A regiment is a military unit. Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the arm of service. In Medieval Europe, the term "regiment" denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader, also the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the end of the 17th century, regiments in most European armies were permanent units, numbering about 1,000 men and under the command of a colonel. During the modern era, the word "regiment" – much like "corps" – may have two somewhat divergent meanings, which refer to two distinct roles: a front-line military formation. In many armies, the first role has been assumed by independent battalions, task forces and other, similarly-sized operational units. However, these non-regimental units tend to be short-lived. A regiment may be a variety of sizes: smaller than a standard battalion, e.g. Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment. S. Infantry Regiment and Royal Regiment of Scotland; the French term régiment is considered to have entered military usage in Europe at the end of the 16th century, when armies evolved from collections of retinues who followed knights, to formally organised, permanent military forces.
At that time, regiments were named after their commanding colonels, disbanded at the end of the campaign or war. It was customary to name the regiment by its precedence in the line of battle, to recruit from specific places, called cantons; the oldest regiments which still exist, their dates of establishment, include the Spanish 9th Infantry Regiment “Soria”, Swedish Life Guards, the British Honourable Artillery Company and the King's Own Immemorial Regiment of Spain, first established in 1248 during the conquest of Seville by King Ferdinand the Saint. In the 17th century, brigades were formed as units combining infantry and artillery that were more effective than the older, single-arms regiments. By the beginning of the 18th century, regiments in most European continental armies had evolved into permanent units with distinctive titles and uniforms, each under the command of a colonel; when at full strength, an infantry regiment comprised two field battalions of about 800 men each or 8–10 companies.
In some armies, an independent regiment with fewer companies was labelled a demi-regiment. A cavalry regiment numbered 600 to 900 troopers. On campaign, these numbers were soon reduced by casualties and detachments and it was sometimes necessary to amalgamate regiments or to withdraw them to a depot while recruits were obtained and trained. With the widespread adoption of conscription in European armies during the nineteenth century, the regimental system underwent modification. Prior to World War I, an infantry regiment in the French, German and other smaller armies would comprise four battalions, each with a full strength on mobilization of about 1,000 men; as far as possible, the separate battalions would be garrisoned in the same military district, so that the regiment could be mobilized and campaign as a 4,000 strong linked group of sub-units. A cavalry regiment by contrast made up a single entity of up to 1,000 troopers. A notable exception to this practice was the British line infantry system where the two regular battalions constituting a regiment alternated between "home" and "foreign" service and came together as a single unit.
In the regimental system, each regiment is responsible for recruiting and administration. The regiment is responsible for recruiting and administering all of a soldier's military career. Depending upon the country, regiments can be administrative units or both; this is contrasted to the "continental system" adopted by many armies. In the continental system, the division is the functional army unit, its commander is the administrator of every aspect of the formation: his staff train and administer the soldiers and commanders of the division's subordinate units. Divisions are garrisoned together and share the same installations: thus, in divisional administration, a battalion commanding officer is just another officer in a chain of command. Soldiers and officers are transferred out of divisions as required; some regiments recruited from specific geographical areas, incorporated the place name into the regimental name. In other cases, regiments would recruit from a given age group within a nation, an ethnic group, or foreigners.
In other cases, new regiments were raised for new functions within an army.
A squadron was a cavalry subunit, a company-sized military formation. The term is still used to refer to modern cavalry units but can be used as a designation for other arms and services. In some countries, like Italy, the battalion-level cavalry unit is called "Squadron Group". In the modern United States Army, a squadron is an armored cavalry, air cavalry, or other reconnaissance unit whose organizational role parallels that of a battalion and is commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Prior to the revisions in the US Army structure in the 1880s, US Cavalry regiments were divided into companies, the battalion was an administrative designation used only in garrison; the reorganizations converted companies to troops and battalions to squadrons, made squadrons tactical formations as well as administrative ones. In the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, a squadron is the Royal Armoured Corps counterpart of an infantry company or artillery battery. A squadron is a sub-unit of a battalion-sized formation, is made up of two or more troops.
The designation is used for company-sized units in the Special Air Service, Special Reconnaissance Regiment, Honourable Artillery Company, Royal Engineers, Royal Corps of Signals, Royal Army Medical Corps, Royal Marine Commandos and Royal Logistic Corps and in the defunct Royal Corps of Transport. Squadrons are designated using letters or numbers. In some British Army units it is a tradition for squadrons to be named after an important historical battle in which the regiment has taken part. For example, the Royal Armoured Corps Training Regiment assigns trainees to "Waterloo" Squadron, named in honour of the significance the cavalry played in the Allied forces' victory over Napoleon. In some special cases, squadrons can be named after a unique honour, bestowed on the unit; the modern French Army is composed of troupes à cheval. Nowadays, the term escadron is used to describe a company of mounted soldiers but, for a long time, a cavalry escadron corresponded to an infantry battalion, both units grouping several companies.
