Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in June 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April. The Army of the Potomac was created in 1861, but was only the size of a corps. Its nucleus was called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, and it was the army fought the wars first major battle. The arrival in Washington, D. C. of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan dramatically changed the makeup of that army, on July 26,1861, the Department of the Shenandoah, commanded by Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. The men under Bankss command became a division in the Army of the Potomac. The army started with four corps, but these were divided during the Peninsula Campaign to produce two more, after the Second Battle of Bull Run, the Army of the Potomac absorbed the units that had served under Maj. Gen. John Pope. It is a popular, but mistaken, belief that John Pope commanded the Army of the Potomac in the summer of 1862 after McClellans unsuccessful Peninsula Campaign, on the contrary, Popes army consisted of different units, and was named the Army of Virginia.
The Army of the Potomac underwent many changes during its existence. The army was divided by Ambrose Burnside into three divisions of two corps each with a Reserve composed of two more. Thereafter the individual corps, seven of which remained in Virginia, Hooker created a Cavalry Corps by combining units that previously had served as smaller formations. In late 1863, two corps were sent West, and—in 1864—the remaining five corps were recombined into three, burnsides IX Corps, which accompanied the army at the start of Ulysses S. Grants Overland Campaign, rejoined the army later. For more detail, see the section Corps below, the Army of the Potomac fought in most of the Eastern Theater campaigns, primarily in Virginia and Pennsylvania. After the end of the war, it was disbanded on June 28,1865, the Army of the Potomac was the name given to General P. G. T. Beauregards Confederate army during the early stages of the war. However, the name was changed to the Army of Northern Virginia. In 1869 the Society of the Army of the Potomac was formed as a veterans association and it had its last reunion in 1929.
Because of its proximity to the cities of the North, such as Washington. Philadelphia, and New York City, the Army of the Potomac received more media coverage than the other Union field armies
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, United States. Alabamas only saltwater port, Mobile is located at the head of the Mobile Bay, Mobile is the principal municipality of the Mobile metropolitan area. This region of 412,992 residents is composed solely of Mobile County, Mobile is the largest city in the Mobile-Daphne−Fairhope CSA, with a total population of 604,726, the second largest in the state. As of 2011, the population within a 60-mile radius of Mobile is 1,262,907, Mobile began as the first capital of colonial French Louisiana in 1702. During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France, Mobile first became a part of the United States of America in 1813, with the annexation of West Florida under President James Madison. In 1861 Alabama joined the Confederate States of America, which surrendered in 1865, Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Carnival celebrations in the United States. The festival began to be celebrated in the first decade of the 18th century by its first French Catholic colonial settlers.
Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society, known elsewhere as a krewe, to celebrate with a parade in the United States, in 2005 the first integrated mystic society had a parade for Mardi Gras. The city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay. The Mobile tribe, along with the Tohomé, obtained permission from the colonists, about seven years after the founding of the Mobile settlement, to settle near the fort. It was founded by French Canadian brothers Pierre Le Moyne dIberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, Bienville was appointed as royal governor of French Louisiana in 1701. Mobiles Roman Catholic parish was established on July 20,1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, the parish was the first French Catholic parish established on the Gulf Coast of the United States. In 1704 the ship Pélican delivered 23 French women to the colony, though most of the Pélican girls recovered, numerous colonists and neighboring Native Americans contracted the disease in turn and died.
