Minato is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is called Minato City in English, it was formed in 1947 as a merger of Akasaka and Shiba wards following Tokyo City's transformation into Tokyo Metropolis. The modern Minato ward exhibits the contrasting Shitamachi and Yamanote geographical and cultural division; the Shinbashi neighborhood in the ward's northeastern corner is attached to the core of Shitamachi, the original commercial center of Edo-Tokyo. On the other hand, the Azabu and Akasaka areas are representative Yamanote districts; as of 1 July 2015, it has an official population of 243,094, a population density of 10,850 persons per km2. The total area is 20.37 km2. Minato hosts a large number of embassies, it is home to various domestic companies, including Honda, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, NEC, Sony and Toshiba, as well as the Japanese headquarters of a number of multi-national firms, including Google and Goldman Sachs. Minato is located southwest of the Imperial Palace and has boundaries with the special wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, Kōtō, Shinagawa and Shinjuku.
The ward was founded on 15 March 1947 with the merger of Akasaka and Shiba Wards. The name minato means "harbour". Minato is governed by Mayor Masaaki Takei, an Independent supported by all major parties except the Japanese Communist Party; the city legislative assembly is dominated by the Liberal Democratic Party. Minato mayoral election, 2008 Jikei University School of Medicine Nishi Shinbashi campus Kanazawa Institute of Technology Graduate school. Mita Junior High School opened in 2001 after the merger of Minato Junior High School and Shibahama Junior High School; the local public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education. Akasaka High School Mita High School Roppongi High School Shiba Commercial High School There are a variety of private schools, including: Keio Girls Senior High School Keiō Chutobu Junior High School Shiba Junior and Senior High School Azabu Junior and Senior High School Friends School, a Quaker school established in 1887. Meiji Gakuin Senior High School in Shirokane Russian Embassy School in Tokyo in Azabudai The city operates the Minato Library, the Mita Library, the Azabu Library, the Akasaka Library, the Takanawa Library, the Konan Library.
The metropolis operates the Tokyo Metropolitan Library Central Library in Minato. The library opened in 1973. Companies with headquarters in Minato include Air Nippon, All Nippon Airways, ANA & JP Express, All Nippon Airways Trading, Asmik Ace Entertainment, Cosmo Oil Company, Daicel,Dentsu, Fuji Xerox, Haseko, Hazama Ando, Japan Tobacco, Kaneka Corporation, Konami, KYB Corporation, Kyodo News, Mitsubishi Motors, Mitsui Chemicals, Mitsui O. S. K. Lines, Mitsui Oil Exploration Company, NEC, Nippon Sheet Glass, NYK Line, Obayashi Corporation, Oki Electric Industry, Pizza-La, The Pokémon Company, Toraya Confectionery, Sato Pharmaceutical, Sega Sammy Holdings, Sigma Seven, Sony, SUMCO, Toraya Confectionery, Toyo Suisan, TV Tokyo, WOWOW, Yazaki. In addition ANA subsidiary Air Japan has some offices in Minato; the Japanese division of CB&I, the Japanese division of Aramark and Aim Services, Google Japan, Yahoo! Japan, the main Japanese offices of Hanjin and Korean Air are located there. Air France operates an office and ticketing counter in the New Aoyama Building in Minato.
The Japanese division of Deutsche Post, DHL. Air France's Minato office handles Aircalin-related inquiries. Air China has operations in the Air China Building in Minato. Asiana Airlines operates a sales office on the sixth floor of the ATT New Tower Building. Hawaiian Airlines has its Japan offices in the Eagle Hamamatsuchō Building in Minato. Iran Air has its Tokyo office in Akasaka. Japanese companies that had headquarters in Minato include Air Next, Asatsu, Jaleco Holding, Toa Domestic Airlines,On 22 December 2008 operations of Seiko Epson's Tokyo sales office began at Seiko Epson's Hino Office in Hino, Tokyo. Operations were at the World Trade Centre in Minato. Several countries operate their embassies in Minato. Kiribati Mauritius North Macedonia Tuvalu Akasaka: A large residential and commercial area in northern Minato which includes the Akasaka Palace and surrounding gardens, TBS radio and television studios, Ark Hills complex, National Art Center, the embassy of the United States. Aoyama: Home to Aoyama Cemetery, one of Tokyo's largest graveyards, the Chichibunomiya Rugby Stadium.
