Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine
Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct monthly video game magazine, published by Ziff Davis Media, it was a sister publication of Electronic Gaming Monthly. The magazine focused on PlayStation hardware and culture, covering the original PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable; the most famous aspect of the magazine was the inclusion each month of a disc that contained playable demos and videos of PlayStation games. The magazine was produced for nearly ten years, from October 1997 to the final issue in January 2007. One month after OPM was discontinued in January 2007, the independent PlayStation magazine PSM became PlayStation: The Official Magazine, replacing OPM as the official magazine focusing on Sony game consoles; the final incarnation of the OPM staff included: Editor-in-chief – Tom Byron Managing editor – Dana Jongewaard Senior editor – Joe Rybicki Previews editor – Thierry "Scooter" Nguyen News editor – Giancarlo Varanini Art director – Ryan Vulk Associate art director – Alejandro Chavetta Disc editor – Logan Parr Editorial director – John DavisonPast members included: Senior Art Director - Bob Conlon Managing editor – Gary Steinman Managing editor – Din Perez Managing editor – Dan Peluso Reviews editor – Chris Baker Associate editor – Mark MacDonald Editor-in-chief – Wataru Maruyama Editor-in-chief – Kraig Kujawa Editor-in-chief – John Davison OPM was the first gaming magazine to include a disc that featured playable demos of PlayStation games.
Beginning with issue one, each magazine came with a disc containing playable PlayStation game demos and non-playable video footage. Interviews, industry event coverage, video walkthroughs of games would be included on the discs. Beginning with issue 49, the magazine came with a PlayStation 2 demo disc, though for a time it would still be alternated with original PlayStation demo discs. Issues 50, 52, 54 were the last issues to include demo discs for the original PlayStation. All of the demo discs were developed by Inc.. OPM had released Killzone Liberation, it was available only with the purchase of retail copies rather than subscription issues. The magazine was discontinued before making the assumed transition to PlayStation 3 demo discs. OPM demo discs for PS1 and PS2 were listed in order: Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #1 First PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #2 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #3 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #4 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #5 Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #6 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #7 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #8 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #9 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #10 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #11 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #12 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #13 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #14 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #15 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #16 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #17 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #18 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #19 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #20 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #21 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #22 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #23 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #24 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #25 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #26 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #27 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #28 - Robot in the City Section Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #29 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #30 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #31 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #32 - Atlantis Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #33 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #34 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #35 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #36 - Future City Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #37 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #38 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #39 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #40 - Dr. Evil Fish Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #41 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #42 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #43 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #44 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #45 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #46 - Orb Crystal Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #47 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #48 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #49 First PS2 OPM Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #50 PS1 OPM- Square lines Section /Galaxy Map Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #51 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #52 PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #53 (Februar
Video game music
Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games. Early video game music was once limited to simple melodies of early sound synthesizer technology; these limitations inspired the style of music known as chiptunes, which combines simple melodic styles with more complex patterns or traditional music styles, became the most popular sound of the first video games. With advances in technology, video game music has grown to include the same breadth and complexity associated with television and film scores, allowing for much more creative freedom. While simple synthesizer pieces are still common, game music now includes full orchestral pieces and popular music. Music in video games can be heard over a game’s title screen, options menu, bonus content, as well as during the entire gameplay. Modern soundtracks can change depending on a player's actions or situation, such as indicating missed actions in rhythm games. Video game music can be one of two options: original or licensed. In order to create or collect this music, teams of composers, music directors, music supervisors must work with the game developers and game publishers.
Many of the most notable original sophie game composers have been from Japan, including Nobuo Uematsu, Koji Kondo, Yuzo Koshiro, Yoko Shimomura, Junichi Masuda, Hip Tanaka, Masato Nakamura, Koichi Sugiyama, Yasunori Mitsuda, Michiru Yamane, Yuu Miyake, Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Manabu Namiki, Shinji Hosoe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Notable Western game composers working today include Jeremy Soule, Jesper Kyd, Marty O' Donnell, Jason Graves, Austin Wintory, James Hannigan, Garry Schyman, Peter McConnell, some of whom work in film and television alongside video games. Today, original composition has included the work of film composers Harry Gregson-Williams, Trent Reznor, Hans Zimmer, Mark Rutherford, Josh Mancell, Steve Jablonsky, Michael Giacchino; the popularity of video game music has expanded education and job opportunities, generated awards, allowed video game soundtracks to be commercially sold and performed in concert's. At the time video games had emerged as a popular form of entertainment in the late 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records.
Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used. A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were generated in this fashion. An early example of such an approach to video game music was the opening chiptune in Tomohiro Nishikado's Gun Fight. While this allowed for inclusion of music in early arcade video games, it was monophonic, looped or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as the Namco titles Pac-Man composed by Toshio Kai or Pole Position composed by Nobuyuki Ohnogi; the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Space Invaders, released by Taito in 1978. It had four descending chromatic bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player.
The first video game to feature continuous, melodic background music was Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience; some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. Sound capabilities were limited; as advances were made in silicon technology and costs fell, a definitively new generation of arcade machines and home consoles allowed for great changes in accompanying music. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and accompanying various Yamaha YM programmable sound generator sound chips allowed for several more tones or "channels" of sound, sometimes eight or more; the earliest known example of this was Sega's 1980 arcade game Carnival, which used an AY-3-8910 chip to create an electronic rendition of the classical 1889 composition "Over The Waves" by Juventino Rosas.
Konami's 1981 arcade game Frogger introduced a dynamic approach to video game music, using at least eleven different gameplay tracks, in addition to level-starting and game over themes, which change according to the player's actions. This was further improved upon by Namco's 1982 arcade game Dig Dug, where the music stopped when the player stopped moving. Dig Dug was composed by Yuriko Keino, who composed the music for other Namco games such as Xevious and Phozon. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive featured a chiptune rendition of Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Rydeen". Home console systems had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the ColecoVision in 1982 capable of four channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983, released in the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, it was capable of one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. The home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982 was capable of early forms of filtering effects, different types of waveforms and the undocumented abilit
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Armored Core is a mecha-based video game series developed by the firm FromSoftware for the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, mobile phone platforms. Armored Core games are third-person shooters in which the player pilots a large mechanical unit, itself called an "Armored Core". Armored Core: Verdict Day is the fifteenth and latest title in the series, being released worldwide on September 2013; the series' initial game came out in 1997. Story elements vary throughout the series but gameplay is focused on the player's character as a silent protagonist, acting as a mercenary, completing missions assigned by various in-game corporations and individuals; the player's character pilots his or her mecha to perform duties such as destroying enemy units/facilities or protecting a designated element from the attack by the opposing forces. The game places a heavy emphasis on customization; the mecha is composed from parts the player obtains by finding them in missions, fulfilling certain requirements, or by buying them from an in-game shop.
Money is earned by finishing missions. Certain missions offer bonuses for completing optional objectives. Certain games in the series offer additional part categories but the following are shared among all games: Head Arms Legs Core Generator Boosters FCS Arm and back weapons/units Arm shields/swords Between 1997 and 2006, PlayStation games enjoyed a yearly release schedule; as of 2013, fifteen games have been released. Armored Core: Tower City Blade is a manga by Fujimi Shobo based on the game, it was serialized in Dragon Age Pure between March 14 and April 14, 2007. A project called Armored Core: Fort Tower Song was to consist of a book and an anime released in 2007; the book was completed but the anime was not. From Software announced in 2011. Official website
Edge is a multi-format video game magazine published by Future plc in the United Kingdom, which publishes 13 issues of the magazine per year. The magazine was launched in October 1993 by Steve Jarratt, a long-time video games journalist who has launched several other magazines for Future; the artwork for the cover of the magazine's 100th issue was specially provided by Shigeru Miyamoto. The 200th issue was released in March 2009 with 200 different covers, each commemorating a single game. Only 200 magazines were printed with each cover, sufficient to more than satisfy Edge's circulation of 28,898. In October 2003, the then-editor of Edge, João Diniz-Sanches, left the magazine along with deputy editor David McCarthy and other staff writers. After the walkout, the editorship of Edge passed back to Tony Mott, editor prior to Diniz-Sanches; the only team member to remain was Margaret Robertson. In May 2007, Robertson stepped down as editor and was replaced by Tony Mott, taking over as editor for the third time.
Between 1995 and 2002, some of the content from the UK edition of Edge was published in the United States as Next Generation. In 2007, Future's US subsidiary, Future US began re-publishing selected recent Edge features on the Next Generation website. In July 2008, the whole site was rebranded under the Edge title, as, the senior of the two brands. In May 2014 it was reported that Future intended to close the websites of Edge and Video Games and their other videogame publications. Edge has been redesigned three times; the first redesign occurred in 1999. The first redesign altered the magazine's dimensions to be wider than the original shape; the latest design changes the magazine's physical dimensions for the second time, introduces a higher quality of paper stock than was used. Each issue includes a "Making-of" article on a particular game including an interview with one of the original developers. Issue 143 introduced the "Time Extend" series of retrospective articles. Like the "making-of" series, each focuses on a single game and, with the benefit of hindsight, gives an in-depth examination of its most interesting or innovative attributes."Codeshop" examines more technical subjects such as 3D modelling programs or physics middleware, while "Studio Profile" and "University Profile" are single-page summaries of particular developers or publishers, game-related courses at higher education institutions.
