Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
The Armenian Genocide known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians citizens within the Ottoman Empire. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, deported from Constantinople to the region of Ankara, 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were murdered; the genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, the elderly, the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.
Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. Raphael Lemkin was moved by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and coin the word genocide in 1943; the Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Turkey denies. In recent years, Turkey has been faced with repeated calls to recognize them as genocide; as of 2018, 29 countries have recognized the mass killings as genocide, as have most genocide scholars and historians. The Armenian Genocide took place before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".
Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind. It happened to the Armenians after the Armenians Hitler took action."The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern, or variants like Medz Yeghern and Abrilian Yeghern were the terms most used; the name Aghed translated as "Catastrophe", according to Beledian, the term most used in Armenian literature to name the event. After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged" or "disputed," or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims" or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".
Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–16". Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation and forced death marches"; the IAGS condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter signed by 53 Nobel Laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.
Bat Ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide; this perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam and against Moslems generally... hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress... T has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, to these alone. Arnold Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks made Pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein observes that many
Eurovision Song Contest 2011
The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Düsseldorf, following Lena's win at the 2010 contest in Oslo, Norway with the song "Satellite"; the event was held at the Esprit Arena, with semi-finals held on 10 and 12 May, the final held on 14 May 2011. This was the first contest to take place outside the host nation's capital city since the 2004 contest in Istanbul. Forty-three countries participated in the contest, with those returning including Austria, which last participated in 2007. Italy returned to the Contest, marking its first participation since 1997. No country withdrew from the contest; the winner was Azerbaijan with the song "Running Scared" performed by Nikki. The runner-up was Italy, Sweden finished in third place. Italy and Germany were the only members of the "Big Five" to make it into the top 10, with the United Kingdom close behind at 11th place. 2010 Hosts Norway were eliminated in the first semi-final. Azerbaijan obtained its first victory in any Eurovision since its debut in 2008.
Azerbaijan won the viewers voting with Sweden in second place, Greece in third place. Italy won the jury voting, with Azerbaijan in Denmark in third place; this is the first time since the juries were reintroduced alongside the televoting in 2009 that the winner did not place first in the jury voting. The broadcast of the final won the Rose d'Or award for Best Live Event. Following Lena's win at the 2010 contest with the song "Satellite", Germany became host nation for the 2011 edition. Twenty-three cities submit official bids to the German broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk, in order to be the host city for the 2011 contest. Eight of these cities continued to show interest in hosting the event including Berlin, Hanover, Gelsenkirchen, Düsseldorf, Cologne and Munich. NDR announced on 21 August 2010 that four of those cities had applied to host the 2011 Contest: Berlin, Hanover, Düsseldorf. Possible locations within the cities included the following:Key Host venue BerlinConcerns were raised about Berlin's bid concept which consisted of an inflatable tent to be built on Tempelhof's hangar area.
Decision makers at NDR doubted the venue's ability to provide advantageous acoustic conditions. Berlin's speaker Richard Meng neither confirmed nor denied that because, he stated, "secrecy about the bid concepts was promised to the NDR". DüsseldorfOn 24 September 2010, it was announced that Fortuna Düsseldorf football club had applied to the Deutsche Fußball Liga for permission to move its home matches to the Paul-Janes-Stadion if the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf was awarded the 2011 Song Contest; this message indicated that talks with Düsseldorf to host the song contest in the Esprit Arena were at an advanced stage. The club announced on 6 October 2010 that it had obtained permission to move its games if necessary; the Neue Ruhr Zeitung newspaper reported on 12 December 2010 that Fortuna Düsseldorf were to be moved to the Paul-Janes-Stadion due to the contest. Fortuna Düsseldorf's training venue next to the Esprit Arena would be equipped with mobile stands from a Swiss event construction specialist, Nussli Group, creating 20,000 extra seats.