This early period was the occasion of the importation of the first African slaves, the population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708, yet descending to 178 persons two years due to disease. A new earth-and-palisade Fort Louis was constructed at the new site during this time, by 1712, when Antoine Crozat was appointed to take over administration of the colony, its population had reached 400 persons. The capital of La Louisiane was moved in 1720 to Biloxi, leaving Mobile to serve as a regional military and trading center. In 1723 the construction of a new fort with a stone foundation began and it was renamed Fort Condé in honor of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years War, by this treaty, France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain
Department of the Gulf
The Department of the Gulf was a command of the United States Army in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and of the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. The department was constituted on February 23,1862 when the United States War Department issued General Orders No. 20, the department consisted of. all of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico west of Pensacola harbor, on March 20,1862, Butler activated his command at Ship Island, Mississippi by issuing General Orders No.1 assuming his new command. United States Navys West Gulf Blockading Squadron captured New Orleans, Louisiana on April 29,1862, the department, sometimes referred to as the Army of the Gulf, became a union occupying force in the region. 2, its area was defined as the coast from the Pearl River to the Apalachicola River northward to latitude 32° north, on November 3,1863, the northern boundary was extended to latitude 33° north. On July 25,1863, the department/district was transferred to the Department of Mississippi and it remained in that department only until January 28,1864, when it was transferred to the Department of Alabama and Eastern Mississippi.
The department/district surrendered on May 4,1865, john H. Forney, July 2,1862 – December 8,1862 William W. Mackall, December 8,1862 – December 14,1862 Simon B. The order specified that the department was to include the states of South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi and Texas. All of the states had previously been included in the Department of the East except Texas which had been the sole state in the Department of Texas. The depart was redesignated as the Department of the South on March 12,1898, brigadier General William M. Graham assumed command of the department on March 14,1898. The department was headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, on October 25,1899, the department was merged with the Department of the East. It was reestablished in December 1903, Headquarters, Department of the Gulf, New Orleans, May 1st,1862 United States. General Orders from Headquarters, Department of the Gulf, Issued by Major-General B F Butler, from May 1st,1862, camps and prisons, Twenty months in the department of the Gulf
Capture of New Orleans
The capture of New Orleans during the American Civil War was an important event for the Union. Having fought past Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the Union was unopposed in its capture of the city itself, the controversial and confrontational administration of the city by its U. S Army military governor caused lasting resentment. This capture of the largest Confederate city was a turning point. The history of New Orleans contrasts significantly with the histories of other cities became part of the Confederate States of America. Because it was founded by the French and owned by Spain for a time, New Orleans had a cosmopolitan culture. Only 13 percent of the 1810 population was Anglo-American, New Orleans benefited more by the Industrial Revolution, international trade, and geographical position. Of particular significance were the inventions of the steamboat and the cotton gin, before the steamboat, keelboat men bringing cargo downriver would break up their boats for lumber in New Orleans and travel overland back to Ohio or Illinois to repeat the process.
Steamboats had enough power to move upstream against the current of the Mississippi, a formative event in the early history of New Orleans was the Battle of New Orleans. This battle, though fought after the end of the War of 1812, enhanced the political career of Andrew Jackson, Jackson became the first of America’s “Imperial Presidents”, and began a new political movement now known as the Jacksonian Democracy. This new direction in American politics had a influence on the development of New Orleans. One of these developments was the construction of Fort Jackson and this fortress was intended to support Fort St. Philip and bar the Mississippi Delta from invasion. The victory of Abraham Lincoln, the Republican presidential candidate, in the election of 1860, resulted in the secession crisis, by the year 1860, the City of New Orleans was in a position of unprecedented economic and political power. The Mexican–American War, along with the annexation of Texas, had made New Orleans even more of a springboard for expansion, the California Gold Rush contributed another share to local wealth.
