Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide was the systematic mass murder and expulsion of 1.5 million ethnic Armenians carried out in Turkey and adjoining regions by the Ottoman government between 1914 and 1923. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April 1915, the day that Ottoman authorities rounded up, deported from Constantinople to the region of Angora, 235 to 270 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, the majority of whom were murdered; the genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases—the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, the elderly, the infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian Desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery and massacre. Most Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide. Other ethnic groups were targeted for extermination in the Assyrian genocide and the Greek genocide, their treatment is considered by some historians to be part of the same genocidal policy.

Raphael Lemkin was moved by the annihilation of the Armenians to define systematic and premeditated exterminations within legal parameters and to coin the word genocide in 1943. The Armenian Genocide is acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, because scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out, it is the second-most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Turkey denies that the word genocide is an accurate term for these crimes, but in recent years has been faced with increasing calls to recognize them as such; as of 2019, governments and parliaments of 32 countries, including the United States and Germany have recognized the events as a genocide. The Armenian Genocide took place before the coining of the term genocide. English-language words and phrases used by contemporary accounts to characterise the event include "massacres", "atrocities", "annihilation", "holocaust", "the murder of a nation", "race extermination" and "a crime against humanity".

Raphael Lemkin coined "genocide" in 1943, with the fate of the Armenians in mind. It happened to the Armenians after the Armenians Hitler took action."The survivors of the genocide used a number of Armenian terms to name the event. Mouradian writes that Yeghern, or variants like Medz Yeghern and Abrilian Yeghern were the terms most used; the name Aghed translated as "Catastrophe", according to Beledian, the term most used in Armenian literature to name the event. After the coining of the term genocide, the portmanteau word Armenocide was used as a name for the Armenian Genocide. Works that seek to deny the Armenian Genocide attach qualifying words against the term genocide, such as "so-called", "alleged", or "disputed", or characterise it as a "controversy", or dismiss it as "Armenian allegations", "Armenian claims", or "Armenian lies", or employ euphemisms to avoid the word genocide, such as calling it a "tragedy for both sides", or "the events of 1915". American President Barack Obama's use of the term Medz Yeghern when referring to the Armenian Genocide has been described "as a means of avoiding the word genocide".

Several international organizations have conducted studies of the atrocities, each in turn determining that the term "genocide" aptly describes "the Ottoman massacre of Armenians in 1915–16". Among the organizations affirming this conclusion are the International Center for Transitional Justice, the International Association of Genocide Scholars, the United Nations' Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens – an unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation and forced death marches." The IAGS condemned Turkish attempts to deny the factual and moral reality of the Armenian Genocide. In 2007, the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity produced a letter signed by 53 Nobel laureates re-affirming the Genocide Scholars' conclusion that the 1915 killings of Armenians constituted genocide.

Bat Ye'or has suggested that "the genocide of the Armenians was a jihad". Ye'or holds jihad and what she calls "dhimmitude" to be among the "principles and values" that led to the Armenian Genocide; this perspective is challenged by Fà'iz el-Ghusein, a Bedouin Arab witness of the Armenian persecution, whose 1918 treatise aimed "to refute beforehand inventions and slanders against the Faith of Islam and against Moslems generally... hat the Armenians have suffered is to be attributed to the Committee of Union and Progress... T has been due to their nationalist fanaticism and their jealousy of the Armenians, to these alone. Arnold J. Toynbee writes that "the Young Turks made Pan-Islamism and Turkish Nationalism work together for their ends, but the development of their policy shows the Islamic element receding and the Nationalist gaining ground". Toynbee and various other sources report that many Armenians were spared death by marrying into Turkish families or converting to Islam. Concerned that Westerners would come to regard the "extermination of the Armenians" as "a black stain on the history of Islam, which the ages will not efface", El-Ghusein al

