Stanley Black & Decker
Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. known as The Stanley Works, is a Fortune 500 American manufacturer of industrial tools and household hardware and provider of security products and locks headquartered in the greater Hartford city of New Britain, Connecticut. Stanley Black & Decker is the result of the merger of Stanley Works and Black & Decker on March 12, 2010; the company came to existence as a direct result of the 1920 merger of Stanley's Bolt Manufactory, founded by Frederick Trent Stanley in 1843, the Stanley Rule and Level Company, founded by Frederick's cousin, Henry Stanley, in 1857. During World War II, Stanley Works received the Army-Navy "E" Award for excellence in war production. In May 2002, the company considered moving its corporate headquarters to Bermuda, but public and governmental outcry forced management to reconsider the move. By August 2002, the company had decided to maintain its incorporation in the United States. John F. Lundgren was elected as chairman and chief executive officer in 2004, replacing John Trani, a former protégé of Jack Welch at General Electric.
The Hardware & Home Improvement Group, including the Kwikset, Baldwin, National Hardware, Stanley, FANAL, Pfister and EZSET brands, was acquired by Spectrum Brands Holdings, Inc. on December 17, 2012. In July 2016, CEO John F. Lundgren stepped down, with President and COO James M. Loree taking over as CEO. 1937: Stanley Works entered the UK market with the acquisition of J. A. Chapman of Sheffield, England. 1946: Stanley Works acquired North Brothers Manufacturing Company in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1963: Stanley started operations in Australia as Stanley-Titan when it bought a 50% share of Titan, a subsidiary of BHP. 1966: Stanley Works acquired Vidmar Cabinets in Allentown, Pennsylvania. 1970: Stanley-Titan acquired Turner Tools, based in Melbourne, Australia. 1980: Stanley Works acquired Mac Tools. 1984: Stanley Works purchased Proto from Ingersoll Rand and it becomes Stanley Proto. 1986: Stanley Works acquired Bostitch from Textron. 1990: Stanley Works acquired Goldblatt and ZAG Industries.
1990: Acquired Sidchrome Tool Co. head-quartered in Melbourne, Australia. Closed plant in 1996 and started to move all tool manufacturing to Taiwan, whilst sourcing various items from Proto in the USA due to supply of left-over Australian-made tools being sold out until all manufacturing was established in Taiwan. 1992: Stanley Works purchased the Chatsworth, California-based Monarch Mirror Door Co. Inc. an American manufacturer of sliding and folding mirror-doors. 2000: Stanley Works acquired Blick of Swindon, England, a UK integrator of security solutions and time-management solutions, CST Berger. 2002: In October, Stanley Works acquired Best Access Systems of Indianapolis, for $310 million. The acquisition prompted the creation of a new Access Controls Group for Stanley. Further additions to this new working group included Blick. 2004: In January, Stanley announced plans to acquire Frisco Bay Industries Ltd. a Canadian provider of security integration services, for $45.3 million. In December, the acquisition of ISR Solutions, Inc. headquartered in Washington, D.
C. was announced. ISR Solutions provides the U. S. federal government and commercial customers with access security system services. 2005: In January, the acquisition of Security Group, Inc. was announced. Security Group was composed of two primary operating companies: Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc. a manufacturer of locks. An additional acquisition of Precision Hardware was made in 2005. 2006: Stanley furthered its corporate assets in the security market by acquiring HSM Electronic Protection Systems after it had been spun off from Honeywell in compliance with pre-emptive Securities and Exchange Commission antitrust rulings. In the meantime, the company obtained security contracts as the primary contractor to secure three NASA spaceflight centers. Stanley Works acquired Facom'. 2007: Late in the year, Stanley acquired OSI Security of Chula Vista, California, a provider of battery-operated wireless lock technology and supplies to government and healthcare industries. 2008: Stanley acquired Beach Toolbox Industries, headquartered in Smith Falls, Canada closed the plant.
2008: In June, Stanley announced the acquisition of Sonitrol, which provides security systems that use audio listening devices as the primary means of intrusion detection. Stanley acquired Xmark Corporation, which provides radio frequency identification solutions in healthcare environments; as of 2008, many of the Stanley Security Services divisions were being integrated under the HSM brand. 2009: On November 2, Stanley announced a merger with Black & Decker and DeWalt tools. The merger was completed on March 12, 2010. 2010: In July, the company announced the acquisition of CRC-Evans Pipeline International. CRC-Evans provides total project support for pipeline construction contractors with automatic welding and other pipeline construction specific equipment and personnel. 2011: On September 9, the acquisition of Niscayah was complete. 2012: On January 1, the acquisition of Lista North America, headquartered in Holliston, was completed. 2012: On June 1, the acquisition of Powers Fasteners, headquartered in Brewster, New York, was completed.