The combination of all these factors resulted in an increase in the price of prime field hands of 21 per cent in 1848, and further increases as the value of trade grew through the 1850s. By 1860 New Orleans was one of the greatest ports in the world, with 33 different steamship lines and trade worth 500 million dollars passing through the city. As far as population, the city not only outnumbered any other city in the South, it was larger than the four next-largest Southern cities combined, with an estimated population of 168,675. The election of Lincoln in 1860 inspired one of the most ardent secessionists in Louisiana, its governor, Thomas Overton Moore, governor Moore interdicted an effort to make New Orleans a “free city”, or neutral area in the conflict. A solid Democrat, Moore organized an effective and discreet movement that voted Louisiana out of the Union in a convention that represented only 5 per cent of the citizens of Louisiana
Wilsons Raid was a cavalry operation through Alabama and Georgia in March–April 1865, late in the American Civil War. Thomas ordered Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson to lead a raid to destroy the arsenal at Selma, Selma was strategically important as one of the few Confederate military bases remaining in Southern hands. The town contained an arsenal, a foundry, gun factories, a powder mill, military warehouses. Wilson led approximately 13,500 men in three divisions, commanded by Brig, Edward M. McCook, Eli Long, and Emory Upton. Each cavalryman was armed with the formidable 7-shot Spencer repeating rifle, James R. Chalmers and William H. Jackson, two partial brigades under Brig. Gen. Philip D. Roddey and Colonel Edward Crossland, and a few local militia. Wilson was delayed in crossing the rain-swollen Tennessee River, but he got underway on March 22,1865, departing from Gravelly Springs in Lauderdale County, Alabama. He sent his forces in three columns to mask his intentions and confuse the enemy, Forrest learned very late in the raid that Selma was the primary target.
Minor skirmishes occurred at Houston and Black Warrior River, and Wilsons columns rejoined at Jasper on March 27, on March 28, at Elyton, near present-day Birmingham, another skirmish occurred and the Union troopers destroyed the Oxmoor and Irondale iron furnaces. A detachment of General Emory Uptons division destroyed the C. B. Churchill and Company foundry in Columbiana and they burned the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, the site of a prominent military school, on April 4. This movement diverted Chalmers division away from Forrests main force, on March 31, Forrest was routed by the larger, better-armed Union force at Montevallo. The cavalrymen under Chalmers had not arrived to reinforce Forrest, during the action, Forrests headquarters were overrun and documents captured that gave valuable intelligence concerning his plans. Wilson dispatched McCook to link up with Croxtons brigade at Trion, Forrest made a stand on April 1 at Plantersville, near Ebenezer Church, and was routed once again at the Battle of Ebenezer Church.
The Confederates raced toward Selma and deployed into a three-mile, semicircular defensive line anchored at both ends by the Alabama River, the Battle of Selma took place on April 2. The divisions of Long and Upton assaulted Forrests hastily constructed works, General Wilson personally led a mounted charge of the 4th U. S. Cavalry against an unfinished portion of the line. General Long was severely wounded in the head during the assault, who was wounded, and whose tiny corps was severely damaged, regrouped at Marion, where he finally rejoined Chalmers. Wilsons men worked for over a week at destroying military facilities, from there, Wilsons forces moved toward Montgomery, which they occupied on April 12. Before Wilson could do just that, there were several key bridges over the Chattahoochee River that needed taking, one such bridge led into the town of West Point. To avoid any delay in the raid, Wilson separated his force sending a 3, the Battle of West Point, was fought on Easter Sunday, April 16, when Colonel Oscar Hugh La Granges brigade attacked an earthwork defensive position named Fort Tyler
Edward Richard Sprigg Canby was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. In 1861–1862, Canby commanded the Department of New Mexico, defeating the Confederate General Henry Hopkins Sibley at the Battle of Glorieta Pass, at the wars end, he took the surrender of Generals Richard Taylor and Edmund Kirby Smith. As commander of the Pacific Northwest in 1873, he was assassinated during peace talks with the Modoc and he was the only United States general to be killed during the Indian Wars. Canby was regarded as an administrator, more than a leader, General Ulysses S. Grant believed that he lacked aggression, but declared him irreplaceable for his knowledge of army regulations and constitutional law. Canby was born in Piatts Landing, Kentucky, to Israel T. and he attended Wabash College, but transferred to the United States Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1839. He was commissioned a lieutenant in the 2nd U. S. Infantry and served as the regimental adjutant, although often referred to as Edward Canby, a biographer has suggested that he was known as Richard during childhood and to some friends for most of his life.
