United States National Guard
The United States National Guard commonly referred to as just the National Guard, is part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. It is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations. All members of the National Guard of the United States are members of the militia of the United States as defined by 10 U. S. C. § 246. National Guard units are under the dual control of the federal government; the majority of National Guard soldiers and airmen hold a civilian job full-time while serving part-time as a National Guard member. These part-time guardsmen are augmented by a full-time cadre of Active Guard & Reserve personnel in both the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, plus Army Reserve Technicians in the Army National Guard and Air Reserve Technicians in the Air National Guard; the National Guard is a joint activity of the United States Department of Defense composed of reserve components of the United States Army and the United States Air Force: the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard respectively.
Local militias were formed from the earliest English colonization of the Americas in 1607. The first colony-wide militia was formed by Massachusetts in 1636 by merging small older local units, several National Guard units can be traced back to this militia; the various colonial militias became state militias. The title "National Guard" was used in 1824 by some New York State militia units, named after the French National Guard in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette. "National Guard" became a standard nationwide militia title in 1903, indicated reserve forces under mixed state and federal control since 1933. The first muster of militia forces in what is today the United States took place on September 16, 1565, in the newly established Spanish military town of St. Augustine; the militia men were assigned to guard the expedition's supplies while their leader, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, took the regular troops north to attack the French settlement at Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River; this Spanish militia tradition and the English tradition that would be established to the north would provide the basic nucleus for Colonial defense in the New World.
The militia tradition continued with the first permanent English settlements in the New World. Jamestown Colony and Plymouth Colony both had militia forces, which consisted of every able bodied adult male. By the mid-1600s every town had at least one militia company and the militia companies of a county formed a regiment. From the nation's founding through the early 1900s, the United States maintained only a minimal army and relied on state militias, directly related to the earlier Colonial militias to supply the majority of its troops; as a result of the Spanish–American War, Congress was called upon to reform and regulate the training and qualification of state militias. The first national laws regulating the militia were the Militia acts of 1792. In 1903, with passage of the Dick Act, the predecessor to the modern-day National Guard was formed, it required the states to divide their militias into two sections. The law recommended the title "National Guard" for the first section, known as the organized militia, "Reserve Militia" for all others.
During World War I, Congress passed the National Defense Act of 1916, which required the use of the term "National Guard" for the state militias and further regulated them. Congress authorized the states to maintain Home Guards, which were reserve forces outside the National Guards being deployed by the Federal Government. In 1933, with passage of the National Guard Mobilization Act, Congress finalized the split between the National Guard and the traditional state militias by mandating that all federally funded soldiers take a dual enlistment/commission and thus enter both the state National Guard and the National Guard of the United States, a newly created federal reserve force; the National Defense Act of 1947 created the Air Force as a separate branch of the Armed Forces and concurrently created the Air National Guard of the United States as one of its reserve components, mirroring the Army's structure. The National Guard of the several states and the District of Columbia serves as part of the first-line of defense for the United States.
The state National Guard is organized into units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, the District of Columbia, operates under their respective state or territorial governor, except in the instance of Washington, D. C. where the National Guard operates under the President of his designee. The governors exercise control through the state adjutants general; the National Guard may be called up for active duty by the governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as hurricanes and earthquakes. The National Guard is administered by the National Guard Bureau, a joint activity of the Army and Air Force under the DoD; the National Guard Bureau provides a communication channel for state National Guards to the DoD. The National Guard Bureau provides policies and requirements for training and funds for state Army National Guard and state Air National Guard units, the allocation of federal funds to the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, other administrative responsibilities prescribed under 10 U.
S. C. § 10503. The National Guard Bureau is
Battle of Luzon
The Battle of Luzon, fought 9 January – 15 August 1945, was a land battle of the Pacific Theater of Operations of World War II by the Allied forces of the U. S. its colony the Philippines, allies against forces of the Empire of Japan. The battle resulted in a U. S. and Filipino victory. The Allies had taken control of all strategically and economically important locations of Luzon by March 1945, although pockets of Japanese resistance held out in the mountains until the unconditional surrender of Japan. While not the highest in U. S. casualties, it is the highest net casualty battle U. S. forces fought in World War II, with 192,000 to 205,000 Japanese combatants dead, 10,000 American combatants killed, between 120,000 and 140,000 Filipino civilians and combatants killed. The Philippines were considered to be of great strategic importance because their capture by Japan would pose a significant threat to the U. S; as a result, 135,000 troops and 227 aircraft were stationed in the Philippines by October 1941.
