A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank. In modern military writing, "private" is shortened to "Pte" in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth of Nations countries and to "Pvt." in the United States. The term derives from the medieval term "private soldiers", denoting individuals who were either hired, conscripted, or mustered into service by a feudal nobleman commanding a battle group of an army; the usage of "private" dates from the 18th century. For information, you may refer to Israel Defense Forces ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, טוראי Turai refers to the lowest enlisted rank. After 7–10 months of service soldiers are promoted from private to corporal, if they performed their duties appropriately during this time. Soldiers who take a commander's course, are prisoner instructors or practical engineers become corporals earlier. An IDF private wears no uniform insignia and is sometimes described as having a "slick sleeve" for this reason; the equivalent ranks to privates within the North and South Korean armies are e-byong.
The symbol for this rank is 2 lines. Private second class is known by 1 line. Once recruits complete their Basic Military Training or Basic Rescue Training, they attain the rank of private. Privates do not wear ranks on their rank holder. PTEs who performed well are promoted to the rank of Private First Class; the PFC rank insignia is a single chevron pointing downward. In Indonesia, this rank is referred to as Tamtama, the lowest rank in the Indonesian Armed Forces and special Police Force. In the Indonesian Army, "Private" has three levels, which are: Private, Private First Class, Master Private. After this rank, it is promoted the rank: Corporal. In the Australian Army, a soldier of private rank wears no insignia. Like its British Army counterpart, the Australian Army rank of private has other titles, depending on the corps and specification of that service member; the following alternative ranks are available for privates in the Australian Army: Craftsman – Royal Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Gunner – Royal Australian Artillery Sapper – Royal Australian Engineers.
There are three levels of private: private and private. All persons holding the rank of private are referred to as such and the qualifier shown in brackets is used on employment records only; the air force rank of aviator was private, but this changed when traditional air force rank insignia were restored. The French-language equivalent of private is soldat. Private – an untrained new recruit holds this rank through recruit training, known as the Basic Military Qualification Course. Private – after BMQ, a soldier becomes a private; this rank is held through occupational training. Private and private are Development Period 1 within the Canadian Forces Professional Development System. Private – A private becomes a private upon attaining Qualification Level 4. A private is the only private to wear a single chevron. Private and the next rank of corporal are Development Period 2 within the Canadian Forces Professional Development System. Canadian Army privates may be known by other titles, depending on their military trade and their unit’s tradition: Trooper – armoured crewman in the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps Gunner – Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Sapper – Corps of Royal Canadian Engineers Signaller – Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Craftsman – Corps of Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Guardsman – Royal Canadian Infantry Corps members of foot guard regiments Fusilier – RCIC members of fusilier regiments Rifleman – RCIC members of rifle regiments In the Indian Army and Pakistan Army the lowest enlisted rank is sepoy meaning "soldier" derived from Persian.
A sepoy does not wear any rank insignia on his uniform. In the South African Army the lowest enlisted rank is Private. Privates don't wear insignia on their uniforms. In the different corps it is known with different titles. Rifleman - South African Infantry Corps Signalman - South African Signal Corps Gunner - South African Armour Corps Gunner - South African Artillery Corps Sapper - South African Engineer Corps In the British Army, a private equates to both OR-1 and OR-2 on the NATO scale, although there is no difference in rank. Privates wear no insignia. Many regiments and corps use other distinctive and descriptive names instead of private, some of these ranks have been used for centuries, others are less than 100 years old. In the contemporary British Armed Forces, the army rank of private is broadly equivalent to able seaman in the Royal Navy, leading aircraftman and senior aircraftman in the Royal Air Force, marine or bandsman, as appropriate equivalent rank in the Royal Marines. In the Boys' Brigade the rank of private is used when a boy moves from the junior section to the com
The Mexican Army is the combined land and air branch and is the largest of the Mexican Armed Forces. It was the first army to use a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle; the Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age. Mexico has no major foreign nation-state adversaries, it repudiates the use of force to settle disputes and rejects interference by one nation in the affairs of another. Although it has not suffered a major international terrorist incident in recent decades, the Mexican government considers the country a potential target for international terrorism. In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico; the most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance. They had a center for higher education called the Calmecac in Nahuatl, this was where the children of the Aztec priesthood and nobility receive rigorous religious and military training and conveyed the highest knowledge such as: doctrines, divine songs, the science of interpreting codices, calendar skills, memorization of texts, etc.