Atago Shrine, the highest point in all 23 wards of Tokyo. Azabu: One of Tokyo's more upscale residential areas, home to many embassies. Fushimi Sanpō Inari Jinja: A Shinto shrine in Shiba 3-chōme. Hamamatsuchō: Hamamatsucho Station is the terminal for the Tokyo Monorail to Haneda Airport. Mita: Home to Keio University and a large number of small Buddhist temples; the National Art Center, Tokyo is a museum that opened in 2007. Odaiba: One of Tokyo's most popular entertainment areas, featuring the Fuji TV studios, Palette Town sho
Japanese militarism refers to the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation. The military had a strong influence on Japanese society from the Meiji Restoration. All leaders in Japanese society during the Meiji period were ex-samurai or descendants of samurai, shared a set of values and outlooks; the early Meiji government viewed Japan as threatened by western imperialism, one of the prime motivations for the Fukoku Kyohei policy was to strengthen Japan's economic and industrial foundations, so that a strong military could be built to defend Japan against outside powers. The rise of universal military conscription, introduced by Yamagata Aritomo in 1873, along with the proclamation of the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors in 1882 enabled the military to indoctrinate thousands of men from various social backgrounds with military-patriotic values and the concept of unquestioning loyalty to the Emperor as the basis of the Japanese state.
Yamagata like many Japanese was influenced by the recent striking success of Prussia in transforming itself from an agricultural state to a leading modern industrial and military power. He accepted Prussian political ideas, which favored military expansion abroad and authoritarian government at home; the Prussian model devalued the notion of civilian control over the independent military, which meant that in Japan, as in Germany, the military could develop into a state within a state, thus exercising greater influence on politics in general. Following the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War, the Army Staff College and the Japanese General Staff paid close attention to Major Jakob Meckel's views on the superiority of the German military model over the French system as the reason for German victory. In response to a Japanese request, Prussian Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke sent Meckel to Japan to become an O-yatoi gaikokujin. In Japan, Meckel worked with future Prime Ministers General Katsura Tarō and General Yamagata Aritomo, with army strategist General Kawakami Soroku.
Meckel made numerous recommendations which were implemented, including reorganization of the command structure of the army into divisions and regiments, thus increasing mobility, strengthening the army logistics and transportation structure with the major army bases connected by railways, establishing artillery and engineering regiments as independent commands, revising the universal conscription system to abolish all exceptions. A bust of Meckel was sited in front of the Japanese Army Staff College from 1909 through 1945. Although his period in Japan was short, Meckel had a tremendous impact on the development of the Japanese military, he is credited with having introduced Clausewitz's military theories and the Prussian concept of war games in a process of refining tactics. By training some sixty of the highest-ranking Japanese officers of the time in tactics and organization, he was able to replace the previous influences of the French advisors with his own philosophies. Meckel reinforced Hermann Roesler's ideal of subservience to the Emperor by teaching his pupils that Prussian military success was a consequence of the officer class's unswerving loyalty to their sovereign Emperor, as expressly codified in Articles XI-XIII of the Meiji Constitution.
The rise of political parties in the late Meiji period was coupled with the rise of secret and semi-secret patriotic societies, such as the Genyōsha and Kokuryukai, which coupled political activities with paramilitary activities and military intelligence, supported expansionism overseas as a solution to Japan's domestic issues. Japan felt looked down on by Western countries during the late 19th century; the phrase fukoku kyōhei was created during this time and shows how Japanese officials saw imperialism as the way to gain respect and power. With a more aggressive foreign policy, victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War and over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan joined the imperialist powers; the need for a strong military to secure Japan's new overseas empire was strengthened by a sense that only through a strong military would Japan earn the respect of western nations, thus revision of the unequal treaties. During the 19th century, Great Power status was considered dependent on resource-rich colonial empires, both as a source of raw materials for military and industrial production, international prestige.