However, Luzon—the largest island in the Philippines—was captured by Imperial Japanese forces in 1942 during their campaign to capture the Philippines. General Douglas MacArthur—who was in charge of the defense of the Philippines at the time—was ordered to Australia, the remaining U. S. forces retreated to the Bataan Peninsula. A few months after this, MacArthur expressed his belief that an attempt to recapture the Philippines was necessary; the U. S. Pacific Commander Admiral Chester Nimitz and Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Ernest King both opposed this idea, arguing that it must wait until victory was certain. MacArthur had to wait two years for his wish; the island of Leyte was the first objective of the campaign, captured by the end of December 1944. This was followed by the attack on Mindoro, Luzon. Before U. S. forces could launch the attack on Luzon, a base of operation needed to be established close to the island. Airbases in particular had to be established in order to provide the advancing troops with air support.
Troops under Brigadier General William C. Dunckel captured the island of Mindoro, with the assistance of the 7th Fleet. By 28 December, two airbases were controlled by the U. S. and were ready to assist in the attack on Luzon, scheduled to be launched on 9 January 1945. With the capture of Mindoro, U. S. forces were positioned south of Luzon. However, MacArthur intended to land his forces at Lingayen, further north; this would place his troops close to several roads and railways on Luzon, which led to Manila—the main objective—through the plains in the center of the island. U. S. aircraft made reconnaissance and bombing flights over southern Luzon, intending to deceive the Japanese forces into believing that the attack on Luzon would come from the south. In addition, transport aircraft were used to make parachute drops with dummies. Minesweepers were used to clear the bays of Balayan and Tayabas, located to the south of Luzon, Filipino resistance fighters conducted sabotage operations in southern Luzon.
These deception operations failed to convince General Yamashita, the leader of the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines, he built significant defensive positions in the hills and mountains surrounding the Lingayen Gulf in Northern Luzon. The assault on Luzon was launched, as planned, on 9 January 1945, codenamed S-day; the Japanese forces reported more than 70 Allied warships entering the Lingayen Gulf. Pre-assault bombardment of Japanese shore positions from these ships began at 7:00; the landings were commenced an hour later. The landing forces faced strong opposition from Japanese kamikaze aircraft; the escort carrier Ommaney Bay was destroyed by a kamikaze attack, while a destroyer and several other warships were sunk. Aircraft from the 3rd Fleet assisted the landings with close air support and bombing Japanese gun positions; the landings at the Lingayen Gulf on 9 January were carried out by the 6th Army under the command of General Walter Krueger. 175,000 troops from the 6th Army landed along the 20-mile beachhead within a few days, while the I Corps protected their flanks.
XIV Corps under General Oscar Griswold advanced south toward Manila, despite Krueger's concerns that his eastern flank was unprotected and vulnerable if the Japanese forces attacked. However, no such attack occurred, the U. S. forces did not meet much resistance. The battle there lasted until the end of January, after capturing the base, XIV Corps advanced toward Manila. A second amphibious landing took place on 15 45 mi southwest of Manila. On 31 January, two regiments of the 11th Airborne Division made an airborne assault, capturing a bridge, advanced toward Manila. On 3 February, the 1st Cavalry Division captured the bridge across Tullahan River leading to the city, they advanced into the city that evening, the battle for the capture of Manila began. On 4 February, the paratroopers of the 11th Airborne—approaching the city from the south—came to the main Japanese defences south of the city of Manila where their advance was halted by heavy resistance. General Yamashita had ordered his troops to destroy all bridges and other vital installations as soon as the U.
