Argentina national rugby union team
The Argentina national rugby team is organised by the Argentine Rugby Union. Nicknamed the Pumas, they play in sky blue and white jerseys, Argentina played its first international rugby match in 1910 against a touring British Isles team; as of 12 July 2017 they are ranked 9th in the world by the IRB, making them the highest-ranked nation in the Americas. They have competed at every Rugby World Cup staged since the first tournament of 1987, the country are considered the strongest within the Americas, being undefeated against all but Canada, against whom they have suffered three losses. Although rugby union in Argentina is not as popular as soccer, the Pumas' impressive results since the 1999 World Cup have seen the sport's popularity grow significantly. Argentina has achieved several upset victories, are tough contenders when playing in Buenos Aires, are capable of defeating Six Nations sides. A surprise victory over the hosts France in the first game of the 2007 World Cup took Argentina to fourth in the IRB World Rankings.
The team were undefeated in their pool, reached the semi-finals for the first time, beating Scotland 19–13 in their quarter-final. They were defeated 37–13 by eventual winners South Africa in the semi-finals, but followed this up with a second win over France to claim third place overall. By the end of the competition, the team had reached an all-time high of third in the World Rankings. After their advances in competitiveness and performance during the 2000s, coupled with their location in the Southern Hemisphere, Argentina was the only tier 1 nation that had no regular competition, some, among them former Pumas captain Agustín Pichot, had spoken of them joining the Six Nations. Argentina joined The Rugby Championship in a meeting in Buenos Aires on November 23, 2011. In their first tournament in 2012, Argentina secured a 16–16 draw with The Springboks in only their second game; the 2014 Rugby Championship saw the first Championship-match win for Argentina who defeated Australia 21–17. 2015 proved to be a successful year for Argentine rugby, as the last match of the 2015 Rugby Championship was Argentina's first win over South Africa, where the Pumas defeated the Springboks 37–25 in Durban, they reached another semifinal at the 2015 Rugby World Cup.
In the 2016 Rugby Championship, the Pumas split the first two games with the Springboks, winning the second game 26-24 at Salta on August 27, 2016. While they were winless during the 2017 Rugby Championship, the Pumas achieved two wins in their 2018 campaign, defeating both South Africa and Australia for the first time in a single calendar year; the History of the Argentina national team starts with the first international played by an Argentine side v. the British Islands in 1910 when they toured on South America. Argentina gained recognition in 1965, when the team toured South Africa playing a series of friendly matches there. In that tour the national team was nicknamed Los Pumas, a name that became an identity mark for Argentina, remaining to present days. Argentina has taken part in all the Rugby World Cups since the first edition in 1987, their best performance being the third place achieved in 2007. Argentina followed their growing competitiveness in the Rugby Championship with a strong showing in the 2015 World Cup, reaching the semi-finals for the second time.
The national side plays the Rugby Championship since the 2012 edition, after joining the competition one year before. Argentina alternated blue and white jerseys during its first international matches in 1910. In 1927 Mr. Abelardo Gutiérrez of Gimnasia y Esgrima de Buenos Aires proposed that Argentina should play against British Lions wearing a striped light blue and white jersey; that request was accepted and Argentina wore the striped uniform for the first time in its history. Los Pumas play in a shirt in the country's flag colours of light blue and white, white shorts, socks in light blue and white. In 2011, the UAR signed a deal with Nike which became the exclusive kit provider for all its national senior and youth teams, including Pampas XV; the first uniform designed by the American company left the traditional horizontal-striped jersey behind, featuring a single light blue with white shoulders jersey, although it was announced that Los Pumas will wear its traditional uniform again when they play the 2012 Rugby Championship.
On September 1941, Abelardo Gutiérrez suggested a badge with the figure of a lion. The color of the crest was blue; the animal was replaced by a native to Argentine species, so the jaguar was chosen due to his "agility and courage", according to their words. The Pumas nickname is the result of an error made by Carl Kohler, a journalist for the Die Transvaler newspaper in South Africa, while following the team during their first overseas tour – to Southern Africa in 1965, he tried to devise a catchy nickname for the team similar to existing international team nicknames such as All Blacks and Wallabies. He asked Isak van Heerden, the coach of the Natal Rugby team, asked by the SARB to assist with the tour, for ideas, they saw a picture of a type of lion with spots on the UAR crest. Kohler was aware that the Americas had jaguars and pumas, as he was under pressure to submit his article, made a guess and called them the Pumas, instead of the actual jaguar; the mistake stuck, was adopted by the Argentines themselves.