2012: On June 5, the acquisition of AeroScout, Inc. headquartered in Redwood City, was completed. 2016: Stanley Black & Decker announced in October that it acquired the Irwin and Hilmor tool brands for $1.95 billion from Newell Brands. 2017: On January 5, news reports indicated that it would acquire the Craftsman brand from KCD, LLC. Subsequent reports by Blo
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
Major general (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks below lieutenant general. A major general commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, is the highest-permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed-services. Higher ranks are technically-temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank; the United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force; some of these slots are finitely set by statute. For example, the Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Army is a major general in the Army.
The United States Code limits the total number of general officers that may be on the Reserve Active Status List in the Reserve Component, defined in the case of general officers as the Army National Guard, Army Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve. To be promoted to the permanent grade of major general, officers who are eligible for promotion to this rank are screened by an in-service promotion board comprising other general officers from their branch of service; this promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is sent to the service secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review before it can be sent to the President, through the Secretary of Defense for consideration; the President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, if applicable, the service's chief of staff or commandant. The President may nominate any eligible officer, not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, but this is uncommon.
The Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once confirmed, the nominee is promoted to that rank on assuming a position of office that requires an officer to hold the rank. For positions of office that are reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position. For all three of the applicable uniformed services, because the grade of major general is a permanent rank, the nominee may still be screened by an in-service promotion board to add their input on the nominee before the nomination can be sent to the Senate for approval. Since the grade of major general is permanent, the rank does not expire when the officer vacates a two-star position. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, and/or when the officer receives a new assignment or a promotion, but the average tour length per two-star billet is two to four years. In the Army, Major Generals serve as division commanders, training center commanders, joint task force commanders, deputy commanding generals to 3-star generals, chief of staff in 4-star commands, senior directors on Army and joint staffs, and, in the case of the Army National Guard, as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory.
In the Marine Corps, Major Generals serve as commanding generals or deputy commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, or senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs. In the Air Force, Major Generals serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may serve as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement of general officers. All major generals must retire after five years in grade or 35 years of service, whichever is unless appointed for promotion or reappointed to grade to serve longer. Otherwise, all general officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday; the Continental Army was established on June 15, 1775 when the Continental Congress commissioned George Washington as a general and placed him in command of the Army of Observation besieging Boston.
The rank of major general was first established two days on June 17, 1775 when two major generals were commissioned by Congress soon followed by two more major generals being appointed on June 19. Following the disbanding of the Continental Army at the end of 1783 only one major general, Henry Knox, remained in service until his resignation in June 1784; the rank was revived on March 4, 1791 when Arthur St. Clair was appointed as major general in command of the U. S. Army. St. Clair was succeeded by Major General Anthony Wayne who commanded the Army until his death on December 15, 1796; the rank was revived on July 19, 1798 when Alexander Hamilton and Charles C. Pinckney were commissioned as major generals during the Quasi War with France; the expanded Army was demobilized on June 15, 1800 when it was reduced to
The Ames process is a process by which pure uranium metal is obtained. It can be achieved by mixing any of the uranium halides with magnesium metal powder or aluminium metal powder; the Ames process was used on August 3, 1942 by a group of chemists led by Frank Spedding and Harley Wilhelm at the Ames Laboratory as part of the Manhattan Project. It is a type of thermite-based purification, patented in 1895 by German chemist Hans Goldschmidt. Development of the Ames process came at a time of increased research into mass uranium-metal production; the desire for increased production was motivated by a fear of Nazi Germany developing nuclear weapons before the Allies. The process involved mixing powdered uranium tetrafluoride and powdered magnesium together; this mixture was placed inside an iron pipe, welded shut on one side and capped shut on another side. This container, called a "bomb" by Spedding, was placed into a furnace; when heated to a temperature of 1,500 °C, the contents of the container reacted violently, leaving a 35-gram ingot of pure uranium metal.