S. forces entered the city, Japanese forces entrenched throughout the city continued to resist U. S. forces. General MacArthur announced the imminent recapture of Manila on the same day. On 11 February, the 11th Airborne Division captured the last Japanese outer defences, thus encircling the whole city. U. S. and Filipino forces carried out clearing operations in the city in the following weeks
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
25th Infantry Division (United States)
The 25th Infantry Division is a United States Army division based at Schofield Barracks in Hawaii. The division, activated on 1 October 1941 in Hawaii, conducts military operations in the Asia-Pacific region, its present deployment is composed of Stryker, light infantry and aviation units. The division was activated from Hawaii garrison units during World War II more than a month before the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor began the Pacific War. After spending a year training, it fought in the Allied counteroffensive during the Guadalcanal Campaign from December 1942, helping to end organized Japanese resistance on that island by early February 1943; the 25th spent a period garrisoning the island moved on to fight in the New Georgia Campaign in July. After the Japanese defeat in the latter it was sent to New Zealand that year for rest and training, before moving to New Caledonia for further training; the division returned to combat in the January 1945 Invasion of Luzon, reducing Japanese resistance on the island until late June, after which it was pulled out of the line for training.
The division served in the Occupation of Japan after the surrender of the latter from September 1945. When the Korean War began in June 1950, the division was deployed to Korea, where it fought in the defense of and the breakout from the Pusan Perimeter in mid-1950, with elements advancing as far as the Yalu River in November. After being thrown back by the Chinese Communist intervention in the war, the division took up positions south of Osan, it participated in a series of United Nations counteroffensives in early 1951 fought in a stalemate close to the 38th parallel from the middle of the year. The division defended Seoul against Chinese Communist attack from May 1953 to the July armistice, returning to Hawaii in late 1954. After undergoing major reorganizations in 1957 and 1963 to adapt to changing tactics, the division deployed to South Vietnam to fight in the Vietnam War between late 1965 and early 1966; the 25th served in Vietnam until its withdrawal back to Hawaii in 1970–1971, participating in Operation Attleboro, Operation Cedar Falls, Operation Junction City, the Battle of Saigon during the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive, the Cambodian Incursion.
It was reorganized as a light infantry division in 1985, elements have participated in the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. Sources: Constituted 26 August 1941 in the Army of the United States as Headquarters, 25th Infantry Division, based on a Cadre Force from the former Hawaiian Division. Activated 1 October 1941 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii Allotted 27 June 1949 to the Regular Army Division headquarters reorganized and redesignated 1 April 1960 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 25th Infantry Division Reorganized and redesignated 16 November 2005 as Headquarters and Tactical Command Posts, 25th Infantry Division Reorganized and redesignated 16 January 2010 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion, 25th Infantry DivisionThe 25th Division was formed from the 27th and 35th Infantry regiments of the original Hawaiian Division− a pre–World War II composed of two brigades with four infantry regiments; the remaining units of the Hawaiian Division were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Division.
These steps, part of the Triangular division organization, were undertaken to provide more flexibility with direct division control of three regiments. After the Japanese air attack on Schofield Barracks on 7 December 1941, the 25th Infantry Division moved to beach positions for the defense of Honolulu and Ewa Point. Following intensive training, the 25th began moving to Guadalcanal, 25 November 1942, to relieve Marines near Henderson Field. First elements landed near the Tenaru River, 17 December 1942, entered combat, 10 January 1943, participating in the seizure of Kokumbona and the reduction of the Mount Austen Pocket in some of the bitterest fighting of the Pacific campaign; the threat of large enemy attacks caused a temporary withdrawal, but Division elements under XIV Corps control relieved the 147th Infantry and took over the advance on Cape Esperance. The junction of these elements with Americal Division forces near the cape, 5 February 1943, ended organized enemy resistance. A period of garrison duty followed, ending 21 July: On that date, advance elements debarked on Munda, New Georgia.
