Posidonius "of Apameia" or "of Rhodes", was a Greek Stoic philosopher, astronomer, geographer and teacher native to Apamea, Syria. He was acclaimed as the greatest polymath of his age, his vast body of work exists today only in fragments. Writers such as Strabo and Seneca provide most of the information, from history, about his life. Posidonius, nicknamed "the Athlete", was born to a Greek family in Apamea, a Hellenistic city on the river Orontes in northern Syria. Posidonius completed his higher education in Athens, where he was a student of the aged Panaetius, the head of the Stoic school, but soon he came in conflict with the Stoic doctrines and was involved in heated debates with many other Stoic philosophers of the school. The incidents concerning Posidonius's conflict and final break up with the Stoics are mentioned by Galen in his book On the Doctrines of Plato and Hippocrates. Posidonius gave up Stoicism and turned to a different philosophical direction, this of Plato but of Aristotle, remaining a faithful follower of Aristotelian doctrines until his death.
He settled around 95 BCE in Rhodes, a maritime state which had a reputation for scientific research, became a citizen. In Rhodes, Posidonius took part in political life, his high standing is apparent from the offices he held, he attained the highest public office as one of the Prytaneis of Rhodes. He served as an ambassador during the Marian and Sullan era. Along with other Greek intellectuals, Posidonius favored Rome as the stabilizing power in a turbulent world, his connections to the Roman ruling class were for him not only politically important and sensible but were important to his scientific research. His entry into government provided Posidonius with powerful connections to facilitate his travels to far away places beyond Roman control. After he had established himself in Rhodes, Posidonius made one or more journeys traveling throughout the Roman world and beyond its boundaries to conduct scientific research, he traveled in Greece, Italy, Dalmatia, Liguria, North Africa, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic.
In Hispania, on the Atlantic coast at Gades, Posidonius could observe tides much higher than in his native Mediterranean. He wrote that daily tides are related to the Moon's orbit, while tidal heights vary with the cycles of the Moon, he hypothesized about yearly tidal cycles synchronized with the equinoxes and solstices. In Gaul, he studied the Celts, he left vivid descriptions of things he saw with his own eyes while among them: men who were paid to allow their throats to be slit for public amusement and the nailing of skulls as trophies to the doorways. But he noted that the Celts honored the Druids, whom Posidonius saw as philosophers, concluded that among the barbaric, "pride and passion give way to wisdom, Ares stands in awe of the Muses." He wrote a geographic treatise on the lands of the Celts which has since been lost, but, referred to extensively in the works of Diodorus of Sicily, Strabo and Tacitus' Germania. Posidonius's extensive writings and lectures gave him authority as a scholar and made him famous everywhere in the Graeco-Roman world, a school grew around him in Rhodes.
His grandson Jason, the son of his daughter and Menekrates of Nysa, followed in his footsteps and continued Posidonius's school in Rhodes. Although little is known of the organization of his school, it is clear that Posidonius had a steady stream of Greek and Roman students. Posidonius was celebrated as a polymath throughout the Graeco-Roman world because he came near to mastering all the knowledge of his time, similar to Aristotle and Eratosthenes, he attempted to create a unified system for understanding the human intellect and the universe which would provide an explanation of and a guide for human behavior. Posidonius wrote on physics, astronomy and divination, seismology and mineralogy, botany, logic, history, natural history and tactics, his studies were major investigations into their subjects. Wilhelm Capelle, traced most of the doctrines of De Mundo, to Poseidonius, a popular philosophic treatise based on two works of Poseidonius. None of his works survive intact. All that have been found are fragments, although the titles and subjects of many of his books are known.