He was called Sprigg by fellow cadets at West Point, but during most of his career, sometimes signing his name Ed. R. S. He married Louisa Hawkins at Crawfordsville, August 1,1839 and she came from a family of three sisters and a brother, with whom she remained close. The Canbys had several children together and he served at various posts, including Upstate New York and in the adjutant generals office in California from 1849 until 1851, covering the period of the territorys transition to statehood. Against his wishes, he was assigned to what was supposed to be the civilian post of custodian of the California Archives from March 1850 until he left California in April 1851. The Archives included records of Spanish and Mexican governments in California, as well as Mission records, Canby had some knowledge of the Spanish language, which was extremely useful as the government was trying to unravel land titles. Canby served in Wyoming and Utah during the Utah War, during this period, he served on the panel of judges for the court martial of Captain Henry Hopkins Sibley.
Subsequently, Canby wrote an endorsement for an army tent which Sibley had adapted from the American Indian style. The campaign ended in frustration, with Canby and Sibley rarely sighting Navajo raiders, usually they saw the Navajo at a distance and never got close to them. At the start of the Civil War, Canby commanded Fort Defiance and he was promoted to colonel of the 19th U. S. Infantry on May 14,1861, and the following month commanded the Department of New Mexico and his former assistant Sibley resigned to join the Confederate Army, becoming a Brigadier General. Immediately following this battle, Canby was promoted to general on March 31,1862
Battle of Irish Bend
The battle occurred two days after the Battle of Fort Bisland. On the morning of April 13,1863, Grovers division landed in the vicinity of Franklin and that night Grover ordered the division to cross Bayou Teche and prepare for an attack towards Franklin, Louisiana, at dawn. Meanwhile, Major General Richard Taylor reacted, feeling the threat to his rear. He started withdrawing his forces from Fort Bisland, and his guard arrived quickly. On the morning of April 14, Taylor and his men were at Nersons Woods, around a mile, as Grovers lead brigade marched out a few miles, it found Taylors men on its right and skirmishing began. The fighting became intense, the Confederates attacked, forcing the Federal soldiers to fall back, the gunboat Diana arrived and anchored the Confederate right flank on the Teche. Still, Grovers men outnumbered the Confederates and when he paused to deploy his full force, Grovers men had taken the strategic position they sought. This victory, along with the one at Fort Bisland, two earlier, assured the success of the expedition into west Louisiana.
Army of the Gulf - Major General Nathaniel P
Battle of Fort Blakeley
The Battle of Fort Blakely took place from April 2-April 9,1865 in Baldwin County, Alabama, as part of the Mobile Campaign of the American Civil War. Maj. Gen. Edward Canbys Union forces, the XVI and XIII Corps, moved along the shore of Mobile Bay. Union forces concentrated on Spanish Fort and nearby Fort Blakely, by April 1, Union forces had enveloped Spanish Fort, thereby releasing more troops to focus on Fort Blakely. Confederate Brig. Gen. St. John R. Liddell, with about 4,000 men and this allowed Canby to concentrate 16,000 men for the attack on April 9, led by Brig. Gen. John P. Hawkins. Sheer numbers breached the Confederate earthworks, compelling the Confederates, including Liddell, the siege and capture of Fort Blakely was basically the last combined-force battle of the war. Yet, it is criticized by some as a contribution to Union war effort due to Canbys lateness in engaging his troops. The battle was actually fought hours after the Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, the battle is considered the last major battle of the war.