In Aztec society, it was compulsory for all young males, nobles as well as commoners, to join part of the armed forces at the age of 15. Recruited by regional and clan groups the conscripts were organized in units of about 8,000 men; these were broken down into 400 strong sub-units. Aztec nobility led their own serfs on campaign. Itzcoatl "Obsidian Serpent", fourth king of Tenochtitlán, organized the army that defeated the Tepanec of Atzcapotzalco, freeing his people from their dominion, his reign began with the rise of. Moctezuma Ilhuicamina "The arrow to the sky" came to extend the domain and the influence of the monarchy of Tenochtitlán, he began to organize trade to the outside regions of the Valley of Mexico. This was the Mexica ruler who organized the alliance with the lordships of Texcoco and Tlacopan to form the Triple Alliance; the Aztec established the Flower Wars as a form of worship. Combat orders were given by kings using drums or blowing into a sea snail shell that gave off a sound like a horn.
Giving out signals using coats of arms was common. For combat outside of cities, they would organize several groups, only one of which would be involved in action, while the others remained on the alert; when attacking enemy cities, they divided their forces into three equal-sized wings, which assaulted different parts of the defences – this enabled the leaders to determine which division of warriors had distinguished themselves the most in combat. During the 18th century the Spanish colonial forces in the greater Mexico region consisted of regular "Peninsular" regiments sent from Spain itself, augmented by locally recruited provincial and urban militia units of infantry and artillery. A few regular infantry and dragoon regiments were recruited within Mexico and permanently stationed there. Mounted units of soldados de cuera patrolled frontier and desert regions. In the early morning of 16 September 1810, the Army of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla initiated the independence movement. Hidalgo was followed by his loyal companions, among them Mariano Abasolo, a small army equipped with swords, spears and sticks.
Captain General Ignacio Allende was the military brains of the insurgent army in the first phase of the War of Independence and secured several victories over the Spanish Royal Army. Their troops were about 5,000 strong and were joined by squadrons of the Queen's Regiment where its members in turn contributed infantry battalions and cavalry squadrons to the insurrection cause; the Spaniards saw that it was important to defend the Alhóndiga de Granaditas public granary in Guanajuato, which maintained the flow of water, weapons and ammunition to the Spanish Royal Army. The insurgents proceeded to lay siege to the Alhóndiga; the insurgents suffered heavy casualties until Juan Jose de los Reyes, the Pípila, fitted a slab of rock on his back to protect himself from enemy fire and crawled to the large wooden door of the Alhóndiga with a torch in hand to set it on fire. With this stunt, the insurgents managed to bring down the door and enter the building and overrun it. Hidalgo headed to Valladolid, captured with little opposition.
While the Insurgent Army was, by over 60,000 strong, it was formed of poorly armed men with arrows and tillage tools – it had a few guns, taken from Spanish stocks. In Aculco, the Royal Spanish forces under the command of Felix Maria Calleja, Count of Calderón, Don Manuel de Flon defeated the insurgents, who lost many men as well as the artillery they had obtained at Battle of Monte de las Cruces. On 29 November 1810, Hidalgo entered Guadalajara, the capital of Nueva Galicia, where he organized his government and the Insurgent Army. At Calderon Bridge near the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, insurgents held a hard-fought battle with the roya
Military history of Mexico
The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nation's territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide. Wars between prehispanic peoples marked the beginning of Mexico's military history, the most notable of these fought in the form of a flower war. After the Spanish conquest of Mexico in the 16th century, indigenous tribes were defeated by Spain, thus beginning a three century era of Spanish dominance. Mexico's struggle for independence began in the 19th century, was marked by internal conflict of early rulers after defeating the Spanish in 1921; the Mexican–American War in the mid 19th century ended in the defeat of Mexican forces, the loss of two-fifths of the national territory. In the remainder of the 19th century, a series of conflicts began in Mexico, as the War of the Reform and the defeat of the French during their intervention in Mexico marked events in that era.
Key military campaigns in the early 20th century include the Mexican Revolution and the Cristero War. These two conflicts overthrew the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and challenged the anticlerical nature of the post-Revolutionary governments. Mexico stood among the Allies of World War II and was one of two Latin American nations to send combat troops to serve in the Second World War. Recent developments in the Mexican military include deployment of troops to the United Nations, a cooperation with the United States in terms of patrolling borders, relief sent during Hurricane Katrina. In the 6th century, a series of wars between the Tikal and Calakmul erupted on the Yucatán peninsula; the Mayan conflict included vassal states in the Petén Basin such as Copan, Dos Pilas, Sacul, Quiriguá, Yaxchilan had a role in initiating the first war. Prior to Spanish colonization, in the 15th century, several wars ensued between the Aztecs and several other native tribes. Alliances between the Aztec state and Texcoco had become central to these pre colonial wars.