The term compagnie has been discontinued and replaced by escadron in cavalry units since 1815 and in transportation units since 1968. In the "mounted arms" a captain in charge of an escadron is thus called a chef d'escadron. However, his superior in the hierarchy has the rank of chef d'escadrons. After 1815, the army began to write chef d'escadrons with an s in cavalry units to reflect the fact that this officer who used to be in charge of one squadron was now in charge of several squadrons. In other mounted branches, chef d'escadron is still spelled without s; the Norwegian army operates with units called eskadroner a company-equivalent unit in armoured cavalry units although not always. The 2nd Battalion, Brigade Nord, has a company-equivalent unit called kavalerieskadronen, or "the cavalry squadron", it serves as the main reconnaissance unit in the battalion. Like the mechanized infantry units, it wears the distinct khaki-coloured beret of the battalion instead of the normal black for cavalry units.
The Armoured Battalion has the majority of its constituents labeled eskadroner. Including the Cavalry Squadron, the Armoured Squadron and the Assault Squadrons, it includes the battalion's Support element, the Combat Support Squadron. Its members are referred to as dragoons, reflecting the nature of the unit; the Telemark Battalion has a number of units labelled eskadroner. This includes the Cavalry Squadron and the Combat Support Squadron. Kampeskadronen, a Squadron consisting of two Mechanized Infantry Platoons, mounted on CV90's, one Armoured Platoon with Leopard 2's and a Combat Service Support Unit, its soldiers were referred to as dragoons and consisted of conscripted troops. Used as OPFOR in exercise operations with other parts of the Norwegian Army. Squadron was used for companies of cavalry and armoured cavalry before 1948. After 1948, the name has been used for the armored formations of varying sizes. In Russian cavalry a squadron was a company-size unit, with 120-150 horses. In the Swedish cavalry a skvadron means a unit with the same size as a kompani in the rest of the army.
Jäger and military police units may have squadrons
Cohort (military unit)
A cohort was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, was composed of between 360-800 soldiers. A cohort is considered to be the equivalent of a modern military battalion; the cohort replaced the maniple following the reforms attributed to Gaius Marius in 107 BC. Shortly after the military reforms of Marius, each legion formed 10 cohorts; the cohorts were named "first cohort," "second cohort" etc. The first cohort gathered the most experienced legionaries, while the legionaries in the tenth cohort were the least experienced; until the middle of the third century AD, 10 cohorts made up a Roman legion. A cohort consisted of six centuriae, each commanded by a centurion assisted by junior officers. At various times prior to the reforms, a century might have 100 men; the cohort had no permanent commander. In order of seniority, the six centurions were titled hastatus posterior, hastatus prior, princeps posterior, princeps prior, pilus posterior and pilus prior.
The first centurion of the first cohort was called primus pilus. During the reforms in the 1st century AD, the command structure and make-up of the legions was formally laid down, in a form that would endure for centuries. Standard centuriae consisted of 80 men each; the first cohort was made up of five double-strength centuries. The centurion of its first century automatically was the most senior in the legion was known as the primus pilus; the primus pilus could be promoted to praefectus castrorum. The praefectus castrorum was in charge of the daily running of a legion; these ranks followed the order of seniority in the earlier manipular legions, where the youngest and least experienced units were termed hastati, next principes, the oldest and most experienced triarii. The reformed legion numbered about 5,000 men, including officers, engineers and a small unit of cavalry. Cohors alaria: allied or auxiliary unit Cohors quinquagenaria: auxiliary, nominally 500 strong Cohors milliaria: auxiliary, nominally 1000 strong Cohors classica: auxiliary unit formed of sailors and marines Cohors equitata: unit of auxiliary infantry with attached mounted squadrons Cohors peditata: infantry unit Cohors sagittaria: infantry auxiliary unit of bowmen Cohors speculatorum: guard unit of Mark Antony composed of scouts Cohors torquata: auxiliary unit granted a torques Cohors tumultuaria: irregular auxiliary unit Some paramilitary corps in Rome consisted of one or more cohorts, though none were part of a legion: The nine cohortes praetoriae, never grouped to a legion, the infamous Praetorians.
