Yorktown is a census-designated place in York County, United States. It is the county seat of York County, one of the eight original shires formed in colonial Virginia in 1682, Yorktowns population was 195 as of the 2010 census, while York Countys population was 66,134 in the 2011 census estimate. Although the war would last for another year, this British defeat at Yorktown effectively ended the war, Yorktown figured prominently in the American Civil War, serving as a major port to supply both northern and southern towns, depending upon who held Yorktown at the time. Today, Yorktown is one of three sites of the Historic Triangle, which includes Jamestown and Williamsburg as important colonial-era settlements and it is the eastern terminus of the Colonial Parkway connecting these locations. Yorktown is the terminus of the TransAmerica Trail, a bicycle touring route created by the Adventure Cycling Association. One of Yorktowns historic sister cities is Zweibrücken in Germany, based on participation of a unit from there during the American Revolutionary War.
Yorktown, named for the ancient city of York in Yorkshire, the lawyer Thomas Ballard was the principal founder of the city along with Joseph Ring. It was called York until after the American Revolutionary War, when the name Yorktown came into common use, the town reached the height of its development around 1750, when it had 250 to 300 buildings and a population of almost 2,000 people. It was the base of British General Charles Cornwallis during the 1781 siege, in his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson noted that the York River at Yorktown affords the best harbour in the state for vessels of the largest size. The river there narrows to the width of a mile, and is contained within very high banks, in addition, tobacco exhausted the soil, and planters shifted to mixed crops, which required less slave labor. Many generations of younger sons migrated out of the Tidewater area to new lands further west, into the Piedmont and beyond to Kentucky and what became the Northwest Territory.
During the 1862 Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War, the town was captured by the Union following the Siege and it was used as a base by the Union Army of the Potomac under General George B. McClellan to launch an attack on Richmond. One of Yorktowns sister cities is Zweibrücken and this was one of the four regiments that arrived at Newport, Rhode Island with Rochambeau in 1780. It participated on the side of Americans in the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, during World War I, to support Atlantic defenses, the federal government in 1918 acquired about 13,000 acres for development by the US Navy as Mine Depot, Yorktown. This large installation straddled York and James City counties and it has since expanded and been developed as Naval Weapons Station Yorktown. Cheatham Annex, a facility which was developed over the town of Penniman, is included as part of the base. United States Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown serves as a school for the United States Coast Guard. Also relatively close to Yorktown are Camp Peary, the Northrop Grumman Newport News Shipbuilding yards and facilities, other major installations in the area are Naval Station Norfolk, located at Norfolk, and Langley Air Force Base in Hampton
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond Region and it was incorporated in 1742, and has been an independent city since 1871. As of the 2010 census, the population was 204,214, in 2015, the population was estimated to be 220,289, the Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the line of the James River,44 miles west of Williamsburg,66 miles east of Charlottesville. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast. The site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, and was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609. The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737 and it became the capital of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1780.
During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the capital of the Confederate States of America, the city entered the 20th century with one of the worlds first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a hub of African-American commerce. Richmonds economy is driven by law and government, with federal, state. Dominion Resources and MeadWestvaco, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, in 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. The settlement was laid out in April 1737, and was incorporated as a town in 1742, Richmond recovered quickly from the war, and by 1782 was once again a thriving city. A permanent home for the new government, the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, after the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. The legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag, on April 17,1861, five days after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the legislature voted to secede from the United States and joined the Confederacy.
Official action came in May, after the Confederacy promised to move its capital to Richmond. It became the target of Union armies, especially in the campaigns of 1862. The Seven Days Battles followed in late June and early July 1862, during which Union General McClellan threatened to take Richmond, three years later, as March 1865 ended, the Confederate capitol became indefensible. On March 25, Confederate General John B, gordons desperate attack on Fort Stedman east of Petersburg failed
Confederate Army of West Tennessee
The Army of West Tennessee was a short-lived Confederate army led by Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn, which fought principally in the Second Battle of Corinth. The army was organized from elements of the Army of the West on September 28,1862, with Earl Van Dorn its first, Price interpreted Braggs orders as to mean that he was to attack the Union forces. Van Dorn, choose to move against the Union forces threatening Vicksburg and launched an attack on Baton Rouge, Price by this time had decided not to wait for Van Dorn but moved against Iuka, capturing the town on September 14. When he discovered that Grant was approaching from the northwest, Price decided to retreat before he was surrounded, Price united with Van Dorn at Ripley, Mississippi, on September 28 and placed himself under his command. Although several officers, including Price and Lovell, were opposed to the plan, the march began on September 29 and the Confederates arrived outside Corinth on October 3. The two-day Battle of Corinth began on October 3, with Confederate attacks overrunning the first line of Union entrenchments north of Corinth, Price had to halt his attacks close to dusk due to increasing disorganization in his divisions and to Lovells inactivity.