Although an overall list of contributors is printed in each issue's indicia, the magazine has not used bylines to credit individual writers to specific reviews and articles, instead only referring to the anonymous Edge as a whole. Since 2014, some contributed; the magazine's regular columnists have been credited throughout the magazine's run. The current columnists are Clint Hocking and Tadhg Kelly. In addition, several columnists appear toward the beginning of the magazine to talk about the game industry as a whole, rather than focusing on specific game design topics, they are Trigger Happy author Steven Poole, Leigh Alexander, Brian Howe, whose parody article section "You're Playing It Wrong" began with the new redesign. Previous columnists have included Paul Rose, Toshihiro Nagoshi of Sega's Amusement Vision, author Tim Guest, N'Gai Croal, game developer Jeff Minter. In addition, numerous columns were published anonymously under the pseudonym "RedEye", several Japanese writers contributed to a regular feature called "Something About Japan".
James Hutchinson's comic strip Crashlander was featured in Edge between issues 143 and 193. Edge scores games on a ten-point scale, from a minimum of 1 to a maximum of 10, with five as ostensibly the average rating. For much of the magazine's run, the magazine's review policy stated that the scores broadly correspond to one of the following "sentiments": 1 – disastrous 2 – appalling 3 – flawed 4 – disappointing 5 – average 6 – competent 7 – distinguished 8 – excellent 9 – astounding 10 – revolutionary However, with issue 143 the scoring system was changed to a simple list of "10 = ten, 9 = nine..." and so on, a tongue-in-cheek reference to people who read too much into review scores. It was three years before Edge gave a game a rating of ten out of ten, to date the score has been given to twenty-one games: In contrast, only two titles have received a one-out-of-ten rating, Kabuki Warriors and FlatOut 3: Chaos & Destruction. In a December 2002 retro gaming special, Edge retrospectively awarded ten-out-of-ten ratings to two titles released before the magazine's launch: Elite Exile Edge awarded a 10/10 score in one of the regular retrospective reviews in the magazine's normal run: Super Mario Bros.
In Edge's 10th anniversary issue in 2003, GoldenEye 007 was included as one of the magazine's top ten shooters, along with a note that it was "the only other game" that should have received a ten out of ten rating. The game had been awarded a nine out of ten, with the magazine stating that "a ten was considered, but rejected". Resident Evil 4, whi
Future US, Inc. is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games and technology markets. Future US is headquartered in New York City with small offices in Minneapolis. Future US is owned by parent company, Future plc, a specialist media company based in the United Kingdom, its magazines and websites include: PC Gamer Official Xbox Magazine TechRadar Maximum PC Electronic Musician Guitar Player Guitar World Multichannel News Broadcasting & Cable TWICE Founded in 1985 in the UK by Chris Anderson Future Publishing was the fastest growing UK publisher of the nineties. From a start in computer and video games magazines, Future diversified into sports, entertainment and general interest magazines becoming the UK's fourth largest publisher. Anderson wanted to expand Future into the United States, bought struggling Greensboro video game magazine publisher GP Publications, publisher of Game Players magazine in 1993; the company launched a number of titles including PC Gamer, relocated from North Carolina to the Bay area, occupying various properties in Burlingame and South San Francisco.
When Anderson sold Future to Pearson PLC he retained GP, renamed Imagine Media, Inc. in June 1995, operated it as his sole company for a few years. However, when Future bought itself out from Pearson in an MBO, Anderson came back on board, when Future floated on the stock exchange in 1999 Imagine's print magazines were merged with Future Publishing to form the Future Network PLC, a company floated on the London Stock Exchange; the on-line properties, including IGN, were put into a separate company snowball.com. Buoyed by the Internet economy and the success of Business 2.0 in the US, Future rode the boom of the late nineties. During this period the company won the exclusive worldwide rights to produce the official magazine for Microsoft's Xbox video game console and cemented its position as a leader in the games market. In the spring of 2001, buffeted by economic factors and the market downturn, Future Network USA went through a strategic reset of its business that included the closure of some titles and Internet operations and the sale of Business 2.0 to AOL/Time Warner.