Notes: The Pumas use a variety of stadiums when playing at home. One of the most us
Australia national rugby union team
The Australia national rugby union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, is controlled by Rugby Australia. The team first played at Sydney in 1899, winning their first test match against the touring British Isles team. Australia have competed in all eight Rugby World Cups, winning the final on two occasions and finishing as runner-up twice. In 1991 Australia beat England in the final at Twickenham and won again in 1999 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff when their opponents in the final were France; the Wallabies compete annually in The Rugby Championship, along with southern hemisphere counterparts Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa. They have won this championship on four occasions. Australia plays Test matches against the various rugby-playing nations. More than a dozen former Wallabies players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. Australia's first international match was played against the touring British Isles team in 1899; the first Test was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground and won 13–3 by Australia, but the tourists won the remaining three Tests.
The Australian team for the first match consisted of six players from Queensland and nine from New South Wales. The team wore the blue of New South Wales when playing in Sydney and the maroon of Queensland when playing in Brisbane, but with an Australian Coat of Arms in place of the usual emblems of each colony; the first Test between Australia and New Zealand was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground in 1903, with New Zealand winning 22–3. This tour improved rugby's popularity in Sydney and Brisbane and helped to boost club match attendances. In 1907 the New South Wales Rugby League was formed and star player Dally Messenger left rugby union for the rival code; the next year the first Australian rugby team to tour the British Isles left Sydney. Newspapers in England gave the team the name'Rabbits'; the Australian players thought this nickname derogatory and replaced it with'Wallabies'. In 1909, when the new "Northern Union" code was still in its infancy in Australia, a match between the Kangaroos and the Wallabies was played before a crowd of around 20,000, with the Rugby League side winning 29–26.
The First World War had a negative effect on rugby union in Australia. All rugby union competitions in New South Wales and Queensland ceased after the state bodies decided it was inappropriate to play football when so many young men were fighting overseas; the sport of rugby union was all but closed down causing many players to switch to rugby league – which did not cease playing during the war. In Queensland regular competitions did not commence again until 1929, there was no official Australian team selected through most of the 1920s before the 1929 All Blacks tour; the New South Wales Waratahs were re-formed in 1920, played throughout the decade including series of matches against New Zealand and South Africa before their 1927–28 tour of the British Isles and Canada. Because these Waratahs teams were Australia's only representatives at the time, all international matches they played during this period were accorded retrospective Wallaby status. War hero Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop played for Australia before World War II.
He played on the side, the first to win the Bledisloe Cup. The first Test to following World War Two was played at Carisbrook, Dunedin between Australia and New Zealand in 1946, which New Zealand won 31–8. Australia did not win on the three match tour. Australia embarked on a tour of the home nations in 1947–48; the successful tour fell short of an undefeated run when the Australia lost to France in their last match, in Paris. Players on the rise included Cyril Burke and Nicholas Shehadie. After returning from the successful European tour, Australia hosted the New Zealand Maori in a three match series in 1949. In September of that year, Australia played the All Blacks twice in New Zealand, winning both games and taking back the Bledisloe Cup for the first time on New Zealand soil. The'Number 1' All Black side was touring South Africa at the time and the wins by Australia against the B-team have sometimes been downgraded. However, in deference to the apartheid system in operation in South Africa, the NZRU did not select any Maori players for the tour.
Many of those regular All Black Maori played against Australia instead and it could be said that the New Zealand team that played Australia was at least as good as the one on tour in South Africa. The British Isles toured Australia in 1950, won both of the Tests against Australia; the following year Australia fell to a three Test whitewash to the All Blacks. Australia won in July 1952, defeating Fiji at the Sydney Cricket Ground – they lost the second Test to Fiji by two points. Australia managed to beat the All Blacks at Lancaster Park after the Fijian series. On this tour they drew against Rhodesia in Kitwe 8–8; the first match of the new decade was the win over Fiji at the SCG in the first match of a three Test series during 1961. This was followed by a second win. Australia headed to South Africa, where they lost to the Springboks in Port Elizabeth and Johannesburg. After returning home, they faced France at the SCG, who beat them 15–8. In 1962, Australia lost all but a 9-all draw at Athletic Park.