The process was scaled up. The uranium tetrafluoride and magnesium were sealed in a refractory-lined reactor vessel, still referred to as a "bomb"; the thermite reaction was initiated by furnace heating the assembly to 600 °C. By July 1943, the production rate exceeded 130,000 pounds of uranium metal per month. 1000 tons of uranium ingots were produced at Ames before the process was transferred to industry. The Ames project received the Army-Navy "E" Award for Excellence in Production on October 12, 1945, signifying 2.5 years of excellence in industrial production of metallic uranium as a vital war material. Iowa State University is unique among educational institutions to have received this award for outstanding service, an honor given to industry; the metallothermic reduction of anhydrous rare-earth fluorides to rare-earth metals is referred to as the Ames process. The study of rare earths was advanced during World War II: Synthetic plutonium was believed to be rare-earth-like, it was assumed that knowledge of rare earths would assist in planning for and the study of transuranic elements.
Ames Laboratory. "The Ames Process for Rare Earth Metals". Retrieved 2013-02-26
Naval History and Heritage Command
The Naval History and Heritage Command the Naval Historical Center, is an Echelon II command responsible for the preservation and dissemination of U. S. naval history and heritage located at the historic Washington Navy Yard. The NHHC is composed of 42 facilities in 13 geographic locations including the Navy Department Library, 10 museums and 1 heritage center, USS Constitution repair facility and detachment, historic ship ex-USS Nautilus; the Naval History and Heritage Command traces its lineage to 1800, when President John Adams requested Benjamin Stoddert, the first Secretary of the Navy, prepare a catalog of professional books for use in the Secretary's office. When the British invaded Washington in 1814 this collection, containing the finest works on naval history from America and abroad, was rushed to safety outside the Federal City. Thereafter the library had many locations, including a specially designed space in the State and Navy Building next to the White House; when the library was placed under the Bureau of Navigation in 1882, the director, noted international lawyer and U.
S. Naval Academy professor James R. Soley, gathered the rare books scattered throughout Navy Department offices, collected naval prints and photographs, subscribed to professional periodicals, he began to collect and preserve naval records those of the American Civil War. Congress recognized his efforts by authorizing funds for office staff and combining the library and records sections into the Office of Library and Naval War Records. Six years the United States Congress appropriated the funds to print the first volume in a monumental documentary series, Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion. Completed in 1927 with the publication of volume 31, the series marked the beginning of a commitment to collect and publish historical naval documents, a mission that the History Command continues to carry out in its American Revolution and War of 1812 documentary projects. In 1915 the appropriations for publications, the library, naval war records were combined and the office received a new title—Office of Naval Records and Library.
Once America entered World War I, emphasis shifted to gathering documents on current naval operations. Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels directed Admiral William S. Sims, Commander U. S. Naval Forces Operating in European Waters, to collect war diaries, operational reports, other historic war materials of naval commands in his London headquarters. To handle World War I records in Washington, a Historical Section was established in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and housed in the new Navy Department Building on Constitution Avenue; when the war ended, Admiral Sims' London collection, as well as photographs and new motion pictures from the various Navy bureaus, were transferred to the Historical Section. The library, by now holding more than 50,000 volumes, remained in the State and Navy Building. In 1921, a former member of Admiral Sims' wartime staff, Captain Dudley W. Knox, was named head of the Office of Naval Records and Library and the Historical Section. For the next twenty-five years he was the driving force behind the Navy's historical program, earning for the office an international reputation in the field of naval archives and history.
The Historical Section was absorbed into Naval Records and Library in 1927. Knox's additional appointment as the Curator for the Navy envisioned a display of the nation's sea heritage in a naval museum in Washington. In 1961, Admiral Arleigh Burke, Chief of Naval Operations, established the U. S. Naval Historical Display Center. At President Franklin D. Roosevelt's suggestion, Knox began several documentary series. Seven volumes pertaining to the Quasi War with France and seven volumes relating to the war with the Barbary Powers were published. World War II halted plans for similar publications on the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, World War I. During World War II, Knox turned his attention to collecting documents generated by naval operations in the global conflict, he began a campaign to gather and arrange operation plans, action reports, war diaries into a well-controlled archives staffed by professional historians who came on board as naval reservists. To complement the developing World War II operational archives, the Knox group pioneered an oral history program whereby participants in the significant Atlantic and Pacific operations and battles were interviewed as soon as possible after their wartime engagements.
