General Jean-Antoine Marbot was a French general and politician. Marbot was a member of the Garde du Corps but resigned upon the outbreak of the French Revolution, in 1791 he was elected a deputy to the Legislative Assembly. He took part in the French Revolutionary Wars in the Cerdagne against Spain, by 1795 he had been promoted to general de division. In 1795 he was elected to the Council of Ancients and twice served as its president, in 1799 he succeeded Joubert as head of the Paris military district. In 1800 Marbot died in the siege of Genoa under André Masséna and he was the father of Antoine Adolphe Marcelin Marbot and Jean Baptiste Antoine Marcellin de Marbot
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Likewise, air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces, a field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from army in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as First Army, whereas corps are usually distinguished by Roman numerals. A field army may be given a name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine. The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, while the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as field army, it may be translated as the more generic field force or mobile force. In some armed forces, an army is or has been equivalent to a corps-level unit, prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an area army.
In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front and it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary significantly between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, a battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are controlled by a general or lieutenant general, Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
Charles Edward Jennings de Kilmaine
Charles Edward Jennings, sometimes romanticized as Brave Kilmaine, was an Irish soldier and revolutionary who served France in the eighteenth century. He was committed to the cause of Irish independence and a supporter of the French Revolution. He played a role in the Irish independence movement. Jennings was known for his reserve and as one of the most charismatic Irish generals of the Revolutionary. Jennings was born on October 19,1751 at Sauls Court, Temple Bar and his father, Dr. Theobald Jennings, of Polaniran, County Galway was a prominent physician. Kilmaines mother was Lady Eleanor Saul, in 1738 Dr. Jennings and Lady Eleanor left Ireland and settled in Tonnay-Charente in south-west France. In 1751 Lady Eleanor became pregnant and left France for Dublin in order that her child might be born in Ireland, Jennings spent his early boyhood in Sauls Court with his relatives. When he was 11 years old he left Ireland and joined his father in France, Jennings was educated in Tonnay-Charente and quickly became proficient in French.
Jennings began his career in 1764 at the age of 14 when he entered the Austrian army. After seven years service as a officer in Austria, he entered the French army in 1774. In September,1778 Kilmaine was appointed adjutant of the Volontaires-etrangers de Lauzun and he served with this unit in Senegal in 1779 and in America under Rochambeau, and remained after it was reorganized as a hussar regiment. In 1780 Jennings was appointed sous-lieutenant of Lauzuns Legion and he served under Rochambeau and the Marquis de Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War. He was deeply affected by his experiences in America and this, combined with the impressions made upon him during his youth in Ireland and the teachings of his father, caused Jennings to imbibe strongly the revolutionary ideals of the era. He developed strong republican principles and upon his return to France he became a supporter of the French Revolution. In 1786 he was awarded the title lieutenant in command, two years he attained the rank of captain. A growing military reputation brought him promotion to chef descadron.
This was especially important leading up to and during the French revolution, particularly among foreigners, for almost a year he pursued family life and philanthropic interests. In 1792, by invitation of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
Louis-Gabriel Suchet, Duke of Albufera, was a Marshal of France and one of Napoleons most brilliant generals. Suchet was born to a manufacturer in Lyon. He originally intended to follow his fathers business but, serving as a volunteer in the cavalry of the National Guard at Lyon, in 1793, he was serving as a battalion chief when he captured the British general Charles OHara at Toulon. During the 1796 Italian campaign, he was wounded at Cerea on 11 October. In October 1797, he was promoted to command of a half-brigade and his services in the Tyrol under Joubert that year and in Switzerland under Brune over the next were recognized by his promotion to the rank of brigadier general. He took no part in the Egyptian campaign but was made Brunes chief of staff in August and restored the efficiency, in July 1799, he was promoted to division general and made Jouberts chief of staff in Italy. In 1800, he was named second-in-command to Masséna and he took a prominent part in the rest of the Italian campaign up to the armistice of Treviso.
In the campaigns of 1805 and 1806, he enhanced his reputation at the Battles of Austerlitz, Jena, Pułtusk. He obtained the title of count on 19 March 1808, ordered to Spain, he took part in the Siege of Saragossa, after which he was named commander of the army of Aragon and governor of that region. Within two years, he brought the area into complete submission by wise and adroit administration no less than by his brilliant valor, beaten by the Spanish at Alcañiz, he sprung back and soundly defeated the army of Blake y Joyes at María on 14 June 1809. On 22 April 1810, he defeated ODonnell at Lleida, after the siege of Tarragona, he was named marshal of France on 8 July 1811. In 1812, he captured Valencia, for which he was rewarded with the dukedom of Albufera nearby, when the tide turned against France, Suchet defended his conquests one by one until compelled to withdraw from Spain, after which he took part in Soults defensive campaign of 1814. The restored Bourbon king Louis XVIII made him a peer of France on 4 June with a seat in the upper house, during Napoleons brief restoration, Suchet was given command of an army on the Alpine frontier.