By early fall 2002, Imagine Media had refocused on its core business, publishing five games and technology magazines: Official Xbox Magazine, PC Gamer, PSM: 100% Independent PlayStation 2 Magazine, Maximum PC and MacAddict. It was that Imagine became Future Network USA, adopting the name of its parent company, Future plc. Future used this strong portfolio and its strength in creating media for young men as a platform for growth into the action sports and music markets. In December 2005, after three years of organic growth and strategic acquisition, Future Network USA became Future US, to reflect its diversification into markets beyond games and technology. In 2005, Future US made its first venture into the women's market with the launch of Scrapbook Answers and with the addition of Women's Health & Fitness and Decorating Spaces, to its portfolio of titles with the Future plc acquisition of Highbury House plc. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo and Future announced that Future US would obtain the publishing rights to Nintendo Power magazine.
This came into effect with the creation of issue #222. On October 1, 2007, it was announced that Future US would be making PlayStation: The Official Magazine, which ended up replacing PSM and first hit newsstands in November 2007. With this launch, Future US is the publisher of the official magazines of all three major console manufacturers in the US. In 2012, NewBay Media bought the Music division of Future US. In 2018, Future reacquired majority of the assets sold to NewBay by buying NewBay outright for US13.8 million. Future used this acquisition to expand its US footprint in B2B segment. CD-ROM Today Daily Radar Games Radar Decorating Spaces Do! Future Music Future Snowboarding Magazine Game Players Guitar One Guitar World Acoustic Guitar World Legends Guitar World's Bass Guitar Maximum Linux Men's Edge Mobile PC netPOWER Next Generation Magazine Nintendo Power Official Dreamcast Magazine PC Accelerator PlayStation: The Official Magazine Revolution Scrapbook Answers Skateboard Trade News Snowboard Trade News T3 The Net Total Movie Women's Health & Fitness Official website
PlayStation: The Official Magazine
PlayStation: The Official Magazine was a magazine known as PlayStation Magazine, becoming PlayStation: The Official Magazine in late 2007. PlayStation: The Official Magazine was published 13 times a year by Future plc until its cancellation in late 2012. PSM's UK-based sister magazine, PSM3, was another Future publication. Prior to becoming the official magazine, PSM was an independently published video game magazine specializing in all Sony PlayStation-brand video game consoles and handheld gaming platforms. PSM was published by Future, who publishes PlayStation Official Magazine; the magazine launched with the September 1997 issue. During its publication, it outsold every other PlayStation-dedicated magazine both in the United States and abroad. PSM celebrated ten years of publication with its 2007 issue. By this time, the magazine had been through several redesigns, most with its June 2006 issue. Over its history, the magazine had sponsored side content such as cover-mounted DVDs, online forums, near the end, a PSM podcast.
After Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine was canceled, Sony Computer Entertainment announced on October 1, 2007 that PSM would become PlayStation: The Official Magazine; the last issue published under the PSM title was that of December 2007, becoming PlayStation: The Official Magazine with the following Christmas 2007 issue. While it did retain the same staff for a period of time lasting from December 2007 until January 2008, it lost its remaining core editors, making PTOM a different magazine from the former PSM. Due to the same setbacks that caused the cancelations of other video game magazines published by Future, the magazine ceased publication after 15 years with its Christmas 2012 issue. In the beginning, PSM had an anime-style mascot named "Banzai Chibi-Chan", created and illustrated by Robert DeJesus, he was featured prominently in early issues and inspired apparel and other accessories. He was dropped, with the supposed reason being that the character was too childish and gave some the wrong impression about the magazine's intended audience.
A smiley face featuring an eye patch with a star on it was used, but it too was dropped after the magazine went through redesign in years. The PSM Smiley Face was notable for its appearance throughout the magazine, as well as on "lid-sticker" inserts, including one found in the first issue; some lid-stickers promotionally featured characters from PlayStation games being covered in the magazine. Other inserts included PlayStation memory card label stickers featuring visual themes similar to the lid-stickers, as well as video game tip sheets, instead of the demo discs that then-competitor Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine was known for; as PTOM, from the July 2008 issue to the June 2009 issue, the magazine included promotional codes for free downloads of Qore, a subscription-based interactive online magazine for the PlayStation 3, available through the PlayStation Store. These free, promotional editions of Qore did not include some of the features available in the paid-for edition, such as playable demos.
PTOM had promotional pullout-style posters from time to time, to help advertise upcoming video game releases. PlayStation: The Official Magazine at the Wayback Machine Publisher's product description page for PTOM at the Wayback Machine