Due to the lack of resources in Japanese home islands, raw materials such as iron and coal had to be imported. The success of Japan in securing Taiwan and Korea had brought Japan agricultural colonies. In terms of resources, the Japanese military looked towards Manchuria's iron and coal, Indochina's rubber, China's vast resources. However, the army was at variance with the zaibatsu financial and industrial corporations on how to manage economic expansion, a conflict affecting domestic politics. Forming part of the basis for the growth of militarism was the freedom from civilian control enjoyed by the Japanese armed forces. In 1878, the Imperial Japanese Army established the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff office, modeled after the Prussian General Staff; this office was independent of, equal to the Ministry of War of Japan in terms of authority. The Imperial Japanese Navy soon followed with the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff; these General Staff offices were responsible for the planning and execution of military operations
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Surrender of Japan
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were making entreaties to the still-neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. Meanwhile, the Soviets were preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences. On August 6, 1945, at 8:15 AM local time, the United States detonated an atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
Sixteen hours American President Harry S. Truman called again for Japan's surrender, warning them to "expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth." Late in the evening of August 8, 1945, in accordance with the Yalta agreements, but in violation of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union invaded the Imperial Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. In the day, the United States dropped a second atomic bomb, this time on the Japanese city of Nagasaki. Following these events, Emperor Hirohito intervened and ordered the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War to accept the terms the Allies had set down in the Potsdam Declaration for ending the war. After several more days of behind-the-scenes negotiations and a failed coup d'état, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address across the Empire on August 15. In the radio address, called the Jewel Voice Broadcast, he announced the surrender of Japan to the Allies.
On August 28, the occupation of Japan led by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers began. The surrender ceremony was held on September 2, aboard the United States Navy battleship USS Missouri, at which officials from the Japanese government signed the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, thereby ending the hostilities. Allied civilians and military personnel alike celebrated the end of the war; the role of the atomic bombings in Japan's unconditional surrender, the ethics of the two attacks, is still debated. The state of war formally ended when the Treaty of San Francisco came into force on April 28, 1952. Four more years passed before Japan and the Soviet Union signed the Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956, which formally brought an end to their state of war. By 1945, the Japanese had suffered a string of defeats for nearly two years in the South West Pacific, the Marianas campaign, the Philippines campaign. In July 1944, following the loss of Saipan, General Hideki Tōjō was replaced as prime minister by General Kuniaki Koiso, who declared that the Philippines would be the site of the decisive battle.
After the Japanese loss of the Philippines, Koiso in turn was replaced by Admiral Kantarō Suzuki. The Allies captured the nearby islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa in the first half of 1945. Okinawa was to be a staging area for Operation Downfall, the Allied invasion of the Japanese Home Islands. Following Germany's defeat, the Soviet Union began redeploying its battle-hardened European forces to the Far East, in addition to about forty divisions, stationed there since 1941, as a counterbalance to the million-strong Kwantung Army; the Allied submarine campaign and the mining of Japanese coastal waters had destroyed the Japanese merchant fleet. With few natural resources, Japan was dependent on raw materials oil, imported from Manchuria and other parts of the East Asian mainland, from the conquered territory in the Dutch East Indies; the destruction of the Japanese merchant fleet, combined with the strategic bombing of Japanese industry, had wrecked Japan's war economy. Production of coal, steel and other vital supplies was only a fraction of that before the war.
