subway stations, as well as the Yonge bus and 501 Queen, 505 Dundas, 506 Carlton street car routes. Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area Toronto Association of Business Improvement Areas

Oz Almog

Oz Almog is an Israeli artist and author, born on 15 April 1956, in Kfar Saba, Israel. Oz Almog was born to a family of Romanian/Russian immigrants. After studying classical painting and completing his military service in the Israeli Navy, he studied at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. Oz Almog's artistic work is provocative. In the 1980s, as a student of the Academy of Fine Arts in Austria, Almog took an active part with in off-scene underground culture in Europe. In the 1990s he addressed complex issues of human sexuality, totalitarian ideologies and terrorism. In 1994, his Birth of a Myth exhibition took place at an alternative arts center in Vienna; the center was converted into a shrine with a flower-strewn floor. In some 70 oil paintings Almog auto-portrayed himself in the style of Nazi art and social realism as a ruler and savior, as a naked, provocatively muscle-bound godlike figure, as a fiery agitator or with the stern regard of a stormtrooper, complete with leather belt and jackboots.

Almog’s 1995 exhibition The Psychonaut and His Mind Navigator, featured 360 oils self-portraits in the style of pulp magazine covers. The artist presented himself as a lecherous vampire drooling over a beautiful blond, a revolver-toting gangster, a crazed toy alien, or monstrously endowed porno star; the same year Oz Almog undertook the project En Face – Not seen and/or less seen of/by, reconstructing the images of the famous visual artists by using an original collection of interchangeable facial features' templates of Austrian Federal Police from the 70s. This was followed by conceptual exhibitions: Blok Brut and Blood Addict - Bloody scenes of Murder 1949-1960, presented in Janco Dada Museum in Israel in 1997, Shaheed in Limbus Gallery, Tel Aviv, it is a series of selected real police photos of fatal auto-erotic strangulations, extracts from the scene-of-the-crime photos, metamorphosed with real blood into abstract light and dark compositions, With his exhibition Him too?... A Chronicle of a Cultural Obsession, Oz Almog confronts visitors with the question as to what Anne Frank and Jesus, Bob Dylan and Fred Astaire, Mr. Spock and Albert Einstein, Frida Kahlo and Madeleine Albright could have in common.

In more than 400 small size oil portraits, each accompanied by a short biography, Oz Almog features flamboyant heroes and anti-heroes whose only common denomination is their Jewish origin: names like Baruch Spinoza, Jack Ruby, Bob Dylan and Rosa Luxemburg. Showing the opposite to the racist anthropologists image of the Jewish Face and underling the diversity, Almog selected the personalities portrayed from the Bible and Heroic tales, Nobel laureates and soldiers, Hollywood celebrities, freaks and murderers – people who made history. Albert Einstein rubs shoulders with fashion designer Ralph Lauren, sex symbol Hedy Lamarr with the writer Franz Kafka, actress Winona Ryder with Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, film director Stanley Kubrick with gangster Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel, Meyer Lansky with rock musicians Gene Simmons, Paul Stanley and Lenny Kravitz. There are numerous local celebrities such as Leonard Cohen, the rock musician Marc Bolan, film director and producer Sir Alexander Korda, politician Benjamin Disraeli and many more.

After being presented in the Jewish Museum, Vienna in 1999, the exhibition traveled for full 10 years and was seen in Tel Aviv, London, Rendsburg, Belgrade, Sarajevo and many more European cities. Aktion T-4: Opera Euthanasia – part of the Memorial exhibition at the Upper Austrian State Museum, Linz in the year 2000 – featured a child's bedroom with over 350 paintings of prominent Nazis, serial killers and other criminals and once again produced a massive public reaction. Wiener en face – Portraits of Careers, with 350 paintings of prominent Viennese personalities, was shown from October 2000 to April 2001 at the Hermes Villa, it has been followed by Towards the Light of Dawn – Jewish Heroes of the Soviet Union. With this exhibition Oz Almog has attempted to uncover what he says is the "repressed history" of the 500,000 Jews who fought in the Soviet army – a third of the 1.5 million Jewish soldiers from all Allied nations. In the exhibition Kosher Nostra. Jewish Gangsters in America 1890–1980, Oz Almog created an impressive documentary summary of an entire epoch of crimes committed by Jewish gangsters.

Through pictures, newspaper articles, official documents, he showed how such criminals as Meyer Lansky, Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, Louis "Lepke" Buchalter had a determining influence on the development of organized crime in America. Kosher Nostra, shown in 2004-2005 at the Jewish Museum, featured more than 160 realistic oil portraits, with most of personalities shown both full-face and from profile; each "mug shot" was accompanied with a short biography. In 2004 Oz Almog presented his art installation Colors of War. Camouflage was shown in the Imperial Furniture Museum in Vienna, exhibiting the original furniture of Austo-Hungarian Emperors, re-furbished with the military camouflage fabrics. A Warrior Cult was on view at the Jewish Museum featuring the mosaic of shoulder sleeve insignias oil paintings. 2007/08 a number of international artists joined Almog in Judaica Kid’s Box project, taking up the challenge of presenting Jewish tradition, symbolism and teachings in a form accessible to children.

The colorful and entertaining presentation was designed to provid