Several of these conflicts were evolved to an organized warfare, known as the Flower wars. In the Flower wars the primary objective was to injure or capture the enemy, rather than killing as in Western warfare. Prisoners-of-war were ritually sacrificed to Aztec gods. Cannibalism was a center feature to this type of warfare. Historical accounts such as that of Juan Bautista de Pomar state that small pieces of meat were offered as gifts to important people in exchange for presents and slaves, but it was eaten, since they considered it had no value; the most famous of the Native Mexican states is the Aztec Empire. In the 13th and 14th centuries, around Lake Texcoco in the Anahuac Valley, the most powerful of these city states were Culhuacan to the south, Azcapotzalco to the west. Between them, they controlled the whole Lake Texcoco area; the Aztecs hired themselves out as mercenaries in wars between the Nahuas, breaking the balance of power between city states. Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan formed a "Triple Alliance" that came to dominate the Valley of Mexico, extended its power beyond.
Tenochtitlan, the traditional capital of the Aztec Empire became the dominant power in the alliance. The Chichimeca, a wide range of nomadic groups that inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico, were never conquered by the Aztecs. In 1519, the native civilizations of Mexico were invaded by Spain, two years in 1521, the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan was conquered. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba explored the shores of southeast Mexico in 1517, followed by Juan de Grijalva in 1518; the most important of the early Conquistadores was Hernán Cortés, who entered the country in 1519 from a native coastal town which he renamed "Puerto de la Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz". In a series of wars and counter-rebellions over the next two centuries, Spain would expand and consolidate its Mexican territories; the Aztecs, the dominant empire in Mexico, believed "that Quetzalcoatl would return on in'Ce-Acatl' or one-reed year. The Pre-Columbian calendar was divided into cycles; every 52nd year was a Ce-Acatl. On their arrival in the new world, the Aztecs thought the Spanish conquerors had been sent by the gods, so they offered little resistance to the advances of the conquerors.
After a major battle in 1519, during which the Spanish forces were defeated and sent into retreat, the Spaniards regrouped outside the Valley of Mexico. After eight months they were back, this time with an larger contingent of native allies. By Spanish smallpox had ravaged the Aztec population, drastically reducing the Aztec fighting forces; the Spaniards surrounded and laid siege to the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan, bringing about the Aztecs' total defeat in 1521. Despite their metal weapons, dogs and thousands of indigenous allies, the Spanish were unable to subdue the Mexica for seven full months, it was one of the longest continuous sieges in world history. Three major factors contributed to Spanish victory. First, the Spanish had superior military technology, including firearms, the bow and arrows, the crossbow and steel weapons, the dog and the horse; the Spanish were further aided in their conquest by the Old World diseases they brought with them, to which the natives had no immunity, which became pandemic, killing large portions of the native population.
The Spanish enlisted the help of various subject peoples in the Aztec Empire who saw the Spanish as a means to free themsel
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general; when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general. In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank, although the rank is not regarded as a general officer; the rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, was first used in the French revolutionary armies. In the first quarter of the 20th century and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general.
Some of these armies use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. Mexico uses the ranks of General de brigada; this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore; the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is the highest rank in the Air Force; this is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier. The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer; the Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General and Lieutenant General.
In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed; this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement; the rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip - example. As in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer". Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however "the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier", although classified as a "one-star rank", a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General.
Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier; the Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigadegeneraal. However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context. General de brigada is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include "Brigadeiro" – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro, the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar; the rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division or Military Operation Commands.
In civil service, a brigadier general holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries. In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, junior to a major-general or rear admiral; the rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late
Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 and one below an OF-3; the rank of captain is considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. In some militaries, such as United States Army and Air Force and the British Army, captain is the entry-level rank for officer candidates possessing a professional degree, most medical professionals and lawyers. In the U. S.. Army, lawyers who are not officers at captain rank or above enter as lieutenants during training, are promoted to the rank of captain after completion of their training if they are in the active component, or after a certain amount of time one year from their date of commission as a lieutenant, for the reserve components.
The rank of captain should not be confused with the naval rank of captain or with the UK-influenced air force rank of group captain, both of which are equivalent to the army rank of colonel. The term goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning "chief, prominent"; the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is somewhat earlier, from the 1550s extended in meaning to "master or commander of any kind of vessel". A captain in the period prior to the professionalization of the armed services of European nations subsequent to the French Revolution, during the early modern period, was a nobleman who purchased the right to head a company from the previous holder of that right, he would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant. The funding to provide for the troops came from his government. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the monarch would receive money from another nobleman to command the company.