The 25th Infantry, under the Northern Landing Force, took part in the capture of Vella Lavella, 15 August to 15 September 1943. Meanwhile, other elements landed on New Georgia, took Zieta, marched through jungle mud for 19 days, captured Bairoko Harbor, winning the island. Elements cleared Arundel Island, 24 September 1943, Kolombangara island with its important Vila Airport, 6 October. Organized resistance on New Georgia ended, 25 August, the division moved to New Zealand for rest and training, last elements arriving on 5 December; the 25th was transferred to New Caledonia, 3 February-14 March 1944, for continued training. The division landed in the San Fabian area of Luzon on 11 January 1945 to enter the struggle for the liberation of the Philippines, it drove across the Luzon Central Plain, meeting the enemy at 17 January. Moving through the rice paddies, the 25th occupied Umingan and San Jose and destroyed a great part of the Japanese armor on Luzon. On 21 February, the division began operations in the Caraballo Mountains.
It fought its way along Highway No. 5, taking Digdig and Kapintalan against fierce Japanese counterattacks and took Balete Pass, 13 May, opened the gateway to the Cagayan Valley, 27 May, with the capture of Santa Fe. Until 30 June, when the division was relieved, it carried out mopping-up activities. On 1 July, the division moved to Tarlac for training, leaving for
13th Airborne Division (United States)
The 13th Airborne Division was an airborne forces formation of division-size of the United States Army, active during World War II. The division was commanded for most of its existence by Major General Elbridge G. Chapman, it was activated in the United States in August 1943 at Fort Bragg in North Carolina, remaining active until February 1946, but never saw combat. After activation the division remained in the United States to complete its training; this training was completed by September 1944, but had to be extended by a further four months when the division provided replacements for the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions. The division encountered delays in mounting large-scale training exercises due to a lack of transport aircraft in the United States; this shortage was caused by the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions taking priority over the 13th in terms of equipment due to the two divisions serving in combat in Europe. As a consequence of these delays the division was not trained and combat-ready until January 1945, was transferred to France and the European Theater of Operations in February.
When the division arrived in France, it came under the command of the First Allied Airborne Army, which controlled all Allied airborne formations. The division, along with two others, was selected to participate in Operation Varsity, the airborne operation to support the Anglo-Canadian 21st Army Group crossing the River Rhine, but was removed from the operation due to there being insufficient transport aircraft to carry all three divisions into combat. Several other operations were planned for the division after the end of Operation Varsity, but these operations were cancelled when their objectives were captured by the rapid advance of Allied ground forces and they became superfluous. After the end of the conflict in Europe, the 13th Airborne was shipped to the United States to stage there before it was to participate in the planned invasion of Japan, but the conflict in the Far East ended before it was required and it remained in the United States; the 13th Airborne Division was inactivated on 26 February 1946 and its combat personnel were transferred to the command of the 82nd Airborne Division.
The 13th Airborne Division was the fifth airborne division to be formed in the United States during World War II, was activated on Friday the 13th of August 1943 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, under the command of Major General George W. Griner, Jr. Only a few months after the activation of the division, Major General Griner was ordered to take command of the 98th Infantry Division, was replaced by Major General Elbridge Chapman, who would go on to command the division for the rest of the conflict. Chapman was one of the early pioneers of the American airborne concept, commanding the experimental 88th Airborne Infantry Battalion in late 1941 when he was a lieutenant colonel, before going on to take command of the 13th Airborne Division; the 88th Airborne Infantry Battalion would be renamed as the 88th Airborne Infantry Regiment, finally become the 88th Glider Infantry Regiment on 21 September 1942, forming the core of the 13th Airborne Division. When it was activated, the 13th Airborne Division was composed of the 515th Parachute Infantry Regiment, the 88th Glider Infantry Regiment and the 326th Glider Infantry Regiment.
The division's shoulder patch, a winged unicorn in orange on an ultramarine blue, the branch of service colours of the United States Army Air Corps, was approved on 2 June 1943. A gold on black "Airborne" tab was worn above the insignia; the unicorn is associated, by tradition, with qualities of virtue and strength. The horn of the unicorn signifies extreme courage. All of such virtues should be cultivated in all units, it is hoped. The unicorn has been winged to represent its travel in the air as "Airborne." The blue background is the color of the Infantry, the basic arm of the Division, indicates the sky, the distinctive medium of travel for the Division. Between August 1943 and February 1945, the 13th Airborne Division remained in the United States and did not serve overseas or participate in any airborne operations, as it began training to become a combat-ready formation. In comparison, the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions had been assigned as active combat formations to serve overseas in Europe, the 11th Airborne Division was scheduled to be deployed to the Pacific Theater of Operations, the 17th Airborne Division had been assigned as the United States strategic reserve formation.
