Battle of Cloyd's Mountain
The Battle of Cloyd's Mountain was a Union victory in western Virginia on May 9, 1864 that allowed the Union forces to destroy the last line connecting Tennessee to Virginia. Brigadier General George Crook commanded the Union Army of West Virginia, made up of three brigades from the Division of the Kanawha; when Ulysses S. Grant launched his spring offensive of 1864, two Union armies marched towards Richmond and a third moved into the Shenandoah Valley. Crook's troops were involved in the offensive and began to march through the Appalachian Mountains into southwest Virginia, his objective was to destroy the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, working in conjunction with William W. Averell's offensive, which had similar objectives. Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins was in command of the few scattered Confederate units protecting the rail lines, he had assumed command only the day. Jenkins was an experienced soldier. During the 1863 Gettysburg Campaign, Jenkins' Brigade had formed the cavalry screen for Richard S. Ewell's Second Corps.
Jenkins led his men through the Cumberland Valley into Pennsylvania and seized Chambersburg, burning down nearby railroad structures and bridges. He accompanied Ewell's column to Carlisle skirmishing with Union militia at the Battle of Sporting Hill near Harrisburg. During the Battle of Gettysburg, Jenkins missed the final day's fighting, he did not recover to rejoin his command until autumn. Jenkins spent the early part of 1864 raising and organizing a large cavalry force for service in western Virginia. By May, he had been appointed Commander of the Department of Western Virginia with his headquarters at Dublin. Jenkins, having decided to make a stand at Cloyd's Mountain, set up a strong defensive position; when Crook arrived, he decided against a frontal assault, concluding that the Confederate works were too strong and such an attack would decimate his army. The surrounding area was forested and Crook used this as cover to swing his brigades around to the Confederate right flank. Crook began the battle with an artillery barrage sent in his brigade of green West Virginians under Colonel Carr B. White.
Crook's remaining two brigades under Colonel Horatio G. Sickel and future president Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes were to launch a frontal assault as soon as the West Virginians had gotten under way. Serving as a major under Hayes was another future U. S. President, William McKinley. White's brigade, in its first fight, advanced to within 20 yards before heavy casualties from its exposed position forced it back. Crook, moving with Hayes' Ohio brigade, had to dismount and walk the slopes on foot because they were so steep. Still wearing his jack boots, he sank in a small stream the troops were crossing and his boots filled with water. Nearby soldiers pulled him out. Hayes' brigade spearheaded the main assault around 11 a.m. The troops fought their way to severe hand-to-hand fighting ensued. Sparks from the musket fire ignited the thick blanket of leaves on the ground, many men from Sickel's and Hayes' brigades were pinned down and burned alive; the brigades had begun to fall back. The West Virginians advanced against the artillery and overran its crew.
The Ohio troops now began to overwhelm the Confederate center. Jenkins tried to shift troops to the threatened areas, but he fell mortally wounded and was captured, his second-in-command, John McCausland, took command and conducted a rear-guard action as he withdrew his troops. The Battle of Cloyd's Mountain was fought on the Back Creek Farm; the farmhouse served as headquarters for the Union General George Crook. The battle of Cloyd's Mountain was short and involved few troops, but it contained some of the most severe and savage fighting of the war; the engagement lasted a little with much of that being hand-to-hand combat. Casualties were high for the modest number of troops involved. Crook lost 688 men 10% of his force; the Confederates lost fewer men—538—but that totaled 23% of their total force. The battle is considered a Union victory because Crook was able to continue on and destroy the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at Dublin and Averell was able to destroy several railroad bridges along the same line, severing one of the Confederacy's last vital lifelines and its only rail connection to East Tennessee.