This decision was made. HamburgOn 2 October 2010 the Hamburger Abendblatt newspaper announced that Hamburg would be unable to host the 2011 Song Contest, because the city could no longer fulfil the required financial conditions; the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf was announced by German broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk as the venue for the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest on 12 October 2010. This was the first Eurovision Song Contest held in Germany since German reunification, with West Germany having hosted the contest in 1957 and 1983. Germany was the first member of the "Big Five" to host the Contest since the implementation of the rule in 2000 that permits the five largest contributors to the European Broadcasting Union – Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy – to qualify automatically for the final alongside the previous year's winner; that the stadium acquired a rental period of six weeks, in order to allow construction and dismantling work within the Esprit Arena to be carried out. The stadium accommodated a capacity of 38,000 for spectators during the Eurovision Song Contest.
Düsseldorf offered 23,000 hotel beds and 2,000 additional beds in the Düsseldorf surroundings and on ships on the River Rhine. The four countries that were part of the Big Four, along with the host of the contest, automatically qualify for a place in the final. Since Germany was both a "Big Four" country and the host for the 2011 contest, there was a vacant spot in the final. At a Reference Group meeting in Belgrade it was decided that the existing rules would remain in place, that the number of participants in the final would be lowered from twenty-five to twenty-four. On 31 December 2010, the official participation list was published by the EBU, which stipulated that with the return of Italy to the contest, this nation would become a member of the "Big Five"; this change permitted Italy automatic qualification into the finals, alongside France, the United Kingdom, host nation Germany, restoring the number of participants for the final to twenty-five nations. On 30 August 2010 it was announced that Svante Stockselius, Executive Supervisor of the Eurovision Song Contest, would be leaving his position on 31 December 2010.
On 26 Novemb
Eurovision Song Contest 2013
The Eurovision Song Contest 2013 was the 58th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Malmö, following Loreen's win at the 2012 contest in Baku, Azerbaijan with the song "Euphoria", it was the fifth time that Sweden had hosted the contest, the last time being in 2000. Sveriges Television chose Malmö Arena as the venue following the consideration of several venues in Sweden; until 2019, this was the last edition not held in the host country's capital city. The host for the contest was Petra Mede. Thirty-nine countries participated, including Armenia, last represented in 2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal and Turkey announced their withdrawal from the 2013 Contest; the design of the contest was built around the theme "We Are One" – highlighting equality and unity of all the participating countries alongside the cultural diversity and influence of each participant. Compared to many of the previous contests in the history of Eurovision, rather than focusing on promoting its own country, Sweden chose to lay focus on the artists and their respective countries.
The postcards presented before every song which have been used to show the host country's nature and social life, were changed to show the typical everyday life of each individual artist in their home countries scattered around Europe. The winner for 2013 was Denmark with the song "Only Teardrops" sung by Emmelie de Forest, which scored 281 points, beating Azerbaijan with a margin of 47 points; this makes it the second time. Ukraine finished in Norway in fourth, while Russia finished in fifth place. Out of the countries with the'Big Five' status, only Italy managed to finish in the top ten, third in a row since its return, coming seventh with 126 points double of remaining ones' sum; the Netherlands finished ninth in their first participation in a final since 2004. 170 million viewers watched the final of the 2013 edition. For the first time since 1985, no country of the former Yugoslav federation participated in the final of the Eurovision Song Contest; this year was the first time adult Eurovision displayed the "Parade of Nations", which existed in Junior Eurovision since 2004, an idea introduced by Sweden to become a new Eurovision tradition.
The concept sees all countries performing in the Grand Final present themselves with their national flags before the contest begins. This year, the contestants entered the main stage by walking across a bridge over the audience; the idea was continued the following years by Denmark and Austria, the hosts of Eurovision 2014 and 2015 respectively. On 8 July 2012, the Swedish broadcaster Sveriges Television announced that Malmö Arena in Malmö would be the host venue for the 2013 Eurovision Song Contest; this was the fifth time after 1975, 1985, 1992 and 2000 that the competition was held in Sweden and the second time, after 1992, that it was held in Malmö. SVT had expressed the desire to host the contest at a smaller venue than previous years, as well as smaller environment, easier to dedicate and decorate for other celebrations and festivities of the event within the host city; this were factors in the choice of Malmö Arena as the host venue, Malmö as Sweden's third-largest city by population after Stockholm and Gothenburg, the two other initial location-bidders.