When Pulitzer Prize winner and Harvard history professor Samuel Eliot Morison was commissioned by President Roosevelt to prepare the fifteen-volume History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, he relied not only on his own combat experience, but on those records assembled in Knox's archives. In 1944, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal established the Office of Naval History to coordinate the Morison project, as well as the wartime administrative histories being written by Navy commands, under the direction of Princeton professor Robert G. Albion. Knox served as Deputy Director of Naval History under the Director, Admiral Edward C. Kalbfus, but the Office of Naval Records and Library at first remained separate until March 1949 when it merged with the Office of Naval History to form the Naval Records and History Division of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. In 1952 it was renamed the Naval History Division; the eventual home for the Navy's historians was the Washington Navy Yard in Southeast Washington, which in 1961 was converted from an industrial facility to an administ
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Julius Robert Oppenheimer was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer was the wartime head of the Los Alamos Laboratory and is among those who are credited with being the "father of the atomic bomb" for their role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II undertaking that developed the first nuclear weapons; the first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico. Oppenheimer remarked that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." In August 1945, the weapons were used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in Japan's unconditional surrender. After the war ended, Oppenheimer became chairman of the influential General Advisory Committee of the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission, he used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union.
After provoking the ire of many politicians with his outspoken opinions during the Second Red Scare, he suffered the revocation of his security clearance in a much-publicized hearing in 1954, was stripped of his direct political influence. Nine years President John F. Kennedy awarded him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation. Oppenheimer's achievements in physics included the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for molecular wave functions, work on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion, the first prediction of quantum tunneling. With his students he made important contributions to the modern theory of neutron stars and black holes, as well as to quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, the interactions of cosmic rays; as a teacher and promoter of science, he is remembered as a founding father of the American school of theoretical physics that gained world prominence in the 1930s. After World War II, he became director of the Institute for Advanced Study in New Jersey.
Oppenheimer was born in New York City on April 22, 1904, to Julius Oppenheimer, a wealthy Jewish textile importer who had immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1888, Ella Friedman, a painter. Julius came to America with no money, no baccalaureate studies, no knowledge of the English language, he within a decade was an executive with the company. Ella was from Baltimore; the Oppenheimers were non-observant Ashkenazi Jews. In 1912 the family moved to an apartment on the 11th floor of 155 Riverside Drive, near West 88th Street, Manhattan, an area known for luxurious mansions and townhouses, their art collection included works by Pablo Picasso and Édouard Vuillard, at least three original paintings by Vincent van Gogh. Robert had a younger brother, who became a physicist. Oppenheimer was educated at Alcuin Preparatory School, in 1911, he entered the Ethical Culture Society School; this had been founded by Felix Adler to promote a form of ethical training based on the Ethical Culture movement, whose motto was "Deed before Creed".
His father had been a member of the Society for many years, serving on its board of trustees from 1907 to 1915. Oppenheimer was a versatile scholar, interested in English and French literature, in mineralogy, he completed the third and fourth grades in one year, skipped half the eighth grade. During his final year, he became interested in chemistry, he entered Harvard College one year after graduation, at age 18, because he suffered an attack of colitis while prospecting in Joachimstal during a family summer vacation in Europe. To help him recover from the illness, his father enlisted the help of his English teacher Herbert Smith who took him to New Mexico, where Oppenheimer fell in love with horseback riding and the southwestern United States. Oppenheimer majored in chemistry, but Harvard required science students to study history and philosophy or mathematics, he compensated for his late start by taking six courses each term and was admitted to the undergraduate honor society Phi Beta Kappa.
In his first year, he was admitted to graduate standing in physics on the basis of independent study, which meant he was not required to take the basic classes and could enroll instead in advanced ones. He was attracted to experimental physics by a course on thermodynamics, taught by Percy Bridgman, he graduated summa cum laude in three years. In 1924, Oppenheimer was informed that he had been accepted into Cambridge, he wrote to Ernest Rutherford requesting permission to work at the Cavendish Laboratory. Bridgman provided Oppenheimer with a recommendation, which conceded that Oppenheimer's clumsiness in the laboratory made it apparent his forte was not experimental but rather theoretical physics. Rutherford was unimpressed, he was accepted by J. J. Thomson on condition that he complete a basic laboratory course, he developed an antagonistic relationship with his tutor, Patrick Blackett, only a few years his senior. While on vacation, as recalled by his friend Francis Fergusson, Oppenheimer once confessed that he had left an apple doused with noxious chemicals on Blackett's desk.