The term was first used to refer to the bodyguard of a general during the republic. Cohors togata was a unit of the Praetorian guard in civilian dress tasked with duties within the pomerium. Cohortes urbanae, "urban cohort": military police unit patrolling in the capital. Cohortes vigilum, "watchmen": unit of the police force, the fire brigade in the capital. Cohors Germanorum: the unit of Germani custodes corporis. Furthermore, the Latin word cohors was used in a looser way to describe a rather large "company" of people. Auxiliaries List of Roman auxiliary regiments
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries. It is a police rank in some police services. In origin, certain senior sergeants were assigned to administrative, supervisory, or other specialist duties as part of the staff of a British army regiment; as such they held seniority over sergeants who were members of a battalion or company, were paid correspondingly increased wages. Their seniority was indicated by a crown worn above the three sergeant's stripes on their uniform rank markings. In the Australian Army and Cadets, the rank of staff sergeant is being phased out, it was held by the company quartermaster sergeant or the holders of other administrative roles. Staff sergeants are always addressed as "Staff Sergeant" or "Staff", never as "Sergeant" as it degrades their rank. "Chief" is another nickname. A staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2. For further information, see Israel Defense Forces ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, soldiers are promoted from sergeant to staff sergeant after 28 months of service for combat soldiers, 32 months of service for non-combat soldiers, if they performed their duties appropriately during this time.
Soldiers who take a commander's course may become staff sergeants earlier. The rank insignia is composed of three clear-blue stripes with an embroidered fig leaf, a biblical motif, in the center of the rank insignia. Staff sergeants get a symbolic pay raise. For further information, see Military ranks and insignia of Norway. In the Norwegian Defence Forces, the tasks and responsibilities of the staff sergeant are not clear. In 1975, all of the Norwegian military branches abolished the system of using non-commissioned officers. Now, Norway is reintroducing the Non-Commissioned Officer Corps, allowing people to become officers without graduating from a military academy or having a university degree. A staff sergeant in the Singapore Armed Forces ranks below master sergeant, it is the second most senior specialist rank. Staff sergeants are addressed as "Staff Sergeant" or "Staff", but never "Sergeant". Staff sergeants may be appointed as company sergeant major if they are due for promotion to master sergeant.
They are addressed as "CSM" in camp, although in the past they were referred to as "Encik", now used to address only warrant officers. The rank insignia consists of two chevrons pointing up and three chevrons pointing down, with the Singapore coat of arms in the middle. In the Singapore Prison Service, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above the rank of Sergeant, is below the rank of Chief Warder; the rank insignia of SSGT is three pointed-down chevrons below it. In the Singapore Police Force, the rank of Staff Sergeant is being phased out with the newly overhauled "unified police rank structure" which allows a direct-entry Sergeant to be eligible for emplacement to the rank of Inspector without a degree. In the past, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above the rank of Sergeant, below the rank of Senior Staff Sergeant. However, all three grades of Sergeants all don the same three chevrons insignia. In the National Cadet Corps, Staff Sergeants are cadets who have passed the 3-days 2-nights Senior Specialists Leaders Course successfully.
The rank of Staff Sergeant is below Master Sergeant. Staff sergeants wear a rank insignia of two pointed-up chevrons, one Singapore coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons, with the letters'NCC' located below the insignia to differentiate NCC cadets from SAF personnel. In the National Police Cadet Corps and the National Civil Defence Cadet Corps, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above Sergeant, below Station Inspector and Warrant Officer respectively; the rank of Staff Sergeant is awarded to cadets when they are in Secondary Four, before they pass out. NPCC and NCDCC Staff Sergeants wear a rank insignia of one Singapore coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons; the letters'NPCC' and'NCDCC' are located below the insignia so as to differentiate NPCC and NCDCC cadets from Singapore Police Force and Singapore Civil Defence Force personnel respectively. In the St John Brigade, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above Sergeant, below Senior Staff Sergeant. Staff Sergeants in SJB wear a rank insignia of one St John coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons.
Staff Sergeant of the R. O. C Armed Forces in Taiwan ranks below Sergeant and above Corporal, making it different from the armed forces of other countries where staff sergeant ranks higher than sergeant; the rank of Staff Sergeant exists in the Army, Air Force and the Marine Corps, is equivalent to the Petty officer 2nd Class in the Navy. In the British Army, staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2; the rank is given a NATO code of OR-7. The insignia is the monarch's crown above three downward pointing chevrons. Staff sergeants can hold other appointments, such a
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms; the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control and administration of military organization is undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War; these in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.
The civilian or civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet known as a Minister of Defense. Subordinated to that position are Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants. There are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work. In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services: army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the standard model of four basic Armed Services.
Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons; some other variations include: Bangladesh: Army, Air Force, Border Guards, Coast Guard Brazil: Army, Air Force, Firefighters Chile: Army, Air Force, National Police Croatia: Army, Air Force and Air Defence Egypt: Army, Air Force, Air Defense France: Army, Air Force, National Guard Greece: Army, Air Force Germany: Army, Air Force, Joint Support Service, Joint Medical Services Hungary: Army, Air Force India: Army, Air Force, Strategic Forces Command, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces Indonesia: Army, Air Force, Marines Iran: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Revolutionary Guard Italy: Army, Air Force, Military Police Japan: Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, Japan Air Self Defense Force Latvia: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard Netherlands: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie Norway: Army, Air Force, Home Guard, Cyber Defence Force Pakistan: Army, Air Force, Frontier Corps, Pakistan Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Gilgit Scouts, Pakistan National Guard, Airports Security Force, Frontier Constabulary, National Command Authority Philippines: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard Poland: Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defence Force People's Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force, People's Armed Police Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Reserve Force, Military Police Russian Federation: Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces plus three independent arms of service South Africa: Army, Air Force, Military Health Service Spain: Army, Air Force, Civil Guard, Emergencies Unit, Royal Guard Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Civil Security Force Turkey: Land Forces, Air Force, Naval Forces, Coast Guard, War Academies United States: Army, Air Force, Coast Guard United Kingdom: Army, Air Force, Marines Venezuela: Army, Air Force, National Guard, National Militia Vietnam: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Guard, Coast GuardIn larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.
Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units, it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military. Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist, it is common, at least in the European and Nort
A brigade is a major tactical military formation, composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are infantry or armored. In addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, logistic units or sub-units; such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups. On operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may be specialized and comprise battalions of a single branch, for example cavalry, armored, air defence, engineers, signals or logistic; some brigades are classified as independent or separate and operate independently from the traditional division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of 3,200 to 5,500 troops. However, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.
The Soviet Union, its forerunners and successors use "regiment" instead of brigade, this was common in much of Europe until after World War II. A brigade's commander is a major general, brigadier general, brigadier or colonel. In some armies, the commander is rated as a General Officer; the brigade commander has staff. The principal staff officer a lieutenant colonel or colonel, may be designated chief of staff, although until the late 20th century British and similar armies called the position'brigade-major'; some brigades may have a deputy commander. The headquarters has a nucleus of staff officers and support that can vary in size depending on the type of brigade. On operations, additional specialist elements may be attached; the headquarters will have its own communications unit. In some gendarmerie forces, brigades are the basic-level organizational unit. "The brigade as a military unit came about starting in the 15th century when the British army and militia developed a unit to control more than one infantry regiment or cavalry squadron".
Each regiment, cavalry squadron, or artillery battery operated somewhat independently, with its own field officer or battery commander reporting directly to the field force or "army" commander. As such a "field army" became larger, the number of subordinate commanders became unmanageable for the officer in general command of said army a major general, to command. In order to streamline command relationships, as well as effect some modicum of tactical control in regard to combined arms operations, an intermediate level of command became evident. "The term's origin is found in two French roots, which together, meant roughly'those who fight' ". Another theory for derivation of the term brigade derives from Italian brigata, as used for example in the introduction to The Decameron, where it refers only to a group of ten, or Old French brigare, meaning "company" of an undefined size, which in turn derives from a Celtic root briga, which means "strife"; the so-called "brigada" was a well-mixed unit, comprising infantry and also artillery, designated for a special task.
The size of such "brigada" ranged from a reinforced "company" of up to two regiments. The "brigada" was the forerunner of the modern "battalion task force", "battle group", or "brigade"; the brigade was improved as a tactical unit by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, who introduced it in 1631 during a reorganization of the Swedish Army during the Thirty Years' War. The creation of the brigade overcame the lack of coordination inherent in the traditional army structure consisting of independent regiments of infantry and units of supporting arms acting separately under their individual commanding officers. Gustavus accomplished this battlefield coordination by combining battalions of infantry with cavalry troops and artillery batteries into a "battle group", viz. brigada or "brigade" commanded by a senior colonel, or lieutenant colonel, appointed as a brigadier-general. The brigade organization was copied in France by Maréchal Turenne, who made it a permanent standing unit, requiring the creation in 1667 of a permanent rank of brigadier des armées du roi.
Unlike the Swedish brigades, French brigades at that time were composed of two to five regiments of the same branch. The rank, intermediate between colonel and maréchal de camp, disappeared in 1788 and should not be confused with that of général de brigade, equivalent to a brigadier general. In the Argentinian Army, the typical brigade is composed of an HQ company, two or three battalions of the brigade´s main branch, which give the brigade its denomination, plus one battalion of the other branch, plus one or two artillery groups, an engineers battalion or company, a signals company, intelligence company, an army aviation section and a logistics battalion. Mountain brigades have a special forces company; the brigade is commanded by a brigadier general or a senior colonel, who may be promoted to general during his tenure as brigade comman