The day after the battle, the remaining Confederate troops unsuccessfully defended a railroad bridge over the nearby New River. In the melee, a soldier who refused to take cover until Col. Hayes did so was mortally wounded. While undergoing first aid, the soldier was found to be a woman. Kanawha Division — Brig. Gen. George Crook 1st Brigade — Col. Rutherford B. Hayes 23rd Ohio Infantry — Lt. Col. James M. Comly 36th Ohio Infantry — Col. Hiram F. Devol Detachment, 34th Ohio Infantry — 5th West Virginia Cavalry — Colonel Abais A. Tomlinson 6th West Virginia Cavalry 2nd Brigade — Col. Carr B. White 12th Ohio Infantry — Col. Jonathan D. Hines 91st Ohio Infantry — Col. John A. Turley 9th West Virginia Infantry — Col. Isaac H. Duval 14th West Virginia Infantry — Col. Daniel D. Johnson 3rd Brigade — Col. Horatio G. Sickel 3rd Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment — Capt. Jacob Lenhart 4th Pennsylvania Reserve Regiment — Colonel Richard H. Woolworth 11th West Virginia — Col. Daniel Frost 15th West Virginia — Lt. Col. Thomas Morris Artillery — Capt. James R. McMillin 1st Ohio Battery — Lieut.
G. P. Kirtland 1st Kentucky Battery — Capt. David W. Glassie Department of Southwestern Virginia — Brig. Gen. Albert G. Jenkins.
Franz Sigel was a German American military officer and immigrant to the United States, a teacher, newspaperman and served as a Union major general in the American Civil War. His ability to recruit German-speaking immigrants to the Union armies received the approval of President Abraham Lincoln, but he was disliked by General-in-Chief Henry Halleck. Sigel was born in Sinsheim and attended the gymnasium in Bruchsal, he graduated from Karlsruhe Military Academy in 1843, was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Baden Army. He met the revolutionaries Friedrich Hecker and Gustav von Struve and became associated with the revolutionary movement, he was wounded in a duel in 1847. The same year, he retired from the army to begin law school studies in Heidelberg. After organizing a revolutionary free corps in Mannheim and in the Seekreis county, he soon became a leader of the Baden revolutionary forces in the 1848 Revolution, being one of the few revolutionaries with military command experience. In April 1848, he led the "Sigel-Zug", recruiting a militia of more than 4,000 volunteers to lead a siege against the city of Freiburg.
His militia was defeated on April 23, 1848 by the numerically inferior but better led troops of the Grand Duchy of Baden. In 1849, he became Secretary of War and commander-in-chief of the revolutionary republican government of Baden. Wounded in a skirmish, Sigel had to resign his command but continued to support the revolutionary war effort as adjutant general to his successor Ludwik Mieroslawski. In July, after the defeat of the revolutionaries by Prussian troops and Mieroslawski's departure, Sigel led the retreat of the remaining troops in their flight to Switzerland. Sigel went on to England. Sigel emigrated to the United States in 1852. Sigel served in the state militia, he taught in Dulon's school. In 1857, he became a professor at the German-American Institute in Missouri, he was elected director of the St. Louis public schools in 1860, he was influential in the Missouri immigrant community. He attracted Germans to the Union and antislavery causes when he supported them in 1861. Shortly after the start of the war, Sigel was commissioned colonel of the 3rd Missouri Infantry, a commission dating from May 4, 1861.
He recruited and organized an expedition to southwest Missouri, subsequently fought the Battle of Carthage, where a force of pro-Confederate Missouri militia handed him a setback in a strategically insignificant fight. However, Sigel's defeat did help spark recruitment for the Missouri State Guard and local Confederate forces. Sigel took part in a skirmish at Dug Springs. Throughout the summer, President Lincoln sought the support of antislavery, pro-Unionist immigrants. Sigel, always popular with the German immigrants, was a good candidate to advance this plan, he was promoted to brigadier general on August 7, 1861, to rank from May 17, one of a number of early political generals endorsed by Lincoln. Sigel served under Brig. Gen Nathaniel Lyon in the capture of the Confederate Camp Jackson in St. Louis and at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, where his command was routed after making a march around the Confederate camp and attacking from the rear. Sigel conducted the retreat of the army after the death of General Lyon.
His finest performance came on March 8, 1862, at the Battle of Pea Ridge, where he commanded two divisions and directed the Union artillery in the defeat of Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn on the second day of the battle. Sigel was promoted to major general on March 21, 1862, he served as a division commander in the Shenandoah Valley and fought unsuccessfully against Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, who managed to outwit and defeat the larger Union force in a number of small engagements. He commanded the I Corps in Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia at the Second Battle of Bull Run, another Union defeat, where he was wounded in the hand. Over the winter of 1862–63, Sigel commanded the XI Corps, consisting of German immigrant soldiers, in the Army of the Potomac. During this period, the corps saw no action. Sigel had developed a reputation as an inept general, but his ability to recruit and motivate German immigrants kept him employed in a politically sensitive position. Many of these soldiers could speak little English beyond "I'm going to fight mit Sigel", their proud slogan and which became one of the favorite songs of the war.