While Fergusson's account is the only detailed version of this event, Oppenheimer's parents were alerted by the university authorities who considered placing him on probation, a fate prevented by his parents lobbying the authorities. Oppenheimer was a tall, thin chain smoker, who neglected to eat d
A pennon or pennant is a flag, larger at the hoist than at the fly. It can have several shapes, such as tapering or a burgee, it was one of the principal three varieties of flags carried during the Middle Ages. Pennoncells and streamers or pendants are minor varieties of this style of flag; the pennon is a flag resembling the guidon in shape, but only half the size. It does not contain any coat of arms, but only crests and heraldic and ornamental devices. Pennon comes from the Latin penna meaning "a wing" or "a feather"; the pennon was sometimes pointed, but more forked or swallow-tailed at the end. In the 11th century, the pennon was square, the fly end being decorated with the addition of pointed tongues or streamers, somewhat similar to the oriflamme. During the reign of Henry III, the pennon acquired the distinctive swallow-tail, or the single-pointed shape. Another version of the single-pointed pennon was introduced in the 13th century. In shape this was a scalene triangle, obtained by cutting diagonally the vertically oblong banner.
The pennon was a purely personal ensign. It was the flag of the knight bachelor, as apart from the knight banneret, carried by him on his lance, displaying his personal armorial bearings, set out so that they stood in correct position when he couched his lance for charging. A manuscript of the 16th century in the British Museum, which gives detailed particulars as to the size and bearings of the standards, banners and pennoncells, says "a pennon must be two yards and a half long, made round at the end, contain the arms of the owner," and warns that "from a standard or streamer a man may flee but not from his banner or pennon bearing his arms." A pennoncell was a diminutive pennon carried by the esquires. Pennons were used for any special ceremonial occasion, more at state funerals. For instance, there were "XII doz. penselles" among the items that figured at the funeral of the Duke of Norfolk in 1554, in the description of the lord mayor's procession in 1555, it reads "two goodly pennes decked with flags and streamers, a 1000 penselles."
Among the items that ran the total cost of the funeral of Oliver Cromwell up to an enormous sum of money, there is the mention of 30 dozen of pennoncells a foot long and costing 20 shillings a dozen, 20 dozen of the same kind of flags at 12 shillings a dozen. The streamer, so called in Tudor days but now better known as the pennant or pendant, was a long, tapering flag, which it was directed "shall stand in the top of a ship or in the forecastle, therein be put no arms, but the man's cognisance or device, may be of length 20, 30, 40 or 60 yards, is slit as well as a guidon or standard". Among the fittings of the ship that took Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, to France in the reign of Henry VII was a "great streamer for the ship 40 yards in length 8 yards in breadth". Besides the white ensign, ships commissioned in the Royal Navy fly a long streamer from the maintopgallant masthead. This, called a pennant, is the sign of command, is first hoisted when a captain commissions his ship; the pennant, the old "pennoncell", was of three colours for the whole of its length, towards the end left separate in two or three tails, so continued until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
Now, however the pennant is a long white streamer with the St George's cross in the inner portion close to the mast. Pennants have been carried by men-of-war from the earliest times, prior to 1653 at the yard-arm, but since that date at the maintopgallant masthead. There are other navies that fly pennant in a similar manner; the commissioning pennant in ships may end in a point, but they can be forked, in which case it is called a banderole. Pennants are associated with American sports teams, such as Major League Baseball and college sports teams. In Australian rules football, a pennant is awarded to the winner of major competitions. For many years, this was the only prize given; as a result, a League Championship is referred to as a "pennant", as in, "The Giants win the Pennant!" And in Australian football, a premiership can be referred to as a "flag". In the Netherlands, an orange pennon is always used on the King's Day, it is flown alongside the standard Dutch flag. The Dutch provinces each have a pennon as well.
Campaign streamer Heraldic standard Household pennants of Finland Pennant Pennant OED staff. "banderol | bandrol | bannerol, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1885. Rutt, John Towill, ed. "Cromwell's death and funeral order", Diary of Thomas Burton esq, volume 2: April 1657 – February 1658, Institute of Historical Research, pp. 516–530Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Swinburne, H Lawrence. "Flag". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 456–459