1989 Davao hostage crisis

On August 13, 1989, 16 inmates at the Davao Metropolitan District Command Center, who had escaped from the Davao Penal Colony, took hostage 15 members of a Protestant group, the Joyful Assembly of God. The inmates were part of the prison gang called the Wild Boys of DaPeCol, led by Felipe Pugoy and Mohammad Nazir Samparani; the hostage crisis ended with the deaths of all 16 inmates. On April 2, 1989, Felipe Pugoy and his prison gang the "Wild Boys of DaPeCol" staged a hostage-taking at the Davao Penal Colony. Pugoy's group of 14–15 convicts each took a hostage; the group armed with knives overcame the prison escaped with a jeepney. Troops from the Philippine Constabulary along with helicopters intercepted Pugoy's group 120 kilometres from the prison. House Speaker Ramon Mitra and Senator Santanina Rasul were with the government negotiators. Pugoy's group demanded a plane to Manila to engage in dialogue with then-President Corazon Aquino to request a transfer to the National Penitentiary in Muntinlupa due to alleged abuse by DaPeCol prison officials.

It was agreed to by both parties. During negotiations on the night of April 3, the gang reiterated their demand for a plane. Hours 13 hostage-takers released their hostages and peacefully surrendered while Pugoy and the other leader Ricardo Navarro held on to their hostages, two teenage girls; the convicts who surrendered were temporarily held in the Davao City Jail. The final demand of Pugoy was to see his mother, which the military agreed to; the final two hostage takers surrendered after they were promised a transfer to the National Penitentiary and were detained along with the rest of the convicts. Most of the convicts were transferred to the Davao Metrodiscom; the promise of a transfer to the National Penitentiary was denied due to the hostages filing charges of kidnapping against their former captors. On August 13, 1989, 16 convicts including leaders Pugoy and Mohammad Nazir Samparani, a former sergeant from the Philippine Air Force, dismissed from service in a 1976 hostage crisis, took 15 members of the Joyful Assembly of God as hostage.

All but one of the convicts were part of the Wild Boys of DaPeCol. The Protestant group had conducted a prayer service at the prison shortly before being taken hostage; the Wild Boys took the hostages to protest against prison conditions and demanded to speak with Congressman Ramon Mitra and Senator Nina Rasul. Both politicians declined the demand saying that the crisis must be dealt with by the military negotiators. By August 15, the inmates surrendered after being promised to be transferred to a prison in Manila. Gunshots were fired as inmates crossed a chain-link fence along with the hostages, some of whom were able to escape while the rest were dragged back into the prison. According to one of the captives who escaped, nine of the hostages, including the Australian missionary Jacqueline Hamill, were raped by the inmates; this led the military to storm into the prison that day after the hostage-takers continued to refuse to cooperate. The hostage crisis was resolved by a combined police and military intervention, able to rescue 10 hostages.

The end of the crisis saw the deaths of five hostages, including Hamill, as well as all 16 hostage takers. It is unclear if the five deaths among the hostages was a consequence of the intervention or if it was an act committed by the inmates; the survivors of the hostage crisis were put into military custody after the crisis was resolved. Reporters were barred from interviewing the survivors raising speculation of a coverup. Brig. Gen. Mariano Baccay, one of the negotiators, said that the survivors were still recovering from shock caused by the incident, it was reported that photographers covering the event witnessed a soldier delivering a coup de grace to a wounded inmate hostage taker. Committee on Defense chairman, Senator Ernesto Maceda sent a team led by Gen. Felix Brawner to Davao City to investigate and interview the negotiators involved; the team was reportedly led by Popemyo Vasquez. The team concluded that there were no efforts to maintain adequate security measures in the 80-inmate capacity detention facility.

The small number of jail guards at the time of the hostage crisis led them to become "more familiar and easy" on the inmates. The team found that this led to the sole security guard, CIC Antonio Alcazar, to be compromised by the prisoners who took his M-16 ArmaLite rifle. Maceda and Vasquez' team describe the approach of the joint Regional Special Action Force-Davao Metrodiscom team on the assault and rescue operations during the hostage crisis as being conducted with "decisiveness and professional competence". Maceda noted the lack of training of local civilian officials in handling the crisis and expressed surprise at their decision to give a shoot-to-kill order against the hostage takers. Furthermore, the team ruled out that Hamill was killed by military sniper following an autopsy report; the investigators learned that the hostage-takers were adamant about releasing Hamill during the negotiations saying that the she was their "trump card". The decision to conduct an assault followed the attempt of the hostage takers to escape from the prison and that delaying the operation would risk the lives of the five hostages still in the prisoners' custody.