They were quite disgruntled when Sigel left the corps in February 1863, was replaced by Major-General Oliver O. Howard, who had no immigrant affinities. For Sigel, the two black marks in the XI Corps' reputation—Chancellorsville and Gettysburg—would occur after he was relieved; the reason for Sigel's relief is unclear. Some accounts cite failing health. Many historians cite the lack of military prowess and skill. On multiple occasions, he made terrible military decisions, resulting in deaths of his soldiers and Nathaniel Lyon in 1861 at the Battle of Wilson's Creek. General-in-chief Henry W. Halleck detested Sigel, managed to keep him relegated to light duty in eastern Pennsylvania until March 1864. President Lincoln, for political reasons, directed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton to place Sigel in command of the new Department of West Virginia. In his new command, Sigel opened the Valley Campaigns of 1864, launching an invasion of the Shenandoah Valley, he was soundly defeated by Maj. Gen. John C.
Department of the Pacific
The Department of the Pacific or Pacific Department was a major command of the United States Army during the 19th century. The Department of the Pacific was created on October 31, 1853, at San Francisco, replacing the older Pacific Division, abolishing the existing 10th and 11th Departments, consolidating them within the new Department; the department reported directly to the headquarters of the Army in Washington, D. C.. It oversaw the military affairs in the country west of the Rocky Mountains, except for the Utah Territory and the Territory of New Mexico east of the 110th meridian west. On September 2, 1854, the headquarters was moved in Benicia, California. From 1855-57 the Puget Sound District was organized. In January 1857, the headquarters again returned to San Francisco. On January 14, 1858, the Utah Territory was placed within the Department but soon removed into the Department of Utah, in 1858, that remained until 1861. Brevet Brigadier General Ethan A. Hitchcock 1853-1854 Brevet Major General John E. Wool 1854-1857 Brevet Brigadier General Newman S. Clarke 1857-1858 Post of Alcatraz Island or Fort Alcatraz, California 1853-1907 Fort Bellingham, Washington Territory 1855 - 1860 Benicia Arsenal, California 1851-1964 Benicia Barracks, California 1852-1866 Fort Boise, Idaho, 1863–1912 Fort Bragg, California 1857-1864.
Fort Churchill, Nevada, 1860–1869 Fort Colville, Washington Territory, 1825–1870 Fort Dalles, Oregon, 1850–1867 Fort Klamath, Oregon, 1863-1890 Roop's Fort, Fort Defiance, California 1853-1863 Fort Douglas, Utah Territory, 1862–1991 Drum Barracks, California, 1862–1870 Fort Gaston, California 1859-1892 Fort Humboldt, California 1853-1867 Fort Jones, California, 1852–1858 Fort Mohave, Arizona Territory 1959-1890 Fort Point San José, San Francisco, California, 1853–1882 Fort Point, San Francisco, California 1853-1886 New San Diego Depot, San Diego, California 1851 - June, 1866. Fort Steilacoom, Washington Territory, 1849–1868 Fort Yuma, California 1851 - 1883 Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory 1853-1879 Fort Tejon, California 1854 - 1861, 1863 - 1864. Camp Burton, California 1855 Fort Cascades, Washington Territory 1855 - 1861 Fort Yamhill, Oregon Fort Simcoe, Washington Territory, 1856–1859 Fort Townsend, Washington Territory 1856 - 1861 Fort Walla Walla, Washington Territory 1856-1911 Fort Crook, California 1857-1869 Fort Hoskins, Oregon, 1857–1865 Fort Ter-Waw, California 1857-1862 Camp at Pardee's Ranch, California 1858-1865 On September 13, 1858, the Department of the Pacific was disbanded, replaced by two new departments: the Department of California and the Department of Oregon.
