Army of Occupation Medal
The Army of Occupation Medal is a military award of the United States military, established by the United States War Department on 5 April 1946. The medal was created in the aftermath of the Second World War to recognize those who had performed occupation service in either Germany, Austria, or Japan; the original Army of Occupation Medal was intended only for members of the United States Army, but was expanded in 1948 to encompass the United States Air Force shortly after that service's creation. The Navy and Marine equivalent of the Army of Occupation Medal is the Navy Occupation Service Medal. Although authorized in 1946, it was not until 1947 that the first Army of Occupation Medals were distributed; the first medal was presented to General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force Commander during World War II; because of the legal status of West Berlin as an occupied territory, the Army of Occupation Medal was issued for forty-five years until the unification of Germany in 1990, making it one of the longest active military awards of both the Second World War and the Cold War.
In addition, some recipients of the award were born two generations after the end of the conflict which the medal was designed to represent. Much like the National Defense Service Medal, the Army of Occupation Medal has come to be considered a "multi-generational" award. To be awarded the Army of Occupation Medal, a service member was required to have performed at least thirty consecutive days of military duty within a designated geographical area of military occupation; the Army of Occupation Medal was presented with a campaign clasp, denoting either European or Asian service, depending on the region in which occupation service had been performed. Campaign clasps were worn on the full sized medal only with no corresponding device when wearing the Army of Occupation Medal as a ribbon on a military uniform. In addition to the Germany clasp, for those service members who performed 92 consecutive days of military duty during the Berlin Airlift in 1948 and 1949, the Berlin Airlift Device is authorized as a device to the Army of Occupation Medal.
Germany Austria Italy West Berlin Japan Korea The medal is bronze measuring 1.25 inches across. On the obverse, are the abutments of the Remagen Bridge with the words "ARMY OF OCCUPATION" inscribed above. On the reverse, is Mount Fuji with a low hanging cloud over two Japanese junks above a wave and the inscribed date "1945". A bronze clasp 0.125 inches wide and 1.5 inches in length with the word "GERMANY" or "JAPAN" is worn on the suspension ribbon of the medal to indicate service in Europe or the Far East. The ribbon is 1.375 inches wide with two thin white stripes at the edges and two thicker stripes in the middle, the first being black and the second in scarlet. A myth was that if a soldier served in Germany the ribbon's black band was worn to his right and if in Japan the red was to his right; the only approved display was for the black band to be to the wearer's right
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell
Philippine Campaign Medal
The Philippine Campaign Medal is a medal of the United States Armed Forces, created to denote service of U. S. military members in the Philippine–American War between the years of 1899 and 1913. Although a single service medal, the Philippine Campaign Medal was issued under separate criteria for both the United States Army and the U. S. Navy; the Philippine Campaign Medal was a separate award from the Philippine Congressional Medal, an Army medal awarded for special services rendered during the Philippine–American War. The Army's version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on January 12, 1905 by order of the United States War Department; the medal was authorized to any Army service member who had served in campaigns ashore, on the Philippine Islands, from February 4, 1899 to a date, yet to be determined. In January 1914, the Philippine Campaign Medal was declared closed with the following the approved operations for issuance. Any action in the Philippines between February 4, 1899 and July 4, 1902.
Service in the Department of Mindanao between February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904. Actions against the Pulajanes on Leyte Island between July 20, 1906 and June 30, 1907 Military actions on Samar between August 2, 1904, June 30, 1907. Military actions against Pala on Jolo between April and May, 1905. Military actions against Datu Ali on Mindanao in October 1905. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bud-Dajo, Jolo in March 1906. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mount Bagsac, between January and July 1913. Military actions against hostile Moros on Mindanao or Jolo between 1910 and 1913. Any action in which a U. S. service member was killed or wounded between February 4, 1899, December 31, 1913. The Army's Philippine Campaign Medal was issued as a one time service medal regardless of the number of campaigns in which a service member participated; the Silver Citation Star was authorized for those who had performed feats of bravery. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was established on June 27, 1908 by special order of the United States Navy Department.
The obverse of this medal was the same for both services, while the reverse included the service name. To be awarded the Philippine Campaign Medal, a Navy or Marine Corps service member was required to perform service in the Philippine Islands between the dates of February 4, 1899 and December 31, 1904; such service was required to be either ashore in support of Army units or on board certain vessels assigned to the area of the Philippine Sea. The Navy version of the Philippine Campaign Medal was as a one-time award with no devices authorized; the Army and Navy versions of the Philippine Campaign Medal varied in the design with the Army's version of the award displaying a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Insurrection" centered above the year numeral 1898 and below a palm tree and Roman lamp. The ribbon for the Army's medal consisted of a wide blue ribbon with two red stripes; the Navy Philippine Campaign Medal was considered a separate award from the Army medal and appeared as suspended from a red and yellow ribbon.