Otherwise, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. Many air forces, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces and a few non-Commonwealth air forces use an air force-specific rank structure in which flight lieutenant is OF-2. A group captain was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey and increase from OF-1 to OF-5 in half strip increments. A variety of images illustrative of different forces' insignia for captain are shown below: Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
Mexican Air Force
The Mexican Air Force is the primary aerial warfare service branch of the Mexican Armed Forces. It depends on the National Defense Secretariat; the objective of the FAM is to defend the integrity and sovereignty of Mexico. Its auxiliary tasks include internal security, assisting with public works, natural disaster management. Since December 2017, its commander is Miguel Enrique Vallín Osuna; the official predecessor of the Air Force was the Army's Auxiliary Aerial Militia Squadron, created during the Mexican Revolution in April 1913 by the Secretary of War and Navy General Manuel Mondragón, who authorized pilots Miguel Lebrija and Juan Guillermo Villasana to bomb targets on Campo de Balbuena, in Mexico City. On February 5, 1915, the leader of the Constitutionalist Army, Venustiano Carranza, founded the Arma de Aviación Militar, which would become the current air force, its first commander was Lt. Alberto Salinas Carranza. In 1925, due to the shortage of airplanes caused by World War I, Mexico set up the National Aviation Workshops to design and build its own airplanes and aeroengines.
When U. S. Colonel Ralph O'Neill was hired to revamp the Mexican Air Force in 1920, he reported to General Plutarco Elías Calles that most of the aircraft available had to be replaced since they were obsolete and worn away. Therefore, Mexico acquired some British Avro 504K and Avro 504J airplanes, which would be made in Mexico with the name Avro Anáhuac. In addition, in May 1920, Mexico acquired thirteen twin-engine bombers Farman F.50. Between the years 1923 and 1929, Mexico found itself immersed in a wave of violent territorial and military armed rebellions, which required the Air Force to deploy its forces and provide air support wherever the federal army requested them; some of these conflicts, that were decided by the assertive use of the Air Force, are mentioned below. On December 7, 1923, former President Adolfo de la Huerta launched a military coup against the government of President Álvaro Obregón; the situation was critical, because along with de la Huerta, about 60% of the army revolted, including various high-ranking generals across the country.
The power tilted back in favor of the federal forces when the United States agreed to furnish the Mexican government with a fleet of new de Havilland DH-4B aircraft equipped with the Liberty motor, armed with Lewis and Vickers machine guns and able to carry bombs. The military coup was suffocated by February 1924. A territorial war was that of the Sonora Yaqui Indians who demanded by force that previous territorial treaties were implemented; the conflict lasted from 1926 to 1927, it came to an end when a new treaty was implemented. When President Plutarco Elías Calles pushed for the creation of the'Mexican Apostolic Catholic Church', independent of Rome, it unleashed a widespread religious war known as the Cristero War; this long civil war lasted from 1926 to 1929. In May 1927, while General Obregón seemed keen to impose the presidency to General Calles, General Arnulfo R. Gómez launched a military coup against both Obregón and Calles, his command posts were located in the cities of Puebla and Veracruz, where he led 200 federal deserters and weapons.
The air force played a key role in their defeat. On March 3, 1929, a serious military coup took place, led by General José Gonzalo Escobar and heeded by various other generals. In these days, the air force's remaining airplanes consisted of worn and shot Bristol F.2 Fighter, Bristol Boarhound, de Havilland DH-4B and Douglas O-2C, a force, not suitable to defeat Escobar's power. In this context, the Mexican government convinced the U. S. government to promote the peace south of its border and make available twelve new OU-2M Corsair with the 400 hp Wasp engine, nine Douglas O-2M, four Stearman C3B and six Waco Taper Wings. Only two weeks after making the request, the U. S. government agreed, several Mexican pilots travelled to Brownsville and New York to pick up the new aircraft. The key victory was decided in late March 1929 at the Battle of Jiménez, where after several days of air raids, Escobar was defeated by General Calles, taking about 6000 prisoners; this rebellion was quite serious, since a third of the officials and nearly 30,000 soldiers rebelled.
In May 1938, the Governor of San Luis Potosí, General Saturnino Cedillo, declared himself in rebellion and President Lázaro Cárdenas travelled there to mount the campaign against the revolt. The Air Force organized a mixed fleet of 17 aircraft that included some new V-99M Corsair, engaging the enemy assertively when spotted. Cedillo realized he had no chance in open fields against the air force and ran to the Huasteca Hills, where his men dispersed, abandoning him. With the imminent collapse of the Spanish Republic in 1939, the Mexican government took delivery of military aircraft destined for the Republic, strengthening its arsenal; the Escuadrón 201, a P-47D fighter squadron of the Fuerza Aérea Expedicionaria Mexicana, served in the Pacific War against the Empire of Japan during World War II. It had 300 airmen and supporting staff; the 201st Squadron, completed 96 combat missions over the Philippines and Formosa. It is the only unit of the Mexican armed forces to see overseas combat; the first jet aircraft operated by the Mexican Air Force was the subsonic de Havilland Vampire Mk.
I. Mexico received 17 Vampires during late 1960 and early 1961; this jet was nickna