The Department of California included the territory west of the Rockies, the Umpqua and Rogue River districts in Oregon and New Mexico. The Department of Oregon included Washington Territories. During the American Civil War the army again reorganized, on January 15, 1861, the independent Pacific Department was reconstituted by consolidating the Departments of California and Oregon; the first commander of the new Department of the Pacific was Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, to become a prominent General in the Confederate Army. Albert Sidney Johnston, January 1861 - March 1861 Edwin Vose Sumner, March 1861 - October 1861 George Wright, October 1861 - July 1864 Irvin McDowell, July 1864 - July 1865 The Department of the Pacific had six subordinate military districts during the Civil War: District of Oregon January 15, 1861 - July 27, 1865 District of California. Independent command from Department from July 1, 1864 - July 27, 1865 District of Southern California September 25, 1861 - July 27, 1865 District of Humboldt December 12, 1861 - July 27, 1865 District of Utah.
August 6, 1862 - July 27, 1865 District of Arizona March 7, 1865 - July 27, 1865 On July 27, 1865 the Military Division of the Pacific was created under Major General Henry W. Halleck, replacing the Department of the Pacific, consisting of the Department of the Columbia that now consisted of the state of Oregon and the territories of Washington and Idaho and the expanded Department of California that now consisted of the states of California and Nevada and the Territory of New Mexico and Territory of Arizona. On 30 May 1898, Gen. Wesley Merritt established in San Francisco the Headquarters, US Expeditionary Forces and Department of the Pacific for the campaign to support Adm. Dewey's forces in the Philippines during the Spanish–American War. At the end of March 1900, the complexities involved in dealing with the guerrillas and governing the islands led to the transformation of what had been the Department of the Pacific into the Philippine Department with four geographical departments, each of which was, in turn, divided into military districts.
This step brought an end to the Eighth Corps. Arizona in the American Civil War California in the Civil War Idaho in the American Civil War Washington in the American Civil War Nevada in the American Civil War New Mexico in the American Civil War Oregon in the American Civil War Utah in the American Civil War Militarymuseum.org: "Proposed Invasion of California from Texas"
Army of the Tennessee
The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the named Army of Tennessee, a Confederate army named after the State of Tennessee, it appears that the term "Army of the Tennessee" was first used within the Union Army in March 1862, to describe Union forces more properly described as the "Army of West Tennessee". In April 1862, Grant's troops survived a severe test in the bloody Battle of Shiloh. During six months marked by discouragement and anxiety for Grant, his army first joined with two other Union armies to prosecute the bloodless Siege of Corinth and strained to hold Union positions in Tennessee and Mississippi. In October 1862, Grant's command was reconfigured and elevated to departmental status, as the Department of the Tennessee. Grant commanded these forces until after his critically important victory at Vicksburg on July 4, 1863. Under other generals, starting with William Tecumseh Sherman, the army marched and fought from the Chattanooga Campaign, through the Relief of Knoxville, the Meridian Campaign, the Atlanta Campaign, the March to the Sea, the Carolinas Campaign, to the end of the war and disbandment.
This article discusses Grant's 1861–1862 commands — the District of Southeast Missouri and the District of Cairo — because the troops Grant led in the Battle of Belmont and the Henry-Donelson campaign during that period became the nucleus of the Army of the Tennessee. A 2005 study of the army states that it "was present at most of the great battles that became turning points of the war—Fort Donelson and Atlanta" and "won the decisive battles in the decisive theater of the war." More poetically, in 1867 speaking of the Atlanta campaign, General Sherman said that the Army of the Tennessee was "never checked—always victorious. History remembers the Army of the Tennessee as one of the most important Union armies during the Civil War, an army intimately associated with the Union's two most celebrated generals, Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, it is thus rather ironic that frequent military reorganizations and looseness of usage during the war itself make it difficult to pinpoint the exact date at which this army formally came into existence.
It should suffice to note that the "nucleus around, to gather the... Army of the Tennessee" first took shape in 1861–1862, while Grant was headquartered at Cairo, Illinois; those troops continued under Grant in the distinct District of West Tennessee. However, army correspondence began using the term "Army of the Tennessee" in March 1862. During the course of the war, elements of the Army of the Tennessee performed many tasks, the army evolved with the addition and subtraction of many units, it is not feasible to chronicle every such development here at the corps level. Rather, this article traces the main thrust of the army's development and its most memorable activities. At any given time, substantial numbers of troops were engaged in activities. For example, in April 1863, less than half of Grant's departmental strength was directly engaged in the Vicksburg Campaign. In September 1861, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant subordinate to Maj. Gen. John Fremont in the Union's Western Department, assumed command of the District of Southeast Missouri.