He died in the Castle of Saint-Joseph near Marseille on 3 January 1826 and he wrote his memoirs in two volumes from 1829 to 34. The chicken dish poularde à la dAlbuféra is named after him and he married Honorine Anthoine de Saint-Joseph, a niece of Julie Clary, the wife of Joseph Bonaparte, on 16 November 1808
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars
The War of the First Coalition broke out in autumn 1792, when several European powers formed an alliance against Republican France. The first major operation was the annexation of Nice by 30,000 French troops and this was reversed in mid-1793, when the Republican forces were withdrawn to deal with a revolt in Lyon, triggering a counter-invasion of Savoy by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The conflict soon escalated with Austrian and Neapolitan forces being mobilised for an invasion of southern France to recover Nice, the Allied forces were bolstered by some 45,000 Austrians and Neapolitans, with additional support from the British Royal Navy. This two-pronged French offensive drove back the Allied force, despite their strong positions, a new offensive, again devised by General Bonaparte, was similarly successful despite its more complicated nature, calling for the co-ordination of the Army of Italy and the Army of the Alps. Further French assaults on the Allied positions were called off under orders from war minister Carnot, the commanders in the field were unhappy about this decision, but appeals were interrupted by the overthrow of the Committee of Public Safety and its leader, Maximilien de Robespierre.
During the political chaos ensued in the French army, the Allies launched an assault on Savona. Ignoring Carnots orders, the commander of the Army of Italy launched a counter-offensive, following this the French consolidated the front and awaited further opportunities. The main focus of the war shifted north to the Rhine, until 29 June 1795, nominally 107, 000-strong, the Army of Italy could only manage to field an effective force of about 30,000. Kellermann, who had resumed command, appealed to Carnot for reinforcements, General Bonaparte was appointed to the general staff where he devised a third plan for an attack towards Vado and Ceva. Kellermann was replaced by General Schérer soon after and he carried out the attacks, following a short respite in hostilities Schérer resigned and Bonaparte was appointed commander-in-chief on 2 March 1796. The motives for Bonapartes appointment were most likely political, on 9 March, Bonaparte had married Joséphine de Beauharnais, who had shared her imprisonment with the woman who had become wife to Tallien, one of the Directors of the French Republic.
It was universally believed that Josephine had been introduced by her friend to the First Director, josephines letters claim Barras had promised the command to Bonaparte, before shed consented to marry him. Barras is cited by his colleagues as saying of Bonaparte, Advance this man or he will advance himself without you, Bonaparte had shown himself to be highly ambitious and had made a name for himself following 13 Vendémiaire in 1795. Bonaparte launched attacks almost immediately after he arrived on the front on 27 March and his 37,000 men and 60 guns were facing more than 50,000 Allied troops in the theatre. His only chance of support came from Kellermanns Army of the Alps, Bonaparte had no chance of gaining reinforcements as the Republican war effort was being concentrated on the massive offensives planned on the Rhine. At the Battle of Montenotte Bonaparte defeated the Austrians and fought a second engagement around Dego soon after, following these battles he launched an all-out invasion of Piedmont and won a further victory at Mondovì.
Piedmont was forced to accept the Armistice of Cherasco on 28 April, knocking it out of the war and it had taken Bonaparte just a month to defeat Piedmont, a country which had resisted the French armies for over three years. Total loses during the campaign were 6,000 French troops
Louis Alexandre Berthier, 1st Prince de Wagram, 1st Duc de Valangin, 1st Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a Marshal and Vice-Constable of France beginning in 1808, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon. He was the eldest of five children, with the three brothers serving in the French Army, two becoming generals during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1780 he went to North America with Rochambeau, and on his return, having attained the rank of colonel, he was employed in various staff posts and in a military mission to Prussia. During the Revolution, as Chief of Staff of the Versailles National Guard, he protected the aunts of Louis XVI from popular violence, and aided their escape. In the war of 1792 he was at once made Chief of Staff to Marshal Lückner and he played an important role in the Battle of Rivoli, relieving Barthélemy Joubert when the latter was attacked by the Austrian general Jozsef Alvinczi. He accompanied Napoleon throughout the brilliant campaign of 1796, and was left in charge of the army after the Treaty of Campo Formio, after this he joined his chief in Egypt, serving there until Napoleons return.