The next day, Van Dorn planned another series of attacks, starting at daylight with Louis Heberts division of Prices corps on the left flank, with the remaining units continuing the attack. However, the attack was delayed when Hebert reported himself sick and his successor had to be informed of the attack plan, Lovell failed to attack at all. Van Dorn reached Ripley on October 7, but due to the condition of his army. During the Corinth campaign, Price lost over 3,700 casualties out of 13,800 men, nearly 35 percent of his force, both Lovell and Van Dorn were blamed for the Confederate defeat, with Lovell especially criticized by Prices troops. In December, Van Dorns command was abolished and merged with Prices command into a new Department of Mississippi, Van Dorn himself was reassigned to a cavalry corps. Second Corinth Confederate order of battle Cozzens, The Darkest Days of the War, The Battles of Iuka and Corinth, University of North Carolina Press,1997, ISBN 0-8078-2320-1, p.327. Eicher, John H.
and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3, p.892
Army of Northern Virginia
It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its area of operation. The Army originated as the Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20,1861, on July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17,1862, the Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12,1862, Robert E. Lees biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1,1862. However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in command, prior to that date. In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, some from as far away as Georgia, the first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P. G. T.
Beauregard from June 20 to July 20,1861 and his forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the flag of the army. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate Stars and Bars flag and the flag of the United States, the following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas. With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20,1861, First Corps – commanded by General P. G. T. Magruder Reserve – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith Under the command of Johnston, on October 22,1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts, Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District, in April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula.
Gen. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith commanded the ANV on May 31,1862, with Smith seemingly having a nervous breakdown, President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders, the right wing of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps and Second Corps on November 6,1862. Following Jacksons death after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee reorganized the army into three corps on May 30,1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, and Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, was organized on October 19,1864, on April 8,1865, the commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
John B. Magruder
John Bankhead Magruder was a career military officer who served in the armies of three nations. He was a U. S. Army officer in the Mexican-American War, a Confederate general during the American Civil War, Magruder was born in Port Royal, Virginia to Thomas and Elizabeth Magruder and is of Scottish ancestry. He first attended the University of Virginia, where he had the opportunity to dine with former President Thomas Jefferson and he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1830, where he was the roommate of William N. Pendleton. He was commissioned a lieutenant in the 7th U. S. He was assigned to the 1st U. S. Artillery, Magruder served in the Second Seminole War in Florida and under Winfield Scott in the Army of Occupation in Mexico. He was appointed a major for gallant and meritorious conduct at the Battle of Cerro Gordo. Magruder, along with other officers serving in Mexico City, was one of the organizers of the Aztec Club of 1847 and he served on frontier duty in California and at Fort Leavenworth in the Kansas Territory.
From May 29,1857 to October 31,1859 Magruder served as commanding officer of Company I of the 1st Artillery Regiment at Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island. During this assignment, Magruder was noted for holding fort days during which the public was invited to attend concerts at the fort, prince John spoke with a lisp, except when singing tenor, which he did frequently. His avocation was composing songs and staging concerts and amateur theater productions and this theatrical bent would come in handy in the Civil War. At the start of the Civil War, Magruder was assigned to the artillery in the forces of Washington. However, he resigned from the U. S. Army when his native Virginia seceded and he was quickly promoted to brigadier general and major general. He commanded the small Army of the Peninsula defending Richmond, against Maj. Gen. George B, McClellans invasion of the Virginia Peninsula in the early portion of the Unions Peninsula Campaign in 1862. This separate army was incorporated as a division in the Army of Northern Virginia on April 12,1862 and he moved his artillery around frequently and liberally used ammunition when Union troops were sighted, giving the impression of a large, aggressive defending force.