One of Grant's wartime aides, John A. Rawlins stated that "rom this time... commenced the growth and organization of the Army of the Tennessee." Just days prompted by Confederate occupation of Columbus, Kentucky, on the Mississippi River, Grant led a small force to seize Paducah, where the Tennessee River joins the Ohio River. Paducah promptly became a separate Union command under Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith, who soon occupied Smithland, Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland River and the Ohio. According to Rawlins, the "first affair dignified by the name of a battle" for any of Grant's forces occurred at Fredericktown, where some of Grant's troops helped defeat Confederate forces under M. Jeff Thompson. Grant's own first engagement came on November 7 at Belmont, Missouri, a Mississippi River landing opposite Columbus, Kentucky. Grant, accompanied by Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand, moved a force of 3,000 to Belmont by water, cut his way into the Confederate camps there, had to fight his way back out to regain his transports.
Grant's casualties in this first battle totaled about 500. While Grant had suffered a repulse, he won favorable press coverage; this battle, reports Rawlins, "confirmed General Grant in his views" that he should "give battle" whenever "he had what he thought a sufficient number of men." In November, John Fremont lost his command at St. Louis, to be replaced by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, whose command was designated the Department of the Missouri. On December 20, Grant's command was reconfigured to include C. F. Smith renamed the District of Cairo. From
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
J. Howard Kitching
John Howard Kitching referred to as J. Howard Kitching, was an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, he served in the cavalry and infantry in the Army of the Potomac and Army of the Shenandoah. He received a posthumous promotion to brevet brigadier general after being mortally wounded at the Battle of Cedar Creek. Kitching was born July 1838 in New York City, his father was merchant mother was Maria Bradner. His father, born in England, was one of the first investors in technology such as the ships of John Ericsson, the telegraph and the transatlantic telegraph cable, he married Harriet Brittan Ripley on July 18, 1860. They had two children: John Howard Kitching, Jr. born September 27, 1861, Edith Howard Kitching born November 13, 1864. At the outbreak of the war, Kitching volunteered in the New York cavalry but was soon made a captain in the 2nd New York Artillery. In September 1862 he became lieutenant colonel of the 135th New York Infantry, re-designated the 6th New York Heavy Artillery a few weeks later.
Kitching spent most of the war up to this point in garrison duty along the upper Potomac River. The regiment's colonel, William H. Morris, was promoted to brigadier general in November 1862 and on April 26, 1863 Kitching was appointed colonel, his regiment joined the Army of the Potomac during the final stages of the Gettysburg Campaign following the battle of Gettysburg. During the Fall of 1863 and Winter 1864 Kitching commanded the Army of the Potomac's ammunition train and artillery reserve. At the battle of the Wilderness Kitching commanded a heavy artillery brigade in the Army of the Potomac's artillery reserve. Following the battle the artillery reserve was divided among the infantry corps and Kitching's brigade was assigned to the V Corps and fought with that corps at Spotsylvania. Kitching's artillery brigade was converted to infantry and assigned to the 3rd Division, V Corps at Cold Harbor and became the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, V Corps at Petersburg. Kitching and the 6th New York Heavy Artillery were transferred to the Washington defenses where he took part in the battle of Fort Stevens.
Following the battle he commanded a brigade in the Washington defenses. During Philip H. Sheridan's Valley Campaign, Kitching's command was transferred to the Army of the Shenandoah with the addition of other miscellaneous units and was known as Kitching's Provisional Division, his division was attached to George Crook's VIII Corps just days before the battle of Cedar Creek. At Cedar Creek, Confederate General John B. Gordon surprised the Union army in an early morning attack. Just as Rutherford B. Hayes, commanding a neighboring Union division, assured Kitching that his men would hold, Hayes' division was hit by Gordon's attack and broke for the rear. Before the Confederates reached Kitching's line, his troops began to retreat. Kitching himself was forced to leave the field after receiving a severe wound in his foot; as a result he was forced to leave the return home to recover. However on January 11, 1865 Kitching died as a result of his foot wound at his home in Dobbs Ferry, New York. A posthumous brevet promotion to brigadier general was awarded to Kitching, postdated August 1, 1864 for his service in the Richmond Campaign