For Posidonius, philosophy was the dominant master art and all the individual sciences were subordinate to philosophy, which alone could explain the cosmos. All his works, from scientific to historical, were inseparably philosophical, he accepted the Stoic categorization of philosophy into physics and ethics. These three categories for him were, in Stoic fashion and interdependent parts of an organic, natural whole, he compared them to a living being, with physics the meat and blood, logic the bones and tendons holding the organism together, ethics – the most important part – corresponding to the soul. His philosophical grand vision was that the universe itself was interconnected, as if an organism, through cosmic "sympathy", in all respects from the development of the physical world to the history of humanity. Although a firm Stoic, Posidonius was, like Panaetius and other Stoics of the middle period, eclectic, he followed not only the older Stoics, but Plato and Aristotle. Although it is not certain, Posidonius
An ethnic group or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, history, culture or nation. Ethnicity is an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, origin myth, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion and ritual, dressing style, art or physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool. By way of language shift, acculturation and religious conversion, it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another. Ethnicity is used synonymously with terms such as nation or people. In English, it can have the connotation of something exotic related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the dominant population of an area was established; the largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals, while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals.
Larger ethnic groups may be subdivided into smaller sub-groups known variously as tribes or clans, which over time may become separate ethnic groups themselves due to endogamy or physical isolation from the parent group. Conversely separate ethnicities can merge to form a pan-ethnicity and may merge into one single ethnicity. Whether through division or amalgamation, the formation of a separate ethnic identity is referred to as ethnogenesis; the term ethnic is derived from the Greek word ἔθνος ethnos. The inherited English language term for this concept is folk, used alongside the latinate people since the late Middle English period. In Early Modern English and until the mid-19th century, ethnic was used to mean heathen or pagan, as the Septuagint used ta ethne to translate the Hebrew goyim "the nations, non-Hebrews, non-Jews"; the Greek term in early antiquity could refer to any large group, a host of men, a band of comrades as well as a swarm or flock of animals. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group" translated as "nation, people".
In the 19th century, the term came to be used in the sense of "peculiar to a race, people or nation", in a return to the original Greek meaning. The sense of "different cultural groups", in American English "racial, cultural or national minority group" arises in the 1930s to 1940s, serving as a replacement of the term race which had earlier taken this sense but was now becoming deprecated due to its association with ideological racism; the abstract ethnicity had been used for "paganism" in the 18th century, but now came to express the meaning of an "ethnic character". The term ethnic group was first recorded in 1935 and entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1972. Depending on the context, used, the term nationality may either be used synonymously with ethnicity, or synonymously with citizenship; the process that results in the emergence of an ethnicity is called ethnogenesis, a term in use in ethnological literature since about 1950. Depending on which source of group identity is emphasized to define membership, the following types of groups can be identified: Ethno-linguistic, emphasizing shared language, dialect – example: French Canadians Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Armenians Ethno-racial, emphasizing shared physical appearance based on genetic origins – example: African Americans Ethno-regional, emphasizing a distinct local sense of belonging stemming from relative geographic isolation – example: South Islanders Ethno-religious, emphasizing shared affiliation with a particular religion, denomination or sect – example: JewsIn many cases – for instance, the sense of Jewish peoplehood – more than one aspect determines membership.
Ethnography begins in classical antiquity. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Herodotus gave a famous account of what defined Greek ethnic identity in his day, enumerating shared descent, shared language shared sanctuaries and sacrifices shared customs. Whether ethnicity qualifies as a cultural universal is to some extent dependent on the exact definition used. According to "Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and reality", in Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science and Reality: Proceedings of the Joint Canada-United States Conference on the Measurement of Ethni
The Germani cisrhenani, were a group of tribes who lived west of the Lower Rhine at the time of the Gallic Wars. The name is first mentioned by Julius Caesar, writing about tribes near the Meuse river, who had settled among the Belgae before Roman intrusion into the area. Tribes who were considered to be among the original Germani cisrhenani include the Eburones, the Condrusi, the Caeraesi, the Segni and the Paemani, who collectively form a group which later came to be referred to as Tungri, in order to avoid confusion with other "Germani" once, by the time of Tacitus, the term had been extended to include the vast area of Germania magna beyond the limits of the Roman Empire; the Romans described the Rhine as an important natural border between Gaul on the west, which became part of the Roman empire, the Germanic territories to the east. The Germani on the east side of the Rhine were considered to be living in their original homeland. So this land was referred to not only as "Germania Transrhenana," but for example by Ptolemy and Strabo, as Germania magna, meaning "Greater Germany."