SVT made the advance decision to allocate Denmark at one semi-final and Norway at the other, in consideration for the number of Danish and Norwegian fans to come, with the arena being small and so not suitable for accommodating both countries' fans at one semi-final event. Øresund bridge was also used as the main artistic medium for the theme of the contest, as an expression of binding cultures. On the night of the final for the 2012 Contest, the chief executive of SVT, Eva Hamilton, stated to the Swedish media that various venues in Stockholm and Malmö were being considered for hosting the 2013 Contest. One alternative put forward in the Expressen, was to hold the competition at three different venues – the semi-finals in Gothenburg and Malmö, the final in Stockholm; this proposal was dismissed as unfeasible by SVT, which declared that the contest would be hosted in only one city. On 20 June 2012, it was announced that Gothenburg had withdrawn from the bidding process due to the city being the host of the Göteborg Horse Show in late April 2013.
There were concerns about the availability of hotel rooms due to a variety of other events taking place in the same time frame as the Eurovision Song Contest. The executive producer for the 2013 Contest, Martin Österdahl, told Swedish press that he did not like the decisions made by previous hosts to hold the contest in larger arenas, stating that he and SVT wanted the 2013 Contest to be "more close and personal". SVT claimed that the European Broadcasting Union wanted the 2013 Contest to be "smaller" due to the escalating costs of previous contests; the following candidate cities had provisionally reserved venues and hotel rooms, as part of their bids to host the 2013 Contest. On 8 July 2012, Malmö Arena was confirmed as the host venue for the contest. Malmö Arena is Sweden's fourth-largest indoor arena, after Friends Arena, Tele2 Arena and Ericsson Globe, all located in Stockholm. Key Host venue The combination of televoting and jury voting results underwent changes that were detailed in the official rules for the 2013 contest.
Each member of a respective nation's jury was required to rank every song, except that of their own country. The voting results from each member of a particular nation's jury were combined to produce an overall ranking from first to last place; the televoting results were interpreted as a full ranking, taking int
Azerbaijan the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south; the exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, has an 11 km long border with Turkey in the northwest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic Muslim state. In 1920 the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the USSR in the same year. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh; the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.
These regions are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, it is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, the NATO Partnership for Peace program, it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Azerbaijan holds observer status in the World Trade Organization. While more than 89% of the population is Shia Muslim, the Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan has a high level of human development that ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.
It has a high rate of economic literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great; the original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene." The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the Fire" or "The Land of the Fire". The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Strabo. Over the span of millennia, the name evolved to Āturpātākān to Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, Āzarbāydjān and present-day Azerbaijan.
The name Azerbaijan was first adopted for the area of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan by the government of Musavat in 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, when the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established. Until the designation had been used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran, while the area of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was referred to as Arran and Shirvan. On that basis Iran protested the newly adopted country name. During the Soviet rule, the country was spelled in English from the Russian transliteration as Azerbaydzhan; the earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azokh Cave. The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe. Early settlements included the Scythians in the 9th century BC. Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras.
The Medes forged a vast empire between 900–700 BC, integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC. The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism, it became part of Alexander the Great's Empire and its successor, the Seleucid Empire. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Atropatene. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of northeastern Azerbaijan, ruled that area from around the 4th century BC, established an independent kingdom; the Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while subordinate to Sassanid Iran, retained its monarchy. Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, the Sasanian marzban held most civil and military authority. In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by Kin
Republic Square, Yerevan
Republic Square is the central town square in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It consists of two sections: an oval roundabout and a trapezoid-shaped section which contains a pool with musical fountains; the square is surrounded by five major buildings built in pink and yellow tuff in the neoclassical style with extensive use of Armenian motifs. This architectural ensemble includes the Government House, the History Museum and the National Gallery, Armenia Marriott Hotel and the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Transport and Communications; the square was designed by Alexander Tamanian in 1924. The construction of most of the buildings was completed by the 1950s. During the Soviet period it was called the Lenin Square and a statue of Vladimir Lenin stood at the square and military parades were held twice a year. After Armenia's independence Lenin's statue was removed and the square was renamed, it has been described as Yerevan's "architectural highlight" and the city's "most outstanding architectural ensemble".
