Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for elevated offices, such as in military rank and civilian law enforcement. "Marshal" is an ancient loanword from Norman French, which in turn is borrowed from Old Frankish *marhskalk, being still evident in Middle Dutch maerscalc, in modern Dutch maarschalk. It is cognate with Old High German mar-scalc "id.", modern German Marschall. It and meant "horse servant", from Germanic *marha- "horse" and *skalk- "servant"; this "horse servant" origin is retained in the current French name for farrier: maréchal-ferrant. The late Roman and Byzantine title of comes stabuli was a calque of the Germanic, which became Old French conestable and modern connétable, borrowed from the Old French, the English word "constable". In Byzantium, a marshal with elevated authority, notably a borderlands military command, was known as an exarch.
In many countries, the rank of marshal, cf. field marshal, is the highest army rank, outranking other general officers. The equivalent navy rank is admiral of the fleet. Marshals are but not appointed only in wartime. In many countries in Europe, the special symbol of a marshal is a baton, their insignia incorporate batons. In some countries, the term "marshal" is used instead of "general" in the higher air force ranks; the four highest Royal Air Force ranks are marshal of the Royal Air Force, air chief marshal, air marshal and air vice marshal. The five-star rank of marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth and Middle Eastern air forces. In the French Army and most National Armies modeled upon the French system, maréchal des logis is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant; some historical rulers have used special "marshal" titles to reward certain subjects. Though not military ranks, these honorary titles have been bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous grand marshal of Ayacucho Antonio José de Sucre.
Most famous are the Marshals of France, not least under Napoléon I. Another such title was that of Reichsmarschall, bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title as it had been "invented" for Göring, the only titleholder in history. In England during the First Barons' War the title "Marshal of the Army of God" was bestowed upon Robert Fitzwalter by election. Both the Soviet Union and Russia have army general as well as "marshal" in their rank system, the latter being an honorary rank; the following articles discuss the rank of marshal as used by specific countries: Feldmarschall and Feldmarschalleutnant Marshal of Bolivia Marshal Marshal Rigsmarsk Marshal of the German Democratic Republic Marshal of Finland France Marshal of France Marshal-of-Lodgings German Empire Generalfeldmarschall Japan Shōgun Italy Marshal of Italy Marshal – a warrant officer rank Land marshal of the Livonian Order Marshal of the Mongolian People's Republic Marshal Marshal of the air force Marshal of Paraguay Marshal of Peru Marszałek Polski Marshal Mareşal Field Marshal Marshal of the Russian Federation The Soviet Union had three marshals ranks: Marshal of the Soviet Union Chief marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches: the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops.
Marshal of the branch was used in five Soviet military branches – the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops, signal troops. Marshal of the branch is considered equivalent to the rank general of the army, used in the infantry and the marines. Mareşal Field marshal, marshal of the Royal Air Force Marshal of Venezuela Marshal of Yugoslavia See also: Mariscal and the upper condestable These ranks are considered the equivalent to a marshal: Chom Phon General of the army, fleet admiral and general of the Air Force Arteshbod Mushir Protostrator Stratarches Vojvoda Vrhovnik Wonsu Yuan Shuai Sima Gensui Nguyên soái or Thống chế The name is applied to the leader of military police organizations. Provost marshal – a term used in many countries Provost Marshal General – head of the military police in the United States Usually in monarchies, one or several of the senior digni
Army general (Russia)
Army general is the second highest military rank in the Russian Federation, inferior only to a marshal and superior to a colonel general. It is a direct counterpart of the Soviet "Army general" rank. At present it is the highest rank in the air force, aerospace defense forces, armored troops, engineer troops and signal troops. Unlike the Soviet Union where ranked officers were called marshals and chief marshals of a branch; the corresponding naval rank is admiral of the fleet. On appointment as Defense Minister on 7 May 1992, Pavel Grachev was the first officer to be promoted to this rank. Vladimir Yakovlev was promoted to this grade while serving as commander of the Strategic Missile Troops. Since 2013 rank insignia is one big star and army emblem on straps, used till 1997, like in Soviet Army since 1974. Between 1997 and 2013 the rank insignia was 4 stars in a row, like in the Soviet Union from 1943 to 1974; until 1997 generals wore a "small" marshal's star. But when in 1993 ranks of chief marshal and marshal of the branch in Russian Federation were abolished, there was no more reason for special rank insignia for generals.
By the President's decree of January 27, 1997 generals regained 1943-like straps with 4 stars in a row. Rank insignia Army general This list is translated from the corresponding article in Russian Language Wikipedia
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Army General (Soviet rank)
Army general was a rank of the Soviet Union, first established in June 1940 as a high rank for Red Army generals, inferior only to the marshal of the Soviet Union. In the following 51 years the Soviet Union created 133 generals of the army, 32 of whom were promoted to the rank of marshal of the Soviet Union, it is a direct counterpart of the Russian Federation's "Army general" rank. The rank was given to senior officers of the Ministry of Defence and General Staff, to meritorious military district commanders. From the 1970s, it was frequently given to the heads of the KGB and the Ministry of the Interior. Soviet army generals include Aleksei Antonov, Issa Pliyev and Yuri Andropov; the Soviet rank of army general is comparable to NATO OF-9 level and equivalent to the UK and US ranks of general. The corresponding naval rank is admiral of the fleet, used in both the Soviet and Russian navies, although conferred much more rarely. Army general was used for the infantry and marines, but in the air force, armoured troops, engineer troops and signal troops the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were used.
Versions of rank insignia Army general in the USSR The contemporary Russian Army retains the rank of army general and it is still used. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal of the branch were abolished, the most senior officers of these branches now hold the rank of army general. Although chief marshals and marshals and admirals of the fleet were in service equivalent to the army general, in rank they superseded them until 1974 when the rank army general was formally equated with the chief marshals of a troop arm and marshals of a troop arm, it was at this time that their shoulder straps were changed from a four star to a single, larger star and the army logo. After 1974 they were permitted to wear the marshal's star necklace. Before 1943, army generals wore five stars on their collar patches. Since 1943, they have worn four stars on their shoulder straps. From 1974 they wore a single large star with a ground forces emblem. In 1997 their Russian successors returned to the four-star insignia.
In 2013 the single large star returned as the insignia for the rank of army general in the Russian Federation. Russian military ranks Army general Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955, 1955–1991 Ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation's armed forces 1994–2010