It is referred to as being outside of Roman control: Germania libera, "Free Germany" or Germania barbara, "Barbarian Germany". In contrast, the cisrhenane Germani were sometimes referred to as living in Germania cisrhenana, but this territory was considered to be part of Gaul, part of the Roman empire, it is important to note that the name Germani in antiquity carried none of the linguistic significance attached to the modern term "Germanic", as in Germanic peoples and Germanic languages, with the linguistic definition grouping Indo-Germanic dialects which underwent Grimm's law. It is possible that the original Germani were, in modern terminology and not Germanic; the name Germani itself is assumed to be Celtic in origin, the tribal names grouped with the Germani cisrhenani seem to be Celtic as well, such as the Usipetes and Tencteri, which may be grouped as either Gauls or Belgae. The name of the Tungri, on the other hand, has been interpreted as being genuinely Germanic. Jacob Grimm suggested that Germani represents the Celtic translation of the Germanic tribal name Tungri.
The question of the possible presence of Germanic languages on the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC is limited to placename analyses, such as those of Maurits Gysseling. As for the historicity of Caesar's account of the arrival of the Germani from beyond the Rhine, Wightman distinguishes two main scenarios, arrival in remote prehistory, or derivation of both Belgae and Germani out of the Hunsrück-Eifel culture found near the Moselle river The earliest surviving record referring to Germani is Julius Caesar's account of the Gallic War, the "Commentarii de Bello Gallico". There are classical citations of a lost work by Poseidonius which mentioned the tribe.) In the buildup to the Battle of the Sabis in 57 BCE, Caesar reports that he received information from Remi tribesman, who described a large part of the Belgae of northern France and Gaul as having "transrhenane" Germanic ancestry, but not all. When Caesar inquired of them what states were in arms, how powerful they were, what they could do, in war, he received the following information: that the greater part of the Belgae were sprung, from the Germans, that having crossed the Rhine at an early period, they had settled there, on account of the fertility of the country, had driven out the Gauls who inhabited those regions.
At other times, Caesar more divides Belgic Gaul into the Belgae and another smaller group called the Germani. For example, he writes, but it remains unclear which Belgic Gauls were considered Germani ancestry and which, if any, might have spoken a Germanic language. In the list of Belgic nations given as being in arms are Bellovaci, Nervii, Ambiani, Menapii, Caleti and Veromandui, who together make up a major part of all the Belgic nations; when it comes to tribes in the extreme northeast of Gaul, against the Rhine, the Condrusi, the Eburones, the Caeraesi, the Paemani, "are called by the common name of Germans". These Germani provided one joint force to the alliance, the number of men they committed was uncertain to the Remi. Caesar added the Segni to the list of tribes among the Belgae who went by the name of the Germani. There is another group living close to these tribes, in the northeast, called the Aduatuci, who descended from the above-mentioned Cimbri, but these are not referred to as Germani though their ancestry is to the east of the Rh
Breton is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany. Breton was brought from Great Britain to Armorica by migrating Britons during the Early Middle Ages. Breton is most related to Cornish, both being Southwestern Brittonic languages. Welsh and the extinct Cumbric are the more distantly related Western Brittonic languages; the other regional language of Brittany, Gallo, is a langue d'oïl. Gallo is a Romance language descended from Latin, a close relative of French. Having declined from more than 1,000,000 speakers around 1950 to about 200,000 in the first decade of the 21st century, Breton is classified as "severely endangered" by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. However, the number of children attending bilingual classes has risen 33% between 2006 and 2012 to 14,709. Breton is spoken in Lower Brittany to the west of a line linking Plouha and La Roche-Bernard, it comes from a Brittonic language community that once extended from Great Britain to Armorica and had established a toehold in Galicia.