This subterfuge caused McClellans Army of the Potomac weeks of delay and brought Magruder praise from his superior. However, Magruder performed poorly and unaggressively in the subsequent Seven Days Battles, some blame heavy drinking for his erratic performance, others point to the unrelenting stress of his fending off McClellan at Yorktown. →Even before the first of the Seven Days Battles commenced there were signs that the Confederate leadership were ready to remove him from command in Virginia, Magruder is assigned to the command of the Trans-Mississippi District, of Department Numbers 2, and will report to this office for instructions. – In dispatches sent just days after, Magruder was found defending his actions regarding his command of the defense of Mechanicsville
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career U. S. He was unrelated to Albert Sidney Johnston, another high-ranking Confederate general during the Civil war, Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the U. S. Military Academy, graduating in the class as Robert E. Lee. He served in Florida and Kansas, and fought with distinction in the Mexican-American War and by 1860 achieved the rank of brigadier general as Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army. When his native state of Virginia declared secession from the Union, Johnston resigned his U. S. commission, to his dismay, however, he was appointed only the fourth ranking full general in the Confederate army. G. T. He defended the Confederate capital of Richmond, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, withdrawing under the pressure of a superior force under Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. In his only action during the campaign, he suffered a severe wound at the Battle of Seven Pines, after which he was replaced in command by his classmate at West Point.
In 1863, in command of the Department of the West, he was criticized for his inaction, in 1864, he fought against Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in the Atlanta Campaign. Although he won a victory against Sherman at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. Fed up with Johnstons constant withdrawal from Confederate territory, Davis relieved him of command after he withdrew from northwest Georgia to the outskirts of the city, in the final days of the war, he was returned to command of the small remaining forces in the Carolinas Campaign. Following a failed attempt to stall Shermans advance at the Battle of Bentonville, he surrendered his armies to Sherman at Bennett Place near Durham Station, North Carolina on April 26,1865. Two of his opponents, General Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman, made comments highly respectful of his actions in the war. After the war, Johnston was an executive in the railroad and he served a single term as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives and was commissioner of railroads under Grover Cleveland.
He died of pneumonia after serving in inclement weather as a pallbearer at the funeral of his former adversary, Johnston was born at Longwood House in Cherry Grove, near Farmville, Virginia on February 3,1807. His grandfather, Peter Johnston, emigrated to Virginia from Scotland in 1726, Joseph was the seventh son of Judge Peter Johnston and Mary Valentine Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry. He was named for Major Joseph Eggleston, under whom his father served in the American Revolutionary War and his brother Charles Clement Johnston served as a congressman, and his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a senator, both represented Virginia. In 1811, the Johnston family moved to Abingdon, Virginia, a town near the Tennessee border, Johnston attended the United States Military Academy, nominated by John C. Calhoun while he was Secretary of War, days before he was inaugurated as vice president in 1825. He was moderately successful at academics and received only a number of disciplinary demerits
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
The Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B, McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement against the Confederate States Army in Northern Virginia, intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, up the Virginia Peninsula, Magruders defensive position on the Warwick Line caught McClellan by surprise. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown, just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, an amphibious flanking movement to Elthams Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat.
In the Battle of Drewrys Bluff, an attempt by the U. S. Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed. As McClellans army reached the outskirts of Richmond, a battle occurred at Hanover Court House. The battle was inconclusive, with casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. On August 20,1861, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan formed the Army of the Potomac, with himself as its first commander. During the summer and fall, McClellan brought a degree of organization to his new army. It was an achievement, in which he came to personify the Army of the Potomac. He created defenses for Washington that were almost impregnable, consisting of 48 forts and strong points, on November 1,1861, Gen. Winfield Scott retired and McClellan became general in chief of all the Union armies. The president expressed his concern about the vast labor involved in the role of army commander and general in chief. On January 27, Lincoln issued an order that all of his armies to begin offensive operations by February 22.
On January 31, he issued an order for the Army of the Potomac to move overland to attack the Confederates at Manassas Junction. Although Lincoln believed his plan was superior, he was relieved that McClellan finally agreed to begin moving, on March 8, doubting McClellans resolve, Lincoln called a council of war at the White House in which McClellans subordinates were asked about their confidence in the Urbanna plan. They expressed their confidence to varying degrees, after the meeting, Lincoln issued another order, naming specific officers as corps commanders to report to McClellan. McClellan retooled his plan so that his troops would disembark at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in the Battle of Hampton Roads, Virginia defeated wooden U. S
Army of Missouri
Prices Raid was unsuccessful, and his army retreated to Arkansas, where it was broken up and absorbed into the Confederate Army of the Trans-Mississippi. As the Missouri State Guard, they would win victories over the Union at the First Battle of Lexington and Wilsons Creek, where Lyon himself was killed. Following the Battle of Corinth, Price was sent back to Missouri by Confederate President Jefferson Davis but without any of the troops he previously commanded and he raised a new force, and conducted operations in Arkansas in support of Southern efforts there. By the late summer of 1864, a portion of the Union Army in Missouri had been reassigned eastward to aid in efforts to seize Atlanta. The Confederacy ordered Gen. E. Kirby Smith, commander of the Trans-Mississippi Department and he desired to liberate Missouri from Federal control, seizing the key cities of St. Louis and the state capital at Jefferson City, reinstating the Confederate governor and his supporters. Price eagerly accepted his new assignment, having lobbied for just such an opportunity.