Travel writer Deirdre Holding suggested that it is "certainly one of the finest central squares created anywhere in the world during the 20th century." As Armenia's and the city's "most important civic space", Republic Square was the main site of demonstrations during the 2018 Velvet Revolution. The square consists of two sections; the oval roundabout that has a stone pattern in the center, meant to look like a traditional Armenian rug from above. The trapezoid-shaped section which contains the musical fountain in front of the History Museum and the National Gallery; the buildings around the square are made of pink and yellow tuff stones, fortified on a basalt-made ground anchor. A town square of different proportions existed at its location for centuries. In 2003 the square was renovated and extensive excavations took place. An older layer—from the 18th-19th centuries—was uncovered; the pre-Soviet square was designed by Boris Mehrabyan in his 1906-11 general plan of Yerevan. The current square was designed by Alexander Tamanian within his 1924 general plan of Yerevan.
The construction of the square started in 1926. It was developed until the 1950s when the rest of the five buildings were constructed and completed in 1977, when the National Gallery was built; the square was named Lenin Square for Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin, whose statue was erected in the square in 1940 and dismantlement in 1991, prior to the independence of Armenia. A 7-meter statue of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin, erected by Sergey Merkurov and standing atop an 11 meter high pedestal, was inaugurated in the square on November 24, 1940; the monument faced the site of the planned National Gallery and "soon gained considerable acclaim as a great piece of monumental art." The statue was removed from the pedestal on April 13, 1991 prior to the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union. It was "placed on a truck and, like the body of a deceased person, driven round and round the central square as if in an open coffin" while people cheered; the pedestal survived until the summer of 1996. Ter-Ghazaryan writes that "After the monument to Lenin was toppled, the balance of Republic Square was thrown off, the empty space left where Lenin used to stand has been subject to various design proposals, but none has succeeded."On December 31, 2000 a 24-meter cross lit by light-bulbs was erected in the space left empty by Lenin’s pedestal.
This installation was completed on the eve of 2001, when the Armenian state and the Armenian Apostolic Church celebrated the 1700th anniversary of being a Christian nation. The cross was lit by 1700 symbolic lamps, continued to be at the center of celebrations that took place throughout the year of commemoration. However, at the end of 2001, the period of celebration ended and the cross was dismantled. Since it was a temporary fixture, there was little discussion preceding its erection, as well as after its dismantling. In February 2004 a billboard-sized television screen playing advertisements for various organizations and products appeared in the empty space, it was removed in 2006. ProposalsSeveral competitions have been held in Armenia to select a replacement for the statue of Lenin. One of the most common proposals is to move the monument of Sasuntsi Davit to Republic Square. According to Ter-Ghazaryan the apolitical nature of this Armenian national hero of an epic novel would be a safe choice.
After years of non-operation, the musical fountains were renovated by the French company Aquatique Show International and costed around €1.4 million. They were opened in September 2007. A Christmas tree has been installed at the square every December since at least 1950; the drinking fountain, located next to the museums' buildings, consists of seven fountains and is thus called Yot aghbyur. It was installed in 1965 and renovated in 2010. During the Soviet times military parades were held the square on May 1, May 9 and November 7; the leadership of Soviet Armenia stood below Lenin's statue. The last of these parades were held in 1988. Military parades celebrating the independence of Armenia have been held on September 21 of 1996, 1999, 2006, 2011, 2
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Azerbaijan the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic referred to as Soviet Azerbaijan, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union between 1922 and 1991. Created on 28 April 1920 when Soviet Russia brought pro-Soviet figures to power in the region, the first two years of the Azerbaijani SSR were as an independent country until incorporation into the Transcausasian SFSR, along with the Armenian SSR and the Georgian SSR. In December 1922, the Transcaucasian SFSR became part of the newly established Soviet Union; the Constitution of Azerbaijan SSR was approved by the 9th Extraordinary All-Azerbaijani Congress of Soviets on 14 March 1937. On 5 February 1991, Azerbaijan SSR was renamed the Republic of Azerbaijan according to the Decision No.16-XII of Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan approving the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan SSR dated 29 November 1990, remaining in the USSR for another period before its independence in October 1991. The Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR ceased to exist in 1995, upon the adoption of the new Constitution of Azerbaijan.