After defeating England 18–9 in 1963 in Sydney, Australia beat the Springboks in consecutive Tests in South Africa. Fewer tests were played throughout the mid-1960s, with Australia only playing a three Test series against All Bla
Scotland national rugby union team
The Scotland national rugby union team is administered by the Scottish Rugby Union. The team takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship and participates in the Rugby World Cup, which takes place every four years; as of 18 March 2019, Scotland are 7th in the World Rugby Rankings. The Scottish rugby team dates back to 1871, where they beat England in the first international rugby union match at Raeburn Place. Scotland competed in the Five Nations from the inaugural tournament in 1883, winning it 14 times outright—including the last Five Nations in 1999—and sharing it another 8. In 2000 the competition accepted a sixth competitor, thus forming the Six Nations. Since this change, Scotland have yet to win the competition; the Rugby World Cup was introduced in 1987 and Scotland have competed in all eight competitions, the most recent being in 2015 where they were knocked out by Australia at the quarter-final stage in controversial circumstances. Their best finish came in 1991. Scotland have a strong rivalry with the English national team.
They both annually compete for the Calcutta Cup. Each year, this fixture is played out as part of the Six Nations, with Scotland having last won in 2018. In December 1870 a group of Scots players issued a letter of challenge in The Scotsman and in Bell's Life in London, to play an England XX at rugby rules; the English could hardly ignore such a challenge and this led to the first-ever rugby international match being played at Academical Cricket Club's ground at Raeburn Place, Edinburgh, on Monday 27 March 1871. In front of around 4000 spectators, the Scots won the encounter by a try and a goal to a solitary try scored by England. England got revenge by winning the return match at the Kennington Oval, London in the following year; the Calcutta Cup was donated to the Rugby Football Union in 1878 by the members of the short-lived Calcutta Rugby Club. The members had decided to disband: the cup was crafted from melted-down silver rupees which became available when the Club's funds were withdrawn from the bank.
The Cup is unique in that it is competed for annually only by Scotland. The first Calcutta Cup match was played in 1879 and, since that time, over 100 matches have taken place. In 1882 the Home Nations Championship, the fore-runner of the modern Six Nations Championship was founded with Scotland, England and Ireland taking part; the Scots enjoyed occasional success in the early years, winning their first Triple Crown in 1891 and repeating the feat again in 1895, vying with Wales for dominance in the first decade of the 20th century. Further Triple Crowns wins for Scotland followed in 1901, 1903 and 1907. However, Scotland's triumph in 1907 would be the last for eighteen years as the First World War and England's dominance afterwards would deny them glory. In 1897 land was purchased, at Inverleith, Edinburgh, thus the SFU became the first of the Home Unions to own its own ground. The first visitors were Ireland, on 18 February 1899. International rugby was played at Inverleith until 1925; the SFU bought some land and built the first Murrayfield Stadium, opened on 21 March 1925.
In 1925 Scotland had victories over France at Inverleith, Wales in Swansea and Ireland in Dublin. England, the Grand Slam champions of the two previous seasons were the first visitors to Murrayfield. 70,000 spectators saw the lead change hands three times before Scotland secured a 14–11 victory which gave them their first-ever Five Nations Grand Slam. In 1926, Scotland became the first Home nation side to defeat England at Twickenham after England had won the Grand Slam five times in eight seasons; the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 brought rugby union in Scotland to a halt. The SRU cancelled all arranged trial and international matches and encouraged the member clubs to carry on as best they could; some clubs closed down, others amalgamated and carried on playing other local clubs and, teams from the armed forces stationed in their various areas. Internationals resumed in the 1946–47 season, although these were not formally recognised and no caps were awarded to participating players.
In January 1946, Scotland played and defeated a strong New Zealand Armed Forces team by 11–6. Scotland resumed full international matches in February 1947; the period after World War Two was not a successful one for Scotland. In 1951, the touring Springboks massacred Scotland 44–0 scoring nine tries, a record defeat. Scotland suffered 17 successive defeats between February 1951 and February 1955, scored only 54 points in these 17 games: 11 tries, six conversions, four penalties; the teams from 1955–63 were an improvement. There were no wins over England. Occasional wins were recorded against Wales and France. 1964 was a good year for Scotland. New Zealand were held to a 0 -- the last international match in which no points were scored; the Calcutta Cup was won 15–6, the first time since 1950 and they shared the Five Nations title in 1964 with Wales. In 1971 the SRU appointed Bill Dickinson as their head coach, after years of avoidance, as it was their belief that rugby should remain an amateur sport.