He assisted in the coup détat of 18 Brumaire, afterwards becoming Minister of War for a time. In the campaign of Marengo he was the head of the Army of Reserve. He himself was hit by a bullet in the arm, two of his aides-de-camp, Dutaillis and La Borde, had their horses killed. At the close of the campaign he was employed in civil and this included a mission to Spain in August,1800, which resulted in the retrocession of Louisiana to France by the Treaty of San Ildefonso,1 October 1800, and led to the Louisiana Purchase. When Napoléon Bonaparte deposed King Frederick William III of Prussia from the principality of the canton of Neuchatel and it lasted until 1814 and brought him the title of sovereign prince. When Napoleon became emperor, Berthier was at once made a marshal of the empire. He took part in the campaigns of Austerlitz and Friedland, in 1808 he served in the Peninsular War, and in 1809 he served in Austrian theatre during War of the Fifth Coalition, after which he was given the title of prince of Wagram.
He was with Napoleon in Russia in 1812, Germany in 1813, and France in 1814, till the fall of the French Empire, following Napoleons first abdication, Berthier retired to his 600-acre estate, and resumed his hobbies of falconry and sculpture. He made peace with Louis XVIII in 1814, and accompanied the king on his entry into Paris. During Napoleons short exile on Elba, he informed Berthier of his projects, Berthier was much perplexed as to his future course and, being unwilling to commit to Napoleon, fell under the suspicion both of his old leader and of Louis XVIII. On Napoleons return to France, Berthier withdrew to Bamberg, where he died a few weeks on 1 June 1815 in a fall from an upstairs window. The loss of Berthiers skills at Waterloo was keenly felt by Napoleon, as he stated succinctly, If Berthier had been there, Berthier was an immensely skilled chief of staff, but he was not a great field commander
The French Army, officially the Land Army is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. Along with the French Air Force, the French Navy and the National Gendarmerie, the current Chief of Staff of the French Army is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. All soldiers are considered professionals following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997, as of 2014, the French Army employed 111,628 personnel. In addition, the element of the French Army consisted of 15,453 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Kings of France needed reliable troops during and after the Hundred Years War and these units of troops were raised by issuing ordonnances to govern their length of service and payment. These Compagnies dordonnance formed the core of the Gendarme Cavalry into the sixteenth century, stationed throughout France and summoned into larger armies as needed. There was made for Francs-archers units of bowmen and foot soldiers raised from the non-noble classes.
The bulk of the infantry for warfare was still provided by urban or provincial militias, raised from an area or city to fight locally and named for their recruiting grounds. Gradually these units became more permanent, and in 1480s Swiss instructors were recruited and these men would be paid and contracted and receive training. Henry II further regularised the French army by forming standing Infantry regiments to replace the Militia structure, the first of these the Régiments de Picardie, Piémont and Champagne were called the Les Vieux Corps. It was normal policy to disband regiments after a war was over as a cost saving measure with the Vieux Corps and the Kings own Household Troops the Maison du Roi being the only survivors. Regiments could be raised directly by the King and so called after the region in which they were raised, or by the nobility and so called after the noble or his appointed colonel. In 1684 there was a reorganisation of the French infantry and again in 1701 to fit in with Louis XIVs plans.
This reshuffle created many of the regiments of the French Army and standardised their equipment. The army of the Sun King tended to wear coats with coloured linings. There were exceptions and the troops, recruited from outside France. In addition to these regiments of the line the Maison du Roi provided several elite units, the Swiss Guards, French Guards, the revolution split the army with the main mass losing most of its officers to aristocratic flight or guillotine and becoming demoralised and ineffective. The French Guard joined the revolt and the Swiss Guards were massacred during the storming of the Tuileries palace, under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars
Marshal of the Empire
Marshal of the Empire was a civil dignity during the First French Empire. It was created by Sénatus-consulte on 18 May 1804 and to a large extent resurrected the formerly abolished title of Marshal of France. According to the Sénatus-consulte, a Marshal was an officer of the Empire, entitled to a high-standing position at the Court. Although not a rank, a Marshal displayed four silver stars, while the top military rank, General of Division. Furthermore, the Marshalate quickly became the sign of the supreme military attainment. Each Marshal held his own coat of arms, was entitled to special honours and they wore distinctive uniforms and were entitled to carry a cylinder-shaped baton, which was a symbol of their authority. Throughout his 1804–1815 reign, Napoleon appointed a total of 26 Marshals, the initial list of 1804 included 14 names of active generals and four names of retired generals, who were given the honorary title of Marshal. Six other promotions ensued, with eight other generals elevated to the Marshalate, the title often ensured a highly privileged social status – four Marshals were created Counts of the Empire and 17 received either the title of Duke or Prince.