Considering that St. Louis was originally defended by only 8,000 Union troops, Smiths hopes were not entirely unfounded–at least in the beginning. The Army of Missouri was organized into three divisions, led by Maj. Gen. James F. Fagan, Maj. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Brig. Gen. Joseph O. Shelby, all veterans of previous combat during the war. A breakdown of the Army of Missouri by divisions, Prices men formed a rather motley crew, with a quarter of his force being made up of deserters. Hundreds of Prices men were barefoot, and most had no personal equipment such as canteens or cartridge boxes, many carried jugs for water, nearly 4000 were unarmed, as Price was unable to procure sufficient small arms for his command. Prices orders were to strike first at St. Louis, make for Jefferson City if that was too stoutly defended. From there Price was to continue onward to the west, cross into Kansas and head south through the Indian Territory, sweeping that country of its mules, cattle, Prices army left northeastern Arkansas on Friday, September 16,1864.
Unable to continue on toward St. Louis due to heavy Union reinforcement, sharp skirmishes there convinced him that the capital could not be taken either, so Price continued further west toward Kansas City and nearby Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Minor clashes ensued between Prices force and Union elements at Boonville and Glasgow, and between one of Prices brigades and Unionist militia at Sedalia. As he made his way west, Price acquired an ever-expanding wagon train loaded down with looted and captured property and materiel, as well a large herd of horses and cattle. Union forces in Missouri, under the command of Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, were organizing to oppose Prices incursion. Curtis organized militia units in Missouri and Kansas, together with infantry and cavalry units, into the Army of the Border. Meanwhile, Prices force was being eroded by desertions and disease, by the time of the pivotal Battle of Westport
George B. McClellan
George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician. A graduate of West Point, McClellan served with distinction during the Mexican-American War, although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these very characteristics hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass. McClellan organised and led the Union army in the Peninsula Campaign in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862 and it was the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. General McClellan failed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln and he did not trust his commander-in-chief and was privately derisive of him. McClellan went on to become the unsuccessful Democratic Party nominee in the 1864 presidential election against Lincoln, the effectiveness of his campaign was damaged when he repudiated his partys platform, which promised an end to the war and negotiations with the Confederacy.
He served as the 24th Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881 and he eventually became a writer, and vigorously defended his Civil War conduct. Most modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a battlefield general. Some historians view him as a capable commander whose reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who made him a scapegoat for the Unions military setbacks. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked for his opinion of McClellan as a general and he replied, McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war. Also, when Robert E. Lee was asked who was the best Union general, George Brinton McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgeon, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College. His fathers family was of Ulster Scots heritage and his mother was Elizabeth Sophia Steinmetz Brinton McClellan, daughter of a leading Pennsylvania family, a woman noted for her considerable grace and refinement. The couple had five children, a daughter, three sons, John and Arthur, and finally a daughter, Mary.
McClellan was the great-grandson of Revolutionary War general Samuel McClellan, of Woodstock and he attended the University of Pennsylvania in 1840 at age 13, resigning himself to the study of law. After two years, he changed his goal to military service, with the assistance of his fathers letter to President John Tyler, young George was accepted at the United States Military Academy in 1842, the academy having waived its normal minimum age of 16. At West Point, he was an energetic and ambitious cadet, deeply interested in the teachings of Dennis Hart Mahan and his closest friends were aristocratic Southerners such as James Stuart, Dabney Maury, Cadmus Wilcox, and A. P. Hill. He graduated in 1846, second in his class of 59 cadets and he was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. McClellans first assignment was with a company of engineers formed at West Point and he arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande in October 1846, well prepared for action with a double-barreled shotgun, two pistols, a saber, a dress sword, and a Bowie knife