He was designated as an "adviser to the captain". Scotland were the first of the Home Unions to run a nationwide club league; this was introduced in 1973 and still flourishes today with several of the country's original clubs still much in evidence, such as Heriots, West of Scotland and the famous'border' clubs su
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 178,210 as of January 2016, is the main city of the island of Funen. By road, Odense is located 45 kilometres north of Svendborg, 144 kilometres to the south of Aarhus and 167 kilometres to the southwest of Copenhagen; the city is the seat of Odense Municipality and was the seat of Odense County until 1970, Funen County from 1970 until 1 January 2007, when Funen County became part of the Region of Southern Denmark. Odense has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen, remembered above all for his fairy tales, he spent his childhood years there. There has been human settlement in the Odense area for over 4,000 years, although the name was not mentioned in writing until 988, by 1070, it had grown into a thriving city. Canute IV of Denmark considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by unruly peasants in Odense's St Alban's Priory on 10 July 1086. Although the city was burned in 1249 following a royal rivalry, it recovered and flourished as a centre of commerce in the Middle Ages.
After a period of decline, large-scale plans for development were made during the 18th century, which led to the rebuilding of Odense Palace and the building of a canal to the Port of Odense, facilitating trade. In 1865, one of the largest railway terminals in Denmark was built, further increasing the population and commerce, by 1900, Odense had reached a population of 35,000. Odense's Odinstårnet was one of the tallest towers in Europe when built in 1935 but was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II; the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1966. In the present day, Odense remains the commercial hub of Funen, has a notable shopping district with a diversity of stores. Several major industries are located in the city including the Albani Brewery and GASA, Denmark's major dealer in vegetables and flowers; the city is home to Odense Palace, erected by King Frederik IV who died there in 1730, the Odense Theatre, the Odense Symphony Orchestra, the Hans Christian Andersen Museum, situated in the house, the birthplace of Hans Christian Andersen.
In sports, Odense has a number of football clubs including OB, BM, B1909, B1913, the Odense Bulldogs professional ice hockey team, the city hosts the H. C. Andersen Marathon. Odense is served by Hans Christian Andersen Airport and Odense station, which lies on the line between Copenhagen and the Jutland peninsula. For the Catholic ecclesiastical history, see Roman Catholic bishopric of Odense The name Odense is derived from Odins Vé, meaning "Odin's sanctuary" as the area was known as a sanctuary for worshippers of the Nordic god, Odin. Odense is one of Denmark's oldest cities. Archaeological excavations in the vicinity show proof of settlement for over 4,000 years since at least the Stone Age; the earliest community was centred on the higher ground between the Odense River to the south and Naesbyhoved Lake to the north. Nonnebakken, one of Denmark's former Viking ring fortresses, lay to the south of the river. Today, Odense's Møntergården Museum has many artefacts related to the early Viking history in the Odense area.
The Vikings built numerous fortifications along the river banks to defend it against invaders coming in from the coast. The city celebrated its thousandth anniversary in 1988, commemorating the first mention of the town's name in a letter dated 18 March 988 from the German Emperor Otto III which granted rights to Odense and neighbouring settlements; the first church in Odense appears to have been St Mary's built in the late 12th century. The territory part of the vast Archbishopric of Hamburg, was created a Catholic diocese in 988; the first recorded bishops of Odense were Odinkar Hvide and Reginbert, consecrated by Archbishop Æthelnoth of Canterbury, in 1022. Recent excavations have shown that from the early 11th century, the town developed in the area around Albani Torv, Fisketorvet and Vestergade. By 1070, Odense had grown into a city of stature in Denmark. Canute IV of Denmark considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by unruly peasants, discontent with the high taxes he imposed on the town, in Odense's St Alban's Priory on 10 July 1086.
He was canonized in 1100. The priory no longer exists, although a church has been situated on the site since about 900. At the beginning of the 12th century, Benedictine monks from England founded St Canute's Abbey, it was here the English monk Ælnoth wrote Vita et Passio S. Canuti. Canute's shrine in Odense Cathedral attracted pilgrims throughout the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, a number of churches and monasteries were built in the town. St Canute's Church, now the cathedral, dates from the end of the 13th century and was connected to the Benedictine Order; the town's other old churches are St John's with its adjacent monastery. Greyfriars Monastery was founded by the Franciscans in 1279. In 1247 Odense was burned by Abel of Denmark during conflicts with his brother King Erik IV; the cathedral had to be rebuilt. The town continued to flourish as a commercial centre, was charted in 1335; the city thrived economically during the Middle Ages, attracting many merchants and craftsman who traded their goods.