The name "Azerbaijan" originates as the "Land of Atropates", an Achaemenid Hellenistic-era king over a region in present-day Iranian Azarbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan, south of the modern state. Despite this difference, the present name was chosen by the Musavat to replace the Russian names Transcaucasia and Baku in 1918. "Azerbaijan" derives from Persian Āzarbāydjān, from earlier Ādharbāyagān and Ādharbādhagān, from Middle Persian Āturpātākān, from Old Persian Atropatkan. From its founding it was known as the Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet Republic; when the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was abolished, the name was changed to the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic according to the 1937 and 1978 Azerbaijan SSR constitutions. Upon independence, it was renamed to the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1991; the current official name was retained after the new Constitution of Azerbaijan was adopted in 1995. The Azerbaijan SSR was established on 28 April 1920 after the surrender of the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to local Bolsheviks led by Mirza Davud and Nariman Narimanov and the invasion of the Bolshevik 11th Red Army.
On 13 October 1921, the Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia and Georgia signed an agreement with Turkey known as the Treaty of Kars. The independent Naxicivan SSR would become an autonomous ASSR within Azerbaijan by the Treaty of Kars. Borders of Azerbaijan and Armenia, like elsewhere in the USSR, were redrawn several times, yet neither side was satisfied with the results. On 12 March 1922 the leaders of Azerbaijan and Georgian Soviet Socialist Republics established a union known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic; this was the first attempt at a union of Soviet republics, preceding the USSR. The Union Council of TSFSR consisted of the representatives of the three republics – Nariman Narimanov, Polikarp Mdivani, Aleksandr Fyodorovich Miasnikyan; the First Secretary of the Transcaucasian Communist Party was Sergo Ordzhonikidze. In December 1922 TSFSR agreed to join the union with Russia and Belarus, thus creating the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which would last until 1991.
The TSFSR, did not last long. In December 1936, the Transcaucasian Union was dismantled when the leaders in the Union Council found themselves unable to come to agreement over several issues. Azerbaijan and Georgia became union Republics of the Soviet Union directly. In the spring of 1921, a general change-over from revkoms and kombeds to Soviets took place. In order to help the Azerbaijani oil industry the Supreme Council of the National Economy decided in the same year to provide it with everything necessary out of turn; the new oilfields, like Ilyich Bay, Lok-Batan and Kala have been discovered. In 1929 a great kolkhoz movement had developed and Azerbaijan became the second Soviet tea producer after the Georgian SSR for the first time. On 31 March 1931 the oil industry of the Azerbaijan SSR, which supplied over 60% of the total Soviet oil production at the time, was awarded the Order of Lenin; the republic gained the second Order on 15 March 1935 during the observation of its 15th anniversary.
At the end of the second five-year plan Azerbaijan appeared at 3rd place in the Soviet Union by its capital investment size. During the period 17 September 1939 to 21 June 1941, Nazi Germany, due to its non-aggression pact and normalized trade relations with the USSR, was a major importer of oil produced in the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; this changed when Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. In the first year of the Soviet-German War, Azerbaijan produced 23,5 million tons of oil – a record for the entire history of its oil industry. By the end of 1941, thousands of Azerbaijanis had joined the People's Volunteer Corps. Mobilization affected all spheres of life the oil industries. A week after fighting began, the oil workers themselves took the initiative to extend their work to 12-hour shifts, with no days off, no holidays, no vacations until the end of the war. Meanwhile, in September 1942 Hitler's generals presented him with a large decorated cake which depicted the Caspian Sea and Baku.
Baku became the primary strategic goal of Hitler's 1942 Fall Blau offensive. This offensive was unsuccessful, h