Old Breton is attested from the 9th century. It was the language of the upper classes until the 12th century, after which it became the language of commoners in Lower Brittany; the nobility, followed by the bourgeoisie, adopted French. The written language of the Duchy of Brittany was Latin. There exists a limited tradition of Breton literature; some Old Breton vocabulary remains in the present day as philosophical and scientific terms in Modern Breton. The recognized stages of the Breton language are: Old Breton - c.800 to c.1100, Middle Breton - c.1100 to c.1650, Modern Breton - c.1650 to present. The French monarchy was not concerned with the minority languages of France spoken by the lower classes, required the use of French for government business as part of its policy of national unity. During the French Revolution, the government introduced policies favouring French over the regional languages, which it pejoratively referred to as patois; the revolutionaries assumed that reactionary and monarchist forces preferred regional languages to try to keep the peasant masses underinformed.
In 1794, Bertrand Barère submitted his "report on the patois" to the Committee of Public Safety in which he said that "federalism and superstition speak Breton". Since the 19th century, under the Third and Fifth Republics, the government has attempted to stamp out minority languages, including Breton, in state schools, in an effort to build a national culture. Teachers humiliated students for using their regional languages, such practices prevailed until the late 1960s. In the early 21st century, due to the political centralization of France, the influence of the media, the increasing mobility of people, only about 200,000 people can speak Breton, a dramatic decline from more than a million in 1950; the majority of today's speakers are more than 60 years old, Breton is now classified as an endangered language. At the beginning of the 20th century, half of the population of Lower Brittany knew only Breton. By 1950, there were only 100,000 monolingual Bretons, this rapid decline has continued, with no monolingual speakers left today.
A statistical survey in 1997 found around 300,000 speakers in Lower Brittany, of whom about 190,000 were aged 60 or older. Few 15- to 19-year-olds spoke Breton. In 1925, Professor Roparz Hemon founded the Breton-language review Gwalarn. During its 19-year run, Gwalarn tried to raise the language to the level of a great international language, its publication encouraged the creation of original literature in all genres, proposed Breton translations of internationally recognized foreign works. In 1946, Al Liamm replaced Gwalarn. Other Breton-language periodicals have been published, which established a large body of literature for a minority language. In 1977, Diwan schools were founded to teach Breton by immersion, they taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school. See the education section for more information; the Asterix comic series has been translated into Breton. According to the comic, the Gaulish village where Asterix lives is in the Armorica peninsula, now Brittany.
Some other popular comics have been translated into Breton, including The Adventures of Tintin, Titeuf, Hägar the Horrible and Yakari. Some original media are created in Breton; the sitcom, Ken Tuch, is in Breton. Radio Kerne, broadcasting from Finistère, has Breton programming; some movies and TV series have been translated and broadcast in Breton. Poets, singers and writers who have written in Breton, including Yann-Ber Kalloc'h, Roparz Hemon, Anjela Duval, Xavier de Langlais, Pêr-Jakez Helias, Youenn Gwernig and Alan Stivell are now known internationally. Today, Breton is the only living Celtic language, not recognized by a national government as an official or regional language; the first Breton dictionary, the Catholicon, was the first French dictionary. Edited by Jehan Lagadec in 1464, it was a trilingual work containing Breton and Latin. Today bilingual dictionaries have been published for Breton and languages including English, German and Welsh. A new generation is determined to gain international recognition for Breton.
The monolingual dictionary
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast. The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori "on/at sea", made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica "Place by the Sea"; the suffix -ika was first used to create adjectival forms and names. The original designation was vague, including a large part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations, the whole of the coast down to the Garonne; the term became restricted to Brittany. In Breton, which belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Insular Celtic languages, along with Welsh and Cornish, "on sea" is war vor, but the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad for the inland regions; the cognate modern usages suggest that the Romans first contacted coastal people in the inland region and assumed that the regional name Aremorica referred to the whole area, both coastal and inland.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the older name for Aquitania and states Armorica's southern boundary extended to the Pyrenees. Taking into account the Gaulish origin of the name, correct and logical, as Aremorica is not a country name but a word that describes a type of geographical region, one, by the sea. Pliny lists the following Celtic tribes as living in the area: the Aedui and Carnuteni as having treaties with Rome. Trade between Armorica and Britain, described by Diodorus Siculus and implied by Pliny was long-established; because after the campaign of Publius Crassus in 57 BC, continued resistance to Roman rule in Armorica was still being supported by Celtic aristocrats in Britain, Julius Caesar led two invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 in response. Some hint of the complicated cultural web that bound Armorica and the Britanniae is given by Caesar when he describes Diviciacus of the Suessiones, as "the most powerful ruler in the whole of Gaul, who had control not only over a large area of this region but of Britain" Archaeological sites along the south coast of England, notably at Hengistbury Head, show connections with Armorica as far east as the Solent.