In 1482 Bishop Karl Rønnov brought the German printer Johann Snell to Odense to print a short prayer book, Breviarium Ottoniense, considered to be the first work to be printed in Scandinavia. In parallel Snell printed De obsidione et bello Rhodiano, an acco
United States national rugby union team
The United States national rugby union team, nicknamed the Eagles, is controlled by USA Rugby. USA Rugby is a member of Rugby Americas North, one of six regional governing bodies under World Rugby; until sevens made its debut at the 2016 Rio Games, the United States was the reigning Olympic champion in rugby, having won gold at the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics. As of November 26, 2018, the Eagles are ranked 12th in the world by the World Rugby Rankings, their previous highest ranking, achieved ahead of the 2007 World Cup, was 14th. The highest profile tournament in which the Eagles play is the Rugby World Cup; the Eagles have played in all but one Rugby World Cup since the tournament began in 1987. The United States has expressed interest in hosting the 2027 Rugby World Cup; the United States competed in the Pacific Nations Cup every Summer from 2013 to 2015. The U. S. has competed in the Pan American Championship. In April 2015, USA Rugby announced the creation of a new, annual International Championship to be contested among the top-6 ranked rugby nations in the Americas: Argentina, Canada, Chile and the United States.
The contest was named the Americas Rugby Championship and began in 2016. The United States won the 2017 Americas Rugby Championship after drawing with Argentina XV, it was the United States' first 15-a-side rugby union title in over 90 years. Informal football games such as rugby became popular in the United States in the mid-19th century. Rugby union was played as early as 1872 among rugby clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area composed of British expatriates. On December 2, 1882, the first Californian representative rugby team to play an outside opponent, took on a group of rugby-playing ex-Britons, who called themselves the Phoenix Rugby Club of San Francisco. California lost to the Phoenix club 7–4; the first recorded rugby game in the U. S. place in May 1874. The game sparked an interest on college campuses nationwide. In 1876 Yale, Harvard and Columbia formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, which used the rugby code. In 1886 Harvard's Oscar Shafter Howard introduced these rules to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
American football was fierce, as injuries mounted, the public became alarmed at its brutalities and President Theodore Roosevelt threatened to outlaw the sport. Beginning in 1906, rugby union became the game of choice at Stanford University, University of California and several other colleges in California. Rugby's popularity, was short lived, the sport had died out by the outbreak of World War I. A California student team toured Australia and New Zealand in 1910, invited their hosts to return the visit. Australia obliged by touring North America in 1912, the U. S. national team played its first international match on November 16, 1912 against Australia in Berkeley, California. The visitors won 12–8. A year the U. S. hosted New Zealand at the same venue on November 15, 1913, but the Kiwis ran away with the contest 51–3. Rugby union had not been played competitively in most of the U. S. for more than a decade before the 1920 Olympics. The U. S. Olympic committee decided that because "California is the only state playing Rugby in the US, the Committee will give sanction but no financial aid".
The U. S. assembled a California-based team, with six players from the University of California, Berkeley. The Olympic Games Committee of the Amateur Athletic Union paid the expenses to transport the team from California to the games in Antwerp. By the time the US Rugby team arrived in Europe and Romania had withdrawn from the competition. France and the U. S. were the only teams left to compete. The U. S. won a shock 8–0 victory over France to earn the gold medal. The stunned French suggested that the U. S. team tour France, which they did. Between 1920 and 1924, rugby union disappeared once again in the U. S. as American football soared in popularity. The 1924 Paris Olympics caused France to challenge the U. S. to defend its title. Once again, the U. S. Olympic Committee granted permission but no funds. Nonetheless, seven players of the 1920 team dusted off their boots, raised $20,000, found 15 new players including some American football players who had never played in a rugby union match; the assembled U.