On August 12, 1913, the Navy changed the ribbon color to match the Army's version of the award and from that point on the Army and Navy Philippine Campaign Medals were considered the same award but with different medal styles. The Navy's Philippine Campaign Medal displayed a bronze medallion with the words "Philippine Campaign", centered above the dates "1898–1903", below a depiction of a stone gate leading into Manila. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Philippine Campaign Medal Navy History and Heritage Command The Philippine Campaign Medal
China Campaign Medal
The China Campaign Medal is a decoration of the United States Army, created by order of the United States War Department on January 12, 1905. The medal recognizes service in the China Relief Expedition, conducted by the United States Army at the turn on the 20th century during the Boxer Rebellion. To be awarded the China Campaign Medal, a service member must have performed military duty in China, between the dates of June 20, 1900 and May 27, 1901, with such duty being in service of the China Relief Expedition. For those service members who were cited for gallantry in action, the Citation Star is authorized as a device to the China Campaign Medal; the United States Navy equivalent of the China Campaign Medal was the China Relief Expedition Medal. A similar medal, known as the China Service Medal, was created by the Navy in 1941. On the obverse is the Imperial Chinese five-toed dragon with the inscription CHINA RELIEF EXPEDITION around the upper border and the dates 1900–1901 at the bottom. On the reverse is a trophy composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kris.
Below the trophy are the words FOR SERVICE. Around the border at the top are the words UNITED STATES ARMY and around the bottom are thirteen stars; the ribbon is 13⁄8 inches wide and is composed of the following vertical stripes: 1/16 inch Ultramarine blue, 11⁄4 inch Golden yellow, 1/16 inch Ultramarine Blue. Army units which received credit for campaign participation may display the streamer on the organizational flag; the inscription will be as indicated on the unit's lineage and honors. There are three streamers displayed on the Army flag to represent the China Relief Expedition; the inscriptions are: TIENTSIN 1900 YANG-TSUN 1900 PEKING 1900 List of military decorations Awards and decorations of the United States military This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Army."China Relief Expeditionary Medal". Service Medals and Campaign Credits of the United States Navy. Naval Historical Center. 13 June 1998. Retrieved 2007-10-17."China Campaign Medal". The Institute of Heraldry, United States Army.
Archived from the original on 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-10-17
Indian Campaign Medal
The Indian Campaign Medal is a decoration established by War Department General Orders 12, 1907. The medal was retroactively awarded to any soldier of the U. S. Army who had participated in the American Indian Wars against the Native Americans between 1865 and 1891. A; the Indian Campaign Medal was established by War Department General Orders 12 in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. B; the initial ribbon was all red. C. Campaign streamers of the same design as the service ribbon are authorised for display by units receiving campaign credit participation for Indian Wars as early as 1790; the inscriptions for streamers displayed on the organizational flag will be as indicated in the unit's lineage and honors. The inscriptions for the 14 streamers displayed on the Army flag are listed in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22; the Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal: Southern Oregon, northern California, Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War between 1872 and 1873. Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873. Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877. Nez Perce War in 1877. Bannock War in 1878. Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879. Against the Sheep-Eaters and Bannocks between June and October, 1879. Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880. Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886. Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891. Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891; the Code of Federal Regulations describes the medal as follows: The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged.
On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe, black stripe, red band, black stripe, red stripe; the Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct; the silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891. Awards and decorations of the United States military U.
S. military history: Indian conflicts, battles and campaigns "Named Campaigns – Indian Wars". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 13 December 2005. US Army Institute of Heraldry: Indian Campaign Medal
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Nicaraguan Campaign Medal
The Nicaraguan Campaign Medal is a campaign medal of the United States Navy, authorized by Presidential Order of Woodrow Wilson on September 22, 1913. A medal, the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was authorized by an act of the United States Congress on November 8, 1929; the two medals were considered two separate awards, with the original medal being referred to as the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal. The First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was created to recognize those U. S. Navy personnel and U. S. Marines who had participated in amphibious actions in Nicaragua between 29 July and 14 November 1912; the following naval commands, all embarked U. S. Marines, were eligible for the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal: USS Annapolis USS California USS Cleveland USS Colorado USS Denver USS Glacier USS Maryland USS Tacoma The medal for the First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal displayed a volcano, rising from a lake, with the words “Nicaraguan Campaign” and the date 1912 on the edges of the medal; the medal itself was suspended from a red ribbon with two thick blue stripes.
On the reverse of each medal was a Navy or Marine Corps crest, depending on the recipient's branch of service. The First Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was a one-time-only decoration and there were no devices or attachments authorized. "Nicaraguan Campaign Medal". Archived from the original on August 15, 2006. Http://www.history.navy.mil/medals/2nic.htm