This'prehistoric' connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, the typical Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead. Archaeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, surveyed by Philip de Jersey. Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, which had its capital in Lugdunum; when the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the second and third divisions of Lugdunensis. After the legions retreated from Britannia the local elite there expelled the civilian magistrates in the following year. At the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451 a Roman coalition led by General Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic King Theodoric I clashed violently with the Hunnic alliance commanded by King Attila the Hun. Jordanes lists Aëtius' allies as including German tribes; the "Armorican" peninsula came to be settled with Britons from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries.
In distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlers, whether refugees or not, made the presence felt of their coherent groups in the naming of the westernmost, Atlantic-facing provinces of Armorica and Domnonea; these settlements are associated with leaders like Saints Samson of Dol and Pol Aurelian, among the "founder saints" of Brittany. The linguistic origins of Breton are clear: it is a Brythonic language descended from the Celtic British language, like Welsh and Cornish one of the Insular Celtic languages, brought by these migrating Britons. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain— Cornish and Welsh— and Celtic Breton are far from settled. Martin Henig suggests that in Armorica as in sub-Roman Britain: There was a fair amount of creation of identity in the migration period. We know that the mixed, but British and Frankish population of Kent repackaged themselves as'Jutes', the British populations in the lands east of Dumnonia seem to have ended up as'West Saxons'.
In western Armorica the small elite which managed to impose an identity on the population happened to be British rather than'Gallo-Roman' in origin, so they became Bretons. The process may have been the same." According to C. E. V. Nixon, the collapse of Roman power and the depredations of the Visigoths led Armorica to act "like a magnet to peasants, coloni and the hard-pressed" who deserted other Roman territories, further weakening them. Vikings settled in the Cotentin peninsula and the lower Seine
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors; these two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in 14 AD, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, in 70 AD. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals, four books long. Tacitus' other writings discuss oratory and the life of his father-in-law, the general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain focusing on his campaign in Britannia. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, he lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics. Details about his personal life are scarce.
What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 57 to an equestrian family. One scholar's suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the older aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic, Tacitus makes it clear that he owed his rank to the Flavian emperors; the claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Germania. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, but it is possible that this refers to a brother—if Cornelius was indeed his father; the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families.
The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis or Northern Italy. His marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus' dedication to Lucius Fabius Justus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, his friendship with Pliny suggests origins in northern Italy. No evidence exists, that Pliny's friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Pliny's letters hint that the two men had a common background. Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, so was asked if he was Tacitus or Pliny. Since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces Gallia Narbonensis, his ancestry, his skill in oratory, his sympathetic depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, had been subjugated by Rome.
As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics. In 77 or 78, he married daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their domestic life, save that Tacitus loved the outdoors, he started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus. He advanced through the cursus honorum, becoming praetor in 88 and a quindecimvir, a member of the priestly college in charge of the Sibylline Books and the Secular games, he gained acclaim as an orator. He served in the provinces from c. 89 to c. 93, either in command of a legion or in a civilian post. He and his property survived Domitian's reign of terror, but the experience left him jaded and ashamed at his own complicity, giving him the hatred of tyranny evident in his works; the Agricola, chs. 44–45, is illustrative: Agricola was spared those years during which Domitian, leaving now no interval or breathing space of time, but, as it were, with one continuous blow, drained the life-blood of the Commonwealth...