S. team was again based from Northern California, with 9 Stanford alumni, 5 from Santa Clara, 3 from Cal. The team headed for England to play some tuneup matches; the French Olympic Committee had scheduled the rugby event to kick off the 1924 Paris Games at Colombes Stadium in Paris. Romania and the U. S. were expected to provide only token opposition for the European champions. On Sunday, May 11, the U. S. pounded Romania 39 to 0, including nine tries. The final was played at Colombes Stadium on May 18 before an estimated crowd of 30,000 - 50,000 that had gathered to watch the rugby final and the awarding of the first medal of the 1924 Olympics. Bookmakers set the odds at five to one with a 20-point spread. However, the Americans were not intimidated, the American captain Babe Slater wrote in his diary before the match "we are sure going to let them know they have been in a battle." Despite the odds, the U. S. team started well, led by captain Colby "Babe" Slater, led 3-0 at the half. Heavy tackling by the Americans, derived from American football and exhausted the French, as the U.
S. scored four tries in the second half to defeat the French 17-3. Rare vintage film footage of the 1924 gold medal match was rel
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Luxembourg national rugby union team
The Luxembourg national rugby union team is a minor team, is ranked as a third tier nation. The team participates in the annual Rugby Europe Championship Conference 2 North 2017–18 Rugby Europe Conference. Since 1996 Luxembourg competes in the sevens circuits in Europe Luxembourg national rugby sevens team. Luxembourg has been a member of FIRA since 1976, two years after the founding of Luxembourg Rugby Federation; the Grand Duchy has participated several times in the FIRA championships and, despite the small size, has honourably acquitted itself. Luxembourg has been a member of the International Rugby Board since 1991; the Luxembourg rugby team is the only national sports team to have been three times champions of their group in a European competition. In 1995, more than 20 points scored against Slovenia at Cessange and more than 20 points scored in Split against Croatia and an excellent draw against Andorra in Luxembourg enabled them to be champions of their group. In 1997 they won the Bronze Cup with wins against Bosnia and Monaco.
Luxembourg has in their past encounter recorded a 10-10 draw against Georgia, but the best performance to date was a “Grand Slam” in 2004 in FIRA-AER European Cup division 3B. In the 2017-2018 campaign, Luxembourg won the Grand Slam against Denmark, Norway and Estonia in the Rugby Europe Conference 2 North, while integrating several young players in the squad, gained promotion to the Rugby Europe Conference 1 North for the 2018-2019 campaign; the Rugby Club Luxembourg was founded in May 1973 by a group of expatriates working in the Grand Duchy. Several of the founders still contribute one way or another to the sport; the club played its first competitive game against US Castillionnaise in September 1973. Up until 1995, the club played in the Alsace-Lorraine regional league. In that year, the team joined the Belgian second division, which it belonged to until 1998, when it earned promotion to the first division. In 2001, the club decided to return to the French league system, again playing regionally in Alsace-Lorraine.
It won its division in 2008 but, after an invitation to play in Germany, decided to join the German league system in 2009. In the 2017-2018 season, RCL is leading Bundesliga 2 West unbeaten and hopes to secure promotion to Bundesliga 1 for the 2018-2019 season. De Rugby Club Walferdange was founded in 1990. In 2001, after 10 years in the Belgian League they finished top of the third division and champion during the 2002/03 season. In its first season in the second division, the club was relegated to 3rd Division; the club's objective having gone through a rebuilding phase, is to return to and remain in the Belgian 2nd division. The Richard Mertens Club is a member of the European Community sports clubs and concentrates on U-7/U-19, its goal being to promote the game of rugby in Luxembourg and act as a feeder club for the two senior clubs of Luxembourg with any talented players. Player retention remains a concern for Luxembourgish rugby with most of such players stopping the sport after school for various reasons if they remain in Luxembourg.
Despite this, the school has had some success stories since its inception with a few of its past players having gone on to play for well known university and club sides, or having gone on to represent Luxembourg at the senior level. In 2017, a fourth club was founded in the south of the country in Dudelange, Rugby Club Terres Rouge; the club caters for the youth. At 66th, highest 58th, lowest 94th 10 Scrum.com update 4-NOV-18 update 4-NOV-18 Updated 4-NOV-18 view more additional detail Player Statistics Conference 2 North RUGBY EUROPE See Player Statistics Luxembourg Rugby Federation Rugby union in Luxembourg Luxembourg women's national rugby union team Luxembourg national rugby sevens team List of Luxembourg national rugby union players List of international rugby union families List of rugby union players by country Rugby Club Luxembourg Rugby Club Walferdange Rugby Europe - Current Season Fixtures and Table Luxembourg rugby union stats from ESPN - scrum.com