During this period, the activities of the division involved airborne training, as well as taking part in several training exercises. However, while airborne training for the first four American airborne divisions was conducted during 1943, the 13th encountered considerable difficulties when it came to its turn for training. By the last few months of 1943 the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions had conducted airborne exercises and finished their training, had been transferred to Europe. Few transport aircraft were available for use by the 13th, the original training exercise for the division, scheduled for June 1944 had to be postponed until 17 September, once again until 24 September; the divisional training exercise took place around Camp Mackall, North Carolina, suffered from a number of difficulties and problems. Poor weather delayed the beginning of the exercise until the n
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
69th Infantry Division (United States)
The 69th Infantry Division, nicknamed the "fighting 69th," was a Division of the United States Army formed during World War II. It is distinct from the 69th Infantry Regiment; the shoulder sleeve insignia of the division was designed by its commander Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte with the red and blue being the colors of the United States forming a "6" and a "9". Activated: 15 May 1943. Camp Shelby, Mississippi Overseas: December 1944. Campaigns: Rhineland, Central Europe Days of combat: 86. Awards: Distinguished Service Cross-5 Distinguished Service Medal -1 SS-105 LM-3 Soldier's Medal-12 BSM-2,253 AM-33. Commanders: Maj. Gen. Charles L. Bolte, Maj. Gen. Emil F. Reinhardt, Brig. Gen. Robert V. Maraist. Returned to U. S.: 13 September 1945. Inactivated: 16 September 1945. Headquarters, 69th Infantry Division 271st Infantry Regiment 272nd Infantry Regiment 273rd Infantry Regiment Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 69th Infantry Division Artillery 724th Field Artillery Battalion 879th Field Artillery Battalion 880th Field Artillery Battalion 881st Field Artillery Battalion 269th Engineer Combat Battalion 369th Medical Battalion 69th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop Headquarters, Special Troops, 69th Infantry Division Headquarters Company, 69th Infantry Division 769th Ordnance Light Maintenance Company 69th Quartermaster Company 569th Signal Company Military Police Platoon Band 69th Counterintelligence Corps Detachment The 69th Infantry Division arrived in England, 12 December 1944, where it continued its training.
It landed in Le Havre, France, 24 January 1945, moved to Belgium to relieve the 99th Division, 12 February, hold defensive positions in the Siegfried Line. The division went over to the attack, 27 February, capturing the high ridge east of Prether to facilitate use of the Hellenthal-Hollerath Highway. In a rapid advance to the east, the 69th took 7 March; the period from 9 to 21 March was spent in mopping up activities and training. The division resumed its forward movement to the west bank of the Rhine, crossing the river and capturing the fortress of Ehrenbreitstein, 27 March, it relieved the 80th Division in Kassel, 7 April, seized Hannoversch Münden on the 8th and Weissenfels on the 14th against sharp opposition, captured Leipzig, 19 April, following a fierce struggle within the city. Eilenburg fell, 23 April, the east bank of the Mulde River was secured. Two days division patrols in the area between the Elbe and the Mulde Rivers contacted elements of the Soviet 5th Guards Army in the vicinity of Riesa and again at Torgau on Elbe Day.
Until VE-day, the 69th policed its area. Occupation duties were given to the division until it left for inactivation 7 September. Total battle casualties: 1,506 Killed in action: 341 Wounded in action: 1,146 Missing in action: 9 Prisoner of war: 10 In 1954 the 69th Division was recreated as a training division at Fort Dix, New Jersey replacing the 9th Infantry Division, sent to Europe; the 69th was deactivated in March 1956. The shoulder patch of the 69th was worn by the actors playing soldiers on The Phil Silvers Show; the Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States U. S. Government Printing Office, 1950 reproduced at http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/cbtchron/cbtchron.html. Http://www.69th-infantry-division.com/