With two exceptions – Jean-Baptiste Bessières and Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier – the Marshals led a lifestyle and left behind significant, at times immense. Two Marshals – Joachim Murat and Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte – went on to become Kings, a single commander, Louis-Vincent-Joseph Le Blond de Saint-Hilaire, was publicly named as a Marshal-to-be by Napoleon, but he died of battle wounds before the next promotions were made. Most of the Marshals held significant commands during the Napoleonic Wars, three of them – Jean Lannes, Louis-Nicolas Davout and Louis-Gabriel Suchet were virtually never defeated in pitched battle, despite fighting in dozens of engagements. Often formidable when serving under the command of Napoleon, the Marshals proved to be less effective when having to cooperate. Some repeatedly acted in ill-faith when placed under the command of another Marshal, after Napoleons downfall, most of them swore allegiance to the Bourbon Restoration and several went on to hold significant commands and positions.
The boulevards of the marshals in Paris are a collection of thoroughfares that encircle the city near its outermost margins, most bear the name of marshals who served under Napoleon I. The French word Maréchal traces its origins back to the Carolingians, from the Ancient German word marascahl, with the growing importance of the battle horse during the early Middle Age, the role came to acquire some prestige and began to be known as Marshal of France. Albéric Clément, who led King Philippe-Augustes vanguard during the victory over the English at Bouvines in 1214, was the first recorded incumbent. At first, the role was granted to a single person, as early as the 15th century, the Marshals no longer cared for the Kings horses and stables, and were simply military leaders, a role that they would retain through to modern times. Although the position remained highly prestigious, their number grew throughout the centuries, eleven years later, Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor of the French and wanted to institute a military elite for the new French Empire
Armand Louis de Gontaut
In 1773, he was Grand second warden of Grand Orient de France. Born in Paris, he bore the title of Duc de Lauzun, which had passed, on the death of Antoine Nompar de Caumont, duc de Lauzun, to his niece, the wife of Charles Armand de Gontaut, duc de Biron. In 1788, he succeeded to the duchy of Biron on the death of his uncle, Louis Antoine de Gontaut, similarly the Duke was a popular companion and house guest. After, for a while, spending his fortune in various parts of Europe, he attracted attention by an essay on the defences of Great Britain. This led to his appointment to a command against the British in 1779, in February he commanded the troops that captured Fort St Louis, in Senegal, from the British. After raising an army of volunteer hussars and infantry, subsequently known as Lauzuns Legion and he arrived with 600 of his men in Rhode Island, the remainder were in France, prevented from leaving. Despite having only a portion of his force, he engaged in several skirmishes, including one near Gloucester.
Lauzuns Legion left their quarters in Lebanon, Connecticut on 9 June 1781. While in Connecticut, the French made camps in Middletown, North Haven and they arrived at North Stratford, now Nichols on 28 June and stayed for two days. From the hilltop in North Stratford, now Abraham Nichols Park, one could see for seventy miles past Long Island Sound to New York. The French used this time to spy on British ships in New York harbor, after the successful campaign at Yorktown and subsequent British surrender, Lauzun returned to France a hero and was made maréchal de camp. In 1789, he was returned as deputy to the Estates-General by the noblesse of Quercy, in 1791, he was sent by the National Constituent Assembly to receive the oath of the army of Flanders, and subsequently was appointed to its command. In July 1792, on the wake of the conflict, he was named commander of the Army of the Rhine. In May 1793, he was transferred to the command of the French Revolutionary Army on the La Rochelle front and his wife, Amélie de Boufflers, was herself executed on 27 June 1794.
An American warship was named after Armand Louis de Gontaut, USS Duc de Lauzun, P Street Bridge, a bridge over Rock Creek Park in Washington DC, was renamed Lauzuns Legion Bridge in 2006. The Duc de Lauzun, was portrayed in the book, Mistress of the Revolution by Catherine Delors and he is portrayed as the main character in the play Fortuna by Marina Tsvetaeva. Life and Letters of Samuel Holden Parsons, Ostenigo Publishing Co