African-American forces played a role in the successful Union attack. As a result of battle, Union forces would finally be able to occupy the city of Mobile. The site of the battle is now a park, Historic Blakeley State Park
Department of Pennsylvania
The Department of Pennsylvania was a large military unit in the Union Army at the outset of the American Civil War. Established on April 27,1861, its territory consisted of Pennsylvania and all of Maryland not embraced in the Department of Annapolis and it absorbed the Department of Maryland, on July 25,1861. On August 24,1861 it was merged into the Department of the Potomac, on December 1,1864, the Department of Pennsylvania was recreated, with the merging of the Department of the Susquehanna with the Department of the Monongahela. It operated until June 27,1865 under the Middle Military Division and it was under the command of Major General Robert Patterson, its manpower mainly consisted of three-month troops from the states of Pennsylvania and New York. When President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers in the spring of 1861, for political reasons the U. S. Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, rejected fifteen regiments for immediate service, and they became known as the 1st through 15th Pennsylvania Reserves.
Pennsylvania elected to retain, organize and equip them at its own expense and these fifteen regiments were unavailable either to Patterson in the Shenandoah Valley or to McDowell at First Bull Run. Within four days after the disaster at Bulls Run, eleven regiments of this body of men were in Washington. Near Hokes Run, Union forces clashed with Confederate forces and slowly drove them back toward Winchester, withdrawing before Pattersons larger force, Colonel Thomas J. Jackson accomplished his orders to delay the Federal advance. The encounter was brief, and three regiments reported casualties, First Wisconsin Infantry, Eleventh Pennsylvania Infantry, and Fifteenth Pennsylvania Infantry. The Order of Battle shows all units in the organization at its peak size and his entire course of action had been reviewed and approved by his subordinate officers, as ordered, and He had fully complied with every direct order issued to him. Patterson was honorably discharged on July 27,1861, and never received another commission and he sought to redress the record through every possible avenue, including a personal audience with President Abraham Lincoln, and published his own version of events
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
William H. Emory
William Hemsley Emory was a prominent American surveyor and civil engineer in the 19th century. United States Army officer and surveyor of Texas, Emory was born in Queen Annes County, Maryland, on his familys Poplar Grove estate. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, assigned as a second lieutenant, he served in the Fourth Artillery until he resigned from the service in 1836 to pursue civil engineering, but he returned to the service in 1838. During that same year, he married a great-granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, the couple would have three children. During his second stint in the army, he was promoted from lieutenant to captain. He specialized in mapping the United States border, including the Texas-Mexico border, Emory was most importantly a topographical engineer and explorer. He conducted boundary surveys of both the Mexico–United States border as well as the Canada–United States border and his mapmaking skills were so superb and detailed with such great accuracy that he often made other maps obsolete, thus making him the authority of the trans-Mississippi west.
Accompanying General Stephen W. Kearny he wrote Notes of a Military Reconnaissance from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego which became an important guide book for the road to Southern California. In 1844, Emory served in an expedition that produced a new map of Texan claims westward to the Rio Grande and this report described terrain and rivers and forts and made observations about Indians, primarily in New Mexico Territory, Arizona Territory and Southern California. It was and is considered one of the important chronicles and descriptions of the historic Southwest, Emory was a reliable and conscientious cartographer. Emory did more than just map the terrain, he made notes about the plant life as well as the people who inhabited the sparsely populated southwest. The most unfortunate thing which can befall a captive woman is to be claimed by two persons, in this case, she is either shot or delivered up for indiscriminate violence. ”Emory married Matilda Wilkins Bache on May 29,1838 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Bache was the daughter of Richard Bache, Jr. and Sophia Burrell Dallas, after a brief return to Washington he returned to Mexico and served under George Hughes as the executive officer of a regiment of Maryland volunteers. After the war, Emory directed the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, in 1861, when the American Civil War broke out, Emory was stationed in the Indian Territory. Anticipating the possible capture of his troops by Confederates, he secured the services of Black Beaver and he promised that the government would compensate Black Beaver for the loss of his ranch. Emory withdrew Union troops from Fort Washita to Fort Leavenworth, during the withdrawal, Black Beaver scouted pursuing enemy troops, and Emory attacked and captured lead elements of his pursuers, the first prisoners captured during the Civil War. Emory served as a commander in the Army of the Potomac in 1862. He was promoted to general of volunteers on March 17,1862