As a result of the losses it had suffered, the Imperial Japanese Navy had ceased to be an effective fighting force. Following a series of raids on the Japanese shipyard at Kure, the only major warships in fighting order were six aircraft carriers, four cruisers, one battleship, none of which could be fueled adequately. Although 19 destroyers and 38 submarines were still operational, their use was limited by the lack of fuel. Faced with the prospect of an invasion of the Home Islands, starting with Kyūshū, the prospect of a Soviet invasion of Manchuria—Japan's last source of natural resources—the War Journal of the Imperial Headquarters concluded in 1944: We can no longer direct the war with any hope of success; the only course left is for Japan's one hundred million people to sacrifice their lives by charging the enemy to make them lose the will to fight. As a final attempt to stop the Allied advances, the Japanese Imperial High Command planned an all-out defense of Kyūshū codenamed Operation Ketsugō.
This was to be a radical departure from the defense in depth plans used in the invasions of Peleliu, Iwo Jima, Okinawa. Instead, everything was staked on the beachhead.
Klemens Wilhelm Jacob Meckel was a general in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan. Meckel was born in Rhine Province, Prussia, he graduated from the Prussian Army Staff College in 1867. He was a veteran of the Franco-Prussian War. After the government of Meiji period Japan decided to model the Imperial Japanese Army after the Prussian army, following the German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War, Meckel was invited to Japan as a professor at the Army Staff College and as an advisor to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff. In response to a Japanese request, Prussian Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke selected Meckel, he worked with future Prime Ministers General Katsura Tarō and General Yamagata Aritomo, with army strategist General Kawakami Soroku. Meckel made numerous recommendations which were implemented, including reorganization of the command structure of the army into divisions and regiments, thus increasing mobility, strengthening the army logistics and transportation structure, with the major army bases connected by railways, establishing artillery and engineering regiments as independent commands, revising the universal conscription system to abolish all exceptions.
A bust of Meckel was sited in front of the Japanese Army Staff College from 1909 through 1945. Although his period in Japan was short, Meckel had a tremendous impact on the development of the Japanese military, he is credited with having introduced Clausewitz's military theories and the Prussian concept of war games in a process of refining tactics. By training some sixty of the highest-ranking Japanese officers of the time in tactics and organization, he was able to replace the previous influences of the French advisors with his own philosophies. Meckel reinforced Hermann Roesler's ideal of subservience to the Emperor by teaching his pupils that Prussian military success was a consequence of the officer class's unswerving loyalty to their sovereign Emperor, however unswerving loyalty to superiors, in particular unswerving loyalty to the Emperor, was an ideal in Japan, with the unswerving loyalty to the Emperor being expressly codified in Articles XI–XIII of the Meiji Constitution. Meckel's reforms are credited with Japan's overwhelming victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895.
However, Meckel's tactical over-reliance on the use of infantry in offensive campaigns was considered to have contributed to the large number of Japanese casualties in the subsequent Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. On his return to Germany, Meckel was assigned to the Second Infantry Regiment in the fortress of Mainz, was subsequently promoted to major general, placed in command of all German forces in the Rhine area, he was named editor of the 3rd editions of Schellendorf's Duties of the General Staff. He became Deputy Chief of Staff of the German Army in 1895. However, he was disliked by German Emperor Wilhelm II, who opposed his elevation into the ranks of Prussian peerage, he was reassigned instead to command the German 8th Infantry Brigade, but retired from active service shortly thereafter. He died in the spa town of Gernrode at the age of 63. Bassford, Christopher.. Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and America, 1815-1945. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508383-5 Martin, Bernd..
Japan and Germany in the modern world. Providence/Oxford: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-047-2 Schellendorff, Paul Leopold Eduard Heinrich Anton Bronsart.. Duties of the General Staff translated by William Aldworth Home Hare. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Schramm, Ludger Schwarte and Jan Lazardzig.. Collection, Theater: Scenes of Knowledge in the 17th Century. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-017736-7 Welch, Claude Emerson.. Civilian Control of the Military: Theory and Cases from Developing Countries. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-87395-348-1 Yiu, Angela.. Chaos and order in the works of Natsume Sōseki. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1981-1