It was not long before our hands dragged Helvidius to prison, before we gazed on the dying looks of Mauricus and Rusticus, before we were steeped in Senecio's innocent blood. Nero turned his eyes away, did not gaze upon the atrocities which he ordered. From his seat in the Senate, he became suffect consul in 97 during the reign of Nerva, being the first of his family to do so. During his tenure, he reached the height of his fame as an orator when he delivered the funeral oration for the famous veteran soldier Lucius Verginius Rufus. In the following year, he wrote and published the Agricola and Germania, foreshadowing the literary endeav
Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy. Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Manche and Seine-Maritime, it covers 30,627 square kilometres, comprising 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language; the historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands are historically part of Normandy. Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by Danish and Norwegian Vikings from the 9th century, confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.
Archaeological finds, such as cave paintings, prove that humans were present in the region in prehistoric times. Celts invaded Normandy in successive waves from the 4th to the 3rd century BC; when Julius Caesar invaded Gaul, there were nine different Celtic tribes living in Normandy. The Romanisation of Normandy was achieved by the usual methods: Roman roads and a policy of urbanisation. Classicists have knowledge of many Gallo-Roman villas in Normandy. In the late 3rd century, barbarian raids devastated Normandy. Coastal settlements were raided by Saxon pirates. Christianity began to enter the area during this period. In 406, Germanic tribes began invading from the east; as early as 487, the area between the River Somme and the River Loire came under the control of the Frankish lord Clovis. Vikings started to raid the Seine valley during the middle of the 9th century; as early as 841, a Viking fleet appeared at the mouth of the Seine, the principal route by which they entered the kingdom. After attacking and destroying monasteries, including one at Jumièges, they took advantage of the power vacuum created by the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire to take northern France.
The fiefdom of Normandy was created for Rollo. Rollo had besieged Paris but in 911 entered vassalage to the king of the West Franks, Charles the Simple, through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for his homage and fealty, Rollo gained the territory which he and his Viking allies had conquered; the name "Normandy" reflects Rollo's Viking origins. To this day, in Norwegian language the word nordmann denotes a Norwegian person; the descendants of Rollo and his followers adopted the local Gallo-Romance language and intermarried with the area's native Gallo-Roman inhabitants. They became the Normans – a Norman-speaking mixture of Norsemen and indigenous Franks and Romans. Rollo's descendant William became king of England in 1066 after defeating Harold Godwinson, the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings, at the Battle of Hastings, while retaining the fiefdom of Normandy for himself and his descendants. Besides the conquest of England and the subsequent subjugation of Wales and Ireland, the Normans expanded into other areas.
Norman families, such as that of Tancred of Hauteville, Rainulf Drengot and Guimond de Moulins played important parts in the conquest of southern Italy and the Crusades. The Drengot lineage, de Hauteville's sons William Iron Arm and Humphrey, Robert Guiscard and Roger the Great Count progressively claimed territories in southern Italy until founding the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130, they carved out a place for themselves and their descendants in the Crusader states of Asia Minor and the Holy Land. The 14th-century explorer Jean de Béthencourt established a kingdom in the Canary Islands in 1404, he received the title King of the Canary Islands from Pope Innocent VII but recognized Henry III of Castile as his overlord, who had provided him aid during the conquest. In 1204, during the reign of John Lackland, mainland Normandy was taken from England by France under King Philip II. Insular Normandy remained however under English control. In 1259, Henry III of England recognized the legality of French possession of mainland Normandy under the Treaty of Paris.
His successors, however fought to regain control of their ancient fiefdom. The Charte aux Normands granted by Louis X of France in 1315 – like the analogous Magna Carta granted in England in the aftermath of 1204 – guaranteed the liberties and privileges of the province of Normandy. French Normandy was occupied by English forces during the Hundred Years' War in 1345–1360 and again in 1415–1450. Normandy lost three-quarters of its population during the war. Afterward prosperity returned to Normandy until the Wars of Religion; when many Norman towns joined the Protestant Reformation, battles ensued throughout the province. In the Channel Islands, a period of Calvinism following the Reformation was suppressed when Anglicanism was imposed following the English Civil War. Samuel de Champlain founded Acadia. Four years