A delay would give the prisoners an opportunity to escape the prison compound at night. The shooting by the rescue and assault team was found to be deliberate with 7 either dead or wounded in a wide area among a circle of 30 people; the team recommended that the military review the security measures in all detention centers and the training of personnel taske

The Righteous Gemstones

The Righteous Gemstones is an American comedy television series created by Danny McBride that premiered on August 18, 2019, on HBO. The series follows a dysfunctional family of televangelists, it stars McBride, John Goodman, Edi Patterson, Adam DeVine, Cassidy Freeman, Tony Cavalero, Tim Baltz, Skyler Gisondo, Walton Goggins. In September 2019, HBO renewed the series for a second season; the Righteous Gemstones centers on a family of televangelists and megachurch pastors led by widowed patriarch Eli Gemstone. Eli and his bickering children, Jesse and Kelvin, live opulent lifestyles funded by their congregations' tithing, work to expand their network of megachurches, making enemies of the pastors of existing churches, such as Rev. John Wesley Seasons; this expansion leads them to reconnect with Eli's estranged brother-in-law, "Baby" Billy Freeman, whom they tap to lead their newest church. The first season focuses on a blackmail plot orchestrated against Jesse by a trio of masked figures who threaten to expose videos of his lecherous private life, hatched by Jesse's estranged son, Gideon.

Danny McBride as Jesse Gemstone John Goodman as Dr. Eli Gemstone Adam DeVine as Kelvin Gemstone Edi Patterson as Judy Gemstone Tony Cavalero as Keefe Chambers Cassidy Freeman as Amber Gemstone Skyler Gisondo as Gideon Gemstone Walton Goggins as "Baby" Billy Freeman Gregory Alan Williams as Martin Imari Tim Baltz as Benjamin Jason "BJ" Barnes Dermot Mulroney as Rev John Wesley Seasons Jennifer Nettles as Aimee-Leigh Gemstone Scott MacArthur as Scotty / The Devil Jody Hill as Levi James DuMont as Chad Troy Anthony Hogan as Matthew J. LaRose as Gregory Valyn Hall as Tiffany Freeman Kelton DuMont as Pontius Gemstone Gavin Munn as Abraham Gemstone Mary Hollis Inboden as Mandy Cullen Moss as Brock Virginia Gardner as Lucy Toby Huss as Dale Nancy Jade Pettyjohn as Dot Nancy Marla Maples as Gay Nancy On June 28, 2018, it was announced that HBO had given the production a pilot order; the episode was written and directed by Danny McBride, executive producer alongside Jody Hill and David Gordon Green.

On October 2, 2018, it was reported. On July 1, 2019, it was announced that the series would premiere on August 18, 2019. On September 9, 2019, the series was renewed for a second season. McBride has said he intends the series to run "longer than anything we've done before," including the four-season Eastbound & Down and the two-season Vice Principals. "If I had my way, when this is done, it’s like this epic, sprawling tale, like the fucking Thorn Birds or something," he told Polygon. "You’ll know everybody in this family, great uncles, all these people. In my eyes, this season is chapter one. It’s just setting the table for who all these people are and what’s about to happen." Alongside the pilot order announcement, it was confirmed that Danny McBride and John Goodman would star in the pilot. In July 2018, it was announced that Edi Patterson, Adam DeVine, Cassidy Freeman, Tony Cavalero, Tim Baltz had joined the pilot's main cast. Principal photography for the pilot was set to last from mid-July through the first week of August 2018 in Charleston, South Carolina at Citadel Mall.

The North Charleston Coliseum served as the interior of Gemstone Ministries, while a former Sears store at Citadel Mall was re-purposed into the Locust Grove Worship Center.. On December 24, 2018, a "first look" still image from the series was released featuring Danny McBride, John Goodman, Adam DeVine as Jesse Gemstone, Eli Gemstone, Kelvin Gemstone, respectively; the series premiered on HBO on August 18, 2019. The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported a 77% approval rating with an average rating of 7.09/10, based on 60 reviews. The website's critical consensus reads: "Though it may not win many new converts, fans of Danny McBride will find much to praise in The Righteous Gemstones's darkly hilarious pews." Metacritic, which uses a weighted average, assigned the season a score of 67 out of 100, based on 19 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Official